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DOUGLASS SERIES 



OP 



CHRISTIAN GREEK AND LATIN WRITERS. 



FOR USE IN SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES. 



Vol. V. 
THE APOLOGIES OF JUSTIN MARTYR 

AND 

THE EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. 



NOTICE. 



It is remarkable that no place has been given in the 
schools and colleges of England and America to the writ- 
ings of the early Christians. For many centuries, and 
down to what is called the Pagan Renaissance, they were 
the common linguistic study of educated Christians. The 
stern piety of those times thought it wrong to dally with 
the sensual frivolities of heathen poets, and never imag- 
ined it possible that the best years of youth should be 
spent in mastering the refinements of a mythology and 
life which at first they feared and loathed, and which at 
last became as remote and unreal to them as the Yeda is 
to us. 

Classical Philology, however, took its ideal of beauty 
from Pagan Greece, and it has filled our schools with 
those books which are its best representatives. 

The modern Science of Language has again changed 
the point of view. It gives the first place to truth ; it 
seeks to know man, his thoughts, his growth ; it looks on 
the literature of an age as a daguerreotype of the age ; 
it values books according to their historical significance. 
The writings of the early Christians embody the history 
of the most imjDortant events known to man, in language 
not unworthy of the events, and the study of Latin and 
Greek as vehicles of Christian thought should be the 
most fruitful study known to Philology, and have its 
place of honor in the University Course. 

The present Series owes its origin to an endowment by 
Mr. Benjamin Douglass for the study of these authors in 



U NOTICE. 

Lafayette College. Each volume will be prepared with 
critical text, introduction, and notes like the current ap- 
proved text-books for college study. They will be ed- 
ited by F. A. March, LL.D., Professor of Comparative 
Philology in Lafayette College, with such help as may 
be found desirable. Five volumes are now ready : 

LATIN HYMNS, witli English Notes. 12mo, Cloth, $1 75. 

THE ECCLESIASTICAL HISTOBT OF EUSEBIUS. The 

First Book and Selections. With an Introduction hy A. Ballard, 
D.D,, Professor of Christian GreeTc and Latin in Lafayette Col- 
lege ; and Exi^lanatory Notes ly W. B. Owen, A.M., Adj. Profess- 
or of Christian GreeTc. l2mo. Cloth, $1 75. 

TEBTULLIAN : Select Worlcs. With an Introduction ly Lyman 
Coleman, D.D., Professor of Latin in Lafayette College. 12mo, 
Cloth, $1 75. 

ATHENAGOBAS. With Explanatory Notes ly W. B. Owen, 
A.M., Adj. Professor of Christian Greelc in Lafayette College. 
12mo, Cloth, $1 75. 

THE APOLOGIES OF JUSTIN MABTYB. To which is 
appended the Epistle to Diognetus. With an Introduction and 
Notes ly Basil L. Gildeksleeve, Ph.D. (Gottingen), LL.D., 
Professor of Greek in the Johns Hopkiiis Uiiiversity, Baltimore. 
12mo, Cloth, $1 75. 

The Series has been well received, and the co-operation 
of several of our most eminent scholars has been cordial- 
ly given. The Confessions of Augustine, prepared 
by E. P. Crowell, Professor of Latin in Amherst College, 
and Initia Scientiaeum, selections from the Latin of the 
founders of modern science from Copernicus to Newton, 
are now in press. Ciirysostom will follow, prepared by 
M. L. D'Ooge, Professor of Greek in the University of 
Michigan ; and, later, other volumes of the classic Chris- 
tian writers in Greek and Latin. 



THE APOLOGIES 




OF 



JUSTIN MAETYE, 



TO WHICH IS APPENDED 

THE EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. 



WITH AN INTRODUCTION AND NOTES 

By basil L. GILDERSLEEVE, Ph.D. (Gott.), LL.D., 
professor of greek in the johns hopkins university, baltimore. 




NEW YORK: 
HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS, 

FRANKLIN SQUARE. 

1877. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1877, by 

Harper & Brothers, 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at "Washington. 



PREFACE. 



The notes in this edition of Justin Martyr's Apolo- 
gies are chiefly grammatical and historical. Theolog- 
ical questions I have touched as lightly as possible, and 
always, I trust, with due reserve. 

To my predecessors, Thirlby, Maran, Braun, Trollope, 
and Otto, I owe much ; not a little to various special 
treatises on Justin; but I have not deemed it superflu- 
ous to examine for myself the original sources of our 
knowledge of Justin's times, and my citations are all 
at first-hand, unless distinctly credited. The grammat- 
ical notes are mainly syntactical, and I will not apolo- 
gize for employing formulae, which I have found use- 
ful in the class-room, instead of referring to grammars, 
which the fewest will take the trouble to consult. 

In the constitution of the text I have proceeded ac- 
cording to my best judgment; and I ^vould state here 
as an act of simple justice to m^-self that the text of 
the Apologies was electrotyped before I had access to 
Otto's third edition, and, except in some minute points, 
my critical w^ork is independent of his recent labors, by 

which many of my conclusions have been anticipated. 

A 



11 PREFACE. 

The plan of marking yariations from the MSS. by spaced 
type has not been carried out quite so consistently as 
might Iiave been desired, but the occasional failures 
have been made good in the commentarj^ 

The Introduction, is constructed on the lines of Se- 
misch's standard work, which I have abridged, recast 
or translated closely as suited my purposes, freely in- 
corporating the results of my own reading and research, 
and availing myself without scruple of any apt expres- 
sion that I might happen to find on the track of my 
studies. 

To the two Apologies of Justin I have added the cel- 
ebrated Epistle to Diognetus. For the final establish- 
ment of the text of this remarkable dooument I owe a 
few suggestions and many confirmations to the recent 
edition of Yon Gebhardt in the new Patritm AjJostoU- 
corum Ojjei'a. The notes consist in good measure of 
extracts from Otto's elaborate commentary, although I 
have consulted with profit Bunsen, Hefele, Hollenberg, 
and Krenkel, and have not been content merely to copy 
others. 

B. L. GiLDEESLEEVE. 



Johns Hopkins University," 
Baltimore, Dec. 



University,) 

:. 5M, 1876. ) 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Introduction vii 



FIRST APOLOGY. 

Chapter 

1. Address 3 

2. Justin demands justice 3 

3. Right to a fair trial 4 

4. Why condemn a name? 5 

5. Christians no atheists 6 

6. Our God is not as your gods 7 

7. The Life is the True Test 7 

8. This Life is not worth a lie. ' We aspire while we ex- 

pire 8 

9. Idol worship is idle worship 8 

10. Proper worship of God , 9 

11. My kingdom is not of this world ,- 11 

13. 'As ever in our great Taskmaster's eye 11 

13. ' Our reasonable service' 12 

14. The demons malign Christians 13 

15. Christ's own teachings 14 

16. Bear all things. Swear not at all 15 

17. 'Render unto Caesar' 17 

18. Proofs of immortality 18 

19. 'Why should it be thought a thing incredible with you 

that God should raise the dead? 18 

20. Heathen analogies. Teste David cum Sibylla 20 

21. Analogies to the history of Christ 20 

22. Christ's sonship and its analogies 21 

23. Statement of the argument 22 



24. Variations of Heathenism 2 



o 



IV CONTENTS. 

Chapter Page 

25. Christians abandon the world of false gods 23 

26. Human agents of the demons 24 

27. Guilt of exposing children 25 

28. God cares for His creatures 26 

29. The bounded continence of Christians 26 

30. But was not Christ a magician? 27 

31. Of the Hebrew prophets 27 

33. Christ foretold of Moses 28 

33. Manner of Christ's birth foretold 30 

34. Place of Christ's birth foretold 32 

35. Other prophecies that have come to jDass 32 

36. Prophets represent different persons 33 

37. The Father speaks 34 

38. Christ speaks 34 

39. The Spirit itself speaks 35 

40. Advent of Christ foretold 36 

41. Christ's kingdom foretold 38 

42. Past tense for future 38 

43. Doctrine of human responsibility 39 

44. This doctrine the doctrine of the prophets 40 

45. Christ's throning in Heaven foretold 43 

46. The Word in the world before Christ is Christ 43 

47. Desolation of Judea predicted 43 

48. Predictions of Christ's work and death 44 

49. His rejection by the Jews foretold 44 

50. Christ's humiliation foretold 45 

51. The majesty of Christ 47 

52. Sure word of prophecy 48 

53. Importance of prophecies for faith 49 

54. How the myths of the heathen originated 50 

55. The Cross 53 

56. The demons still at work 53 

57. The demons instigate persecution 54 

58. Marcion put forward by demons 54 

59. What Plato owed to Moses 55 

60. Plato and the cross 55 

61. Christian baptism 57 



CONTENTS. V 

Chapter P^S« 

63. Baptism imitated by the demons 58 

63. God's appearing to Moses 59 

64. Other travesties of Scripture by the demons 61 

65. Administration of the sacraments 61 

66. The Eucharist 62 

67. First day of the week 63 

68. Conclusion 64 

SECOND APOLOGY. 

1. Introduction 67 

3. Urbicus 67 

3. Justin and Crescens '^0 

4. Why Christians do not kill themselves 71 

5. Why men are in trouble. The evil spirits 71 

6. Names of God and of Christ '^3 

7. The world preserved for the sake of Christians 73 

8. The world hates the bearers of the seecl 'J'4 

9. Eternal punishment a necessity of God's existence 75 

10. Comparison of Christ with Socrates 76 

11. How Christians regard death 77 

13. Innocence of Christians proved by their contempt of 

death '^8 

13. The Word has been in all men "^9 

14. Justin prays that this appeal be published 80 

15. Conclusion SI 

EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. 

1. Introduction. The questions of Diognetus 83 

2. The heathen world: the vanity of its idols 83 

3. The Jews : their superstitious sacrifices 85 

4. Their foolish rites, customs, and ceremonies 85 

5. The Christians : their customs and condition 86 

6. They are the soul of the world 87 

7. Their religion, not of man but of God 88 

8. The wretched state of the world before the Son of God 

came ^^ 



vi CONTENTS. 

Chapter Page 

9. Reasons why He came so late 90 

10. Conclusion. Exhortation to Diognetus to become a 

Cliristian 91 

11. Addition by another hand. I speak with authority. I 

know whereof I affirm 93 

13. Read and hearken, and you will learn 93 

Analyses and Notes 97 

Greek Index 359 

Index of Texts 375- 

Index of Subjects 379 



INTRODUCTION. 



Justin, philosopher and martyr, was born at FLavia 
Neapolis, in Samaria, near the ancient Sichem, the modern 
Justin of Fiavia Nablils, at the close of the first or the begin- 
Neapohs. iiing of the second century. His father was 
Prisons, his grandfather Bacchius. The names indicate 
tliat they belonged to the stock of the Greek colony sent 
to Sichem by Flavins Vespasianus, the Emperor Vespa- 
sian, after whom the place was named. It is sufficiently 
evident that he was not a Samarian in any other sense 
tlian that he was a native of that region, and, according 
to his own statement, he was an uncircumcised heathen 
at the time of his conversion. Of this conversion we have 
an interesting account in the opening of his Dialogue with 
His quest of the Trypho. Carelcss as Justin is in his style, 

true pbiloso- ^ .... , , 

phy. lor once we recognize a lamt approach to 

conscious literary art; and as he tells us how he bade 
Plato farewell forever, he reminds us for the first time 
and the last of his master. In this passage he describes 
his weary journey through the perplexing round of the 
various philosophic schools and his final rest in the system 
of revealed truth. Philosophy is to him as grand and as 
precious as ever. He has not renounced her, but he has 
found her truest form in Christianity. If men only knew 
what Philosophy is, and why she has been sent down to 
earth, they would not be Platonists or Stoics, Peripatetics 
or Pythagoreans, for knowledge is one, philosophy is one 
— one, and not a many-headed creature, as she is supposed 



Vill INTRODUCTION. 

to be. But the great thinkers have overawed tlieir fol- 
lowers by their fortitude, their self-mastery, their novel 
discourse, and, under tlie spell of this reverence and in- 
curious of the actual truth, the disciples have caught 
up what their masters taught, and have stamped their 
body of doctrine with the name of a Plato, an Aristotle. 
And Justin, at the outset of his career, resorted to these 
He tries the half-philosophers. First he tried a professor of 

stoa. ^-^Q Stoa, and after a brief apprenticeship turned 
away in bitter disappointment from a teacher who could 
teach him nothing about God, from one who did not even 
consider the subject an important matter of pliilosopliic 
research. Still more bitter was his disappointment when 
The Peripatetic ^^^ P"^ himself uuder the care of a Peripa- 

schooi. tetic, and found in a few days that his master 

thought more of his fees than of his pliilosophy, and be- 
longed to the large class of mercenary sages who, to use 
the expressive language of Tatian, w^ould not even grow 
Iheir beards for nothing. Still faithful to his ideal, still 
The Pythac^o- athirst for the truth, Justin next entered the 

^'^^^' lecture-room of a Pythagorean, a man of high 

repute and high self-esteem. But when Justin made his 
request known, the Pythagorean indulged himself in a 
long eulogy of music, geometry, and astronom}^ With- 
out a knowledge of these, he said, the soul was not ready 
for the high abstractions of true philosophy; and Justin, 
acknowledging his insufficient preparation, withdrew, ex- 
ceeding sorrowful, for this teacher really seemed to know 
Becomes a something. At last Justin sought refuge and 

Piatonist. ijgj^^ jn the Platonic school. A famous teacher 
of that sect — a random guess identifies him with Maxi- 
raus of Tyre — began to lecture in the place of Justin's 
sojourn, and in his instructions Justin fancied that he had 
found the object of his long quest. The doctrine of ideas 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

was especially attractive to the enthusiastic student, who 
took in with easjerness the wealth of new thouoht that 
lay in the Platonic system. Every day was marked by a 
decided progress. In a short time he had become wise ; 
yet a little while and he should see God, the goal of Pla- 
tonic philosophy. But an accident, as men count acci- 
dents, was to change the whole course of his life. The 
brooding Platonist was to become an active Christian. 
The mysterious One day, as he was o-oino; to a quiet spot bv 

strauger at the , • t r- -i • 

sea-side. the sea-side lor undisturbed meditation, his 

solitude was broken by the appearance of a venerable 
stranger, and the conversation which ensued determined 
Justin's future career. The old man had come to the 
shore for the simple purpose of looking out in the offing 
for some expected friends. Justin, with some little self- 
complacency, declared his nobler object. To Justin's 
amazement, instead of being complimented by the stran- 
ger on his lofty aims, he was charged with being a lover 
of words, not a lover of deed and truth ; a professor of 
rhetoric, not a man of effective work. Step by step Jus- 
tin yields with all the docility of one of the adversaries 
of the Platonic Socrates, with all the docility of his own 
Trypho, to the pitiless advance of his interlocutor. Phi- 
The stran£?ei's losophy is the scieucc of God and the knowl- 

discourse. ^^ of God. This divine knowledore is not 
to be acquired by study nor by practice. No lecturer, 
no drill-master can impart it. To understand God, you 
must see Him. But to see God is the gift of God Him- 
self. Man has no claim to this privilege by reason of his 
kindred to his Maker, nor does the soul gain any thing by 
release from the body ; for the soul is not necessarily 
immortal, as philosophers dream. That it does not die is 
not by virtue of its own nature, but by the will and power 
of God, -who keeps the souls of men alive in order to re- 

A2 



X INTRODUCTION. 

ward the good and punish the wicked. The fancies of 
your wise men, Plato and Pythagoras, are naught. The 
soul is not life itself, but is merely a partaker of life. 
The life is in God. He gave and He can take away. If 
you desire to know of this doctrine, you may learn it of 
the prophets, who lived long before the time of your 
vaunted philosophers, just men on whom rested the bless- 
ing of God, men who spake by the spirit of God and 
foretold the future. These alone saw and declared the 
truth to man without fear or favor. No respecters of 
persons, no slaves of ambition, they proclaimed what they 
saw and heard, being filled with the Holy Ghost. These 
writings still exist, and whoso reads and believes will learn 
what philosophers ought to know. They needed no argu- 
ments to establish their message ; their words are above 
arguments. Their proofs are to be sought in the histor}'- 
of the past and the present, in the fulfilment of their 
prophecies. To all this add the miracles that attested 
their divine mission, add the character of their message, 
tlie glorification of the Maker of the universe. Father and 
God, the announcement of His Son, the Christ. False 
prophets, filled with a lying and unclean spirit, never de- 
livered such a message ; their wonders are wrought to 
dismay men ; the beings they glorify are spirits of error, 
are demons. Pray, above all, that the gates of light be 
opened to you, for none can understand these things un- 
less it be given to him of God and His Christ. 

After much discourse the mysterious stranger vanished, 
and Justin saw him no more ; but, to use Justin's own 
The fire is language, a fire was kindled in the heart of the 
kindled, pi^jiosopher, and the love of the prophets and of 
the friends of Christ animated him to his martyr's end. 
The instructions of the strange old man, the study of the 
prophets, the association with tlie followers of Christ, led 



INTRODUCTION. xi 

Justin from the shades of the Academy into the dust and 
sun of Christian warfare. 

The conversion seems electric, but most conversions, 
ancient and modern, are so represented ; and we learn 
Prepnration for f I'om another passage that Justin had long 
couversioii. ^^j^ ^^iQ power of the Christian life as shown 
in the steadfastness of Christian confessors, the holy bold- 
ness and holy joy of Christian martyrs. As after his con- 
version he did not trample on the philosopher's mantle, 
and cherished all that was good in the philosophic creed 
of his Platonic master, so before his conversion his liberal 
spirit refused to sneer at the senseless obstinacy of the 
Galileans, or admit the charge of nameless crimes against 
such heroic sufferers. His heart had been unconsciously 
prepared for communion with the Christian Church, and 
as soon as the intellectual bond that connected him with 
the Platonic school was severed he became a fervent and 
uncompromising disciple of Christ. 

This whole interview has been considered in recent 
Was the interview times a mere dramatic fiction. The ques- 

a dramatic tic- ... p , . . 

tiou? tion IS almost of as little importance as the 

identification of the venerable stranger, with which editors 
have sometimes amused themselves. Was he an. angel? 
A saint? St. John risen from the dead? Polycarp? An 
Ebionite preacher? The most important thing is the sub- 
stantial accord of the statements in this accoijnt with 
what we know of Justin's views and Justin's history. 
In this account, as in Justin's writings, the Old Testa- 
ment prophets bulk most largely. In this account we 
find distinctly asserted, what we might have gathered 
for ourselves, that Justin was a Platonist before he be- 
came a Christian. Nor is his prolonged quest any thing 
strange. Tatian, the disciple of Justin himself, tells us 
how he had travelled over many lands, had explored all 



XU INTRODUCTION. 

the wisdom of the Greeks, had tried many forms of hea- 
then worship, and had sought admittance to all the mys- 
teries, before tlie light of Christianity broke upon him. 
We find a similar searcli sketched in the Hermotimus of 
Justin's contemporary Lucian as well as in the Clementine 
Homilies. The age was full of ' seekers after God.' 

The year of Justin's conversion is uncertain. As uncer- 
tain is the scene of the Dialogue. It cannot have been 
Time and place Flavia Neapolis, as is shown by the mention 

of Justin's con- ^ , , . „ , ti ti -i 

version? ot the sea, to say nothing or the unlikelihood 

that a celebrated teacher should have taken up his abode 
in so insignificant a place. Ephesus is a mere guess, and 
so is Alexandria. 

'Freely ye have received, freely give.' In the true 
apostolic spirit Justin devoted his life thenceforth to the 
Justin's mis- service of his Master. A woe was on him if he 

sion. preached not the Gospel. 'Every one,' he says, 

' who can proclaim the truth and does not proclaim it 
will be judged of God.' Everywhere he shows a deep 
sense of the responsibility resting on him toward Jew 
and Gentile, whether he addresses the Antonines or ar- 
gues with Trypho. 

Free from all affectation of singularity, Justin did not 
placard the change in his views by a change in his man- 
Jnstin's mode "Gi' of living. He retained his philosophic 

ofhfe. garb, the mantle which had long been the 

uniform of the lover of wisdom, but the wisdom he now 
served was the wisdom of God and not the wisdom of 
man. The rough cassock gained him ready access where 
access might else have been denied, and the ex;ample was 
followed by others, notably by Tertullian, who defended 
his course in the famous tract De Palllo. He was a wan- 
derer all his life, an evangelist, like his predecessor Qua- 
dratus, and it is not at all probable that he was aught 



INTRODUCTION. Xlll 

besides a layman. At all events there is not a breath of 
sacerdotalism in his writings; and while the student of 
the Christian eloquence of the fourth century, as he goes 
back to the rugged apologist of the second, misses the 
perfume, half incense, half attar of roses, that breathes 
irom the pages of Basil and Gregory of Nazianzum and 
Chrysostom, he is more than compensated by the fresher 
air, the intenser reality of Justin. His knowledge of the 
Christian religion is drawn from immediate contact with 
the Christian life, not at this point and that, but over a 
wide range of travel; and his descrijition of Christian wor- 
ship is of priceless value, for the worship he describes was 
the worship of the Church Universal. Direct evidence for 
liis sojourn at Alexandria depends on the genuineness of 
the Cohortatio ad Graecos. Eusebius tells us that he met 
Trypho at Ephesus, and we learn from the Apologies that 
he resided for some time at Rome. 

It is impossible for us to form an adequate conception 
Justin's work of Justiu's work. We can only gather that it 
lemic^ami ^^'^^ mainly polemic and apologetic. His time 
apologetic, jg known as tlie time of the Apologists. In his 
school at Rome he doubtless gave instructions to all who 
Avished to know further of this way, but, so far as we can 
judge by the titles of his works and the drift of his re- 
maining treatises, the defence of Christianity, and the 
necessary warfare against Judaism, Paganism, and liere- 
sy formed his chief occupation. 

In the time of Justin the Jewish reaction against Chris- 
1. Against the tianity had reached its height, and found its ex- 
Jews, pvession in the formal curses of the synagogue, 
in the dissemination of the vilest slanders against the 
Christian life, and in the bloody persecution of the Chris- 
tians by the ringleader of the Jewish revolt under Hadrian. 
The Jews were bitter and dangerous antagonists, and the 



XIV INTRODUCTION. 

harder to reach as their rabbis forbade all discussion of 
religious topics with Christians; but here and there one 
might be found like Justin's Trypho, whose ear could not 
be stopped against a man who approached him in the 
garb of a philosoiDher, and fascinated him by a marvel- 
lous familiarity with the Scriptures of the Old Covenant. 

But the dangers to which the infant Church was ex- 
2. Against the posed from tlie wrath of the Jews were of far 

heathen. |ggg gicynificance than the dano-ers which threat- 
ened from the antagonism of heathendom. 

Up to the time of Trajan the Christian religion had no 
The Christian recognized existence except as an obscure sect 
the state, of Judaism, and there was no definite conflict 
between the Church and the State ; for the persecutions 
which bear the names of Nero and Domitian were freaks 
of imperial wantonness, not systematic efforts to suppress 
an abhorred sect. But in the reign of Trajan the Christian 
religion made itself felt as a power, and in one notorious 
instance, in the province of Bithynia, the deserted temples 
and the neglected worship of the gods showed that the 
state could no longer pass over this new faith in silent 
contempt, and from this time on Ave find the power of the 
throne combined with the passion of the people in oppo- 
sition to the religion of Christ. Indeed, it is no new ob- 
servation that the best emperors were, as a rule, hostile 
to Christianity. Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Mar- 
cus Aurelius, all opposed the spread of the new faith, and 
not the less resolutely because they were careful to keep 
the warfare within the strict bounds of legality. To de- 
fine the weapons, to mark the limits of the arena, was to 
sanction the struggle. After the death of Marcus Aure- 
lius there was a pause of more than fifty years in the con- 
flict, and when it was renewed the state stood alone in its 
antagonism to the Christians, and as in the first period 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

the emperors merely sported Avitli the popular prejudice 
against the Christians, in the third they endeavored to 
stir up the people in order to further their systematic 
plans for the annihilation of the Christian name. The 
reasons of this hostility are not fiir to seek, and belong to 
the commonplaces of history. Christianity was incompati- 
ble with the life of the Roman state. The peculiar mis- 
sion of Christianity, as openly proclaimed by its followers, 
was the overthrow of all religions consecrated by antiq- 
uity. It was not satisfied with toleration— it aimed at 
nothing less than universal dominion. No matter how 
earnestly the apologists might repeat the words of our 
Saviour, 'Render unto Caesar the things that are Cae- 
sar's,' what Caesar claimed as his own the Christian 
maintained to be God's, and no Christian could be a loyal 
subject to the state when the very profession of alle- 
giance was an abomination in his eyes. 

At first, as we have seen, this sujKi'stitio externa was 
Christian religion riot sluirply distinguished from other foreign 

not tolerated. fQ^.j^-jg ^f worship, and foreign religions were 
not excluded so far as foreigners themselves were incor- 
porated into the Roman state, but every religion had to 
be licensed, had to be naturalized, if its professors were 
not to be exposed to punishment. But the Christians 
had no country except the country which they sought, 
and the only visible bond was a name, a watch-word, a 
pass-word, a by-word. It was this mysterious character 
of Christian society, of this latebrosa et lacifagax natio, 
that excited the jealousy of the statesman of the imperial 
time, and roused the suspicions of the rabble. For the 
Hatred of the common people, on whom the national faith 

populace. ^^^^ ^ much Stronger hold than is ordinarily 
conceived, looked upon Christians as atheists; and in their 
eyes a religion that had no temples, no altars, no images, 



XVI INTRODUCTION. 

110 sacriliccs, was a godless worship, and the }3opular cry- 
was 'Away Avith the atheists.' The most abominable 
reports were circnlated and believed : reports of human 
sacrifices, of cannibalism, such as fill mediaeval chronicles 
concerning the Jews; reports of promiscuous lust and 
Avild debauchery; and among the various heresies which 
divided the body of Christ, there were some that lent 
countenance to the charges which were brought against 
the Christians as a class. 

But the rabble was not more hostile to Christianity 
than those who affected to despise the rabble. 

Philosophers might share the Christian's contempt for 
Oppoeitiou the supcrstition of the masses, but an academy 

of philos- , 1 T • 

ophers. that was open to slaves and artisans, to women 
and children, was a cage of unclean birds to those super- 
cilious sages, and by a natural reaction the myths w^hich 
they once ridiculed were revived and refreshed, and made 
to yield a deeper spiritual sense. In later times conces- 
sions were made to the Master himself, and the Neopla- 
tonists tried to incorporate Him into their systems. ' If 
not a god, Christ w^as a man dear to God ;' and it was in 
this spirit that Alexander Severus gave his statue a place 
in the imperial chapel in such company as ApoUonius of 
Tyana, Orpheus, and Abraham. But even then the Neo- 
platonists had little indulgence for the followers of Christ ; 
and at this time — for Celsus is of this time — the philo- 
sophic mind was full of malignity and rancor toward the 
Master, of bitter scorn toward the disciples. 

Nor, in taking account of the elements of opposition to 
Christianity, must we overlook the professional antago- 
nism, the hostility of vested interests. 

Priests, artists, tradesmen found their position and their 
Opposition of income endano-ered by a faith which did away 

vested iuter- c^ ^ j 

ests. with the worship of the gods. Ephesus in the 



INTRODUCTION. xvii 

days of Paul was but one sample of a formidable trades' 
union arrayed against the new doctrine, and any one who 
has looked into the social life of the emijire knows what 
vast pecuniary interests were at stake. 

Add to these enemies the religious impostors, who per- 

Enmity of reiig- vaded the empire and made merchandise of 

ious impostor.. ^^^-^^ ^^^^ sorccry, men who, like Alexander 

of Abonoteichos, regarded the Christians as in some sort 
rivals, and we can readily imagine that even in the second 
century, before the full significance of the revolutionary 
character of the Christian religion was revealed to its 
opponents, there was a formidable array of spiritual forces 
to call out all the energies of a man like Justin. It is this 
struggle that makes the study of these documents of the 
earlier Christian life so important and so fascinating. At 
times our author may linger too long over the prophecies, 
at times he may lose himself in parentheses, and quote 
page after page of more or less irrelevant matter from 
the Septuagint, but we feel that this is a real battle, and 
Justin is a real warrior — now facing the emperors with all 
their power, now rebuking the false philosophers with all 
their rattling declamation, now silencing the hisses of 
popular hatred by a calm exposition of Christian life, and 
now wrestling with the arch-enemy himself and his host 
of evil angels. For the devil was a personal reality to 
Justin, as lie is to every man at some time in his life, 
and in no part of the battle-field did Justin see the en- 
ginery of Satan more plainly than in the heresies of the 
time. 

The third line of defence faced the heretics. Some of 

3. Against the the most dangcrous heresies of the early Church 

heretics. culminated in the lifetime of Justin, and neither 

personal nor local incitement was lacking. Samaria, the 

native country of the Christian philosopher, was the home 



XVlll INTRODUCTION. 

of Simon Magus and Menancler; and Justin most proba- 
bly came into personal contact Avith Marcion and Valen- 
tinus, two of the heresiarchs of the age. The blending 
of heathen and Christian elements in the Gnostic system, 
tlie evaporation of Christian doctrine into misty specula- 
tion, and the substitution of the liberation of the spirit 
for the salvation of the soul, the falsification or wresting 
of the Scriptures in furtherance of the new views, the 
practical manifestation of these principles in the extremes 
of asceticism and lust — all this must have been abhorrent 
to the candid, straightforward mind of Justin. But apart 
from these considerations, the speculative pride and the 
moral deo-radation of tlie Gnostic direction aofcrravated 
the bitterness of the heathen against the Christians, as is 
shown in the True Woi'd of Celsus, and the spread of 
this idealistic tendency threatened to annihilate historical 
Christianity or to break up the Church into a variety of 
jangling sects, so that it is not surprising that Justin 
should have opposed the efforts of these heretics with all 
the apostolic lervor of his character, that he should have 
interrupted his argument with the heathen emperors in 
order to express his indignation against these traducers 
of the truth as it is in Jesus. In the brief memoir known 
as the Lesser Apology, he utters a manly protest against 
the government as represented b}'' the prefect Urbicus, 
lie defies the machinations of the Cynic Crescens, but al- 
most his last word is a declaration of sovereign contempt 
for the impious and lying doctrine of the Simonians. Two 
of his lost works were directed against the heretics: one 
against the heretics in general, another against Marcion 
in particular, for Marcion was by far the most consistent 
and influential of the Gnostics, brought out into boldest 
relief the anti-Judaic character of the movement, and 
attacked what Justin considered the foundation of the 



INTRODUCTION. xix 

Christian system, or, at all events, the most cogent proof 
of its truth. 

The question has been asked, What was the iramedi- 
Jnstin's influeuce ^te result of Justin's work ? Little that we 
in his life. ^^^^ discover. A Christian of his fervent 

spirit, his manly earnestness, could not have labored in 
vain, and in his w^ork as an evangelist he must have done 
much to strengthen the fniih. of the wavering and to win 
new disciples to the Christian doctrine. But he found- 
ed no school of Cliristian thought, and, though he was so 
active against the heretics, his solitary disciple, Tatian, 
became the leader of a feeble heretical sect. His effort 
to reconcile the old world with the new failed, and in 
the progress of doctrine his liberal views were narrow- 
ed, his loose opinions crystallized into sharper dogmatic 
forms. 

Nor does he seem to have succeeded in impressing the 
emperors in favor of Christianity. The rude freedom 
with which he addressed them was not so stranoje to im- 

CD 

perial ears as has been supposed. The philosopher's cloth 
had protected others in the reign of the philosophic em- 
perors, and to their eqnanimity there could not have been 
mnch difference between the vnlgar abuse of the notori- 
ous Peregrinns Proteus and the prophetic warnings of 
Justin Martyr ; and although the language of Justin is 
not so impassioned as that of Minucius Felix or Tertul- 
lian, not so sarcastic as that of Tatian nor so insolent as 
that of Hermeias, it knows nothing of the courtly moder- 
ation of Athenagoras, and was hardly suited to win the 
good-will of the head of the state. Orosius, indeed, tells 
us that Antoninus Pius was moved by Justin's repre- 
sentations to take kindlier views of Cliristianity ; but 
there seems to be no sufficient warrant for such a state- 
ment. 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

In view of this immediate failure, it has been suggested 
After his that Justin's great influence on following genera- 
death. ^JQj^g ^yr^g j^,g more to his martyr's death than to 
the intrinsic value of his writings. No doubt that noble 
end enhanced his power, but it was only one manifesta- 
tion, though the crowning manifestation of his spirit. 

The fact of his martyrdom is beyond dispute. Irenae- 
Martyrdom ^^s, a youugcr Contemporary, bears witness to it, 
of Jiistm. j^^-j^ from the time of Tertullian on Justin has 
always been known as the martyr. An account of Jus- 
tin's end is found in the Martyrologium, an account of 
much later date than the event which it commemorates; 
but the absence of dramatic detail, the quiet tone of the 
narrative, the general coincidence with what we know of 
Justin's views, combined Avith minute discrepancies in 
less important matters — all these points give the stamp 
of truth to the record. 

It is not improbable that the Cynic philosopher Cres- 

cens, whom we know from the Second Apolos-y as 
Crescens. i o./ 

a bitter personal enemy of Justin, was the direct 

or indirect cause of his death, although we have no dis- 
tinct evidence of the statement so confidently given by 
later writers. No philosophic sect was more bitterly op- 
posed to the Christian religion than was the Cynic. 

It is unnecessary to copy from Lucian the familiar fig- 
ure of these mendicant friars of Paganism — the long beard, 
the rough cassock, the knotty staff", the ragged wallet, the 
shameless mien ; it is unnecessary to give examples of 
their sycophancy, their vanity, their scurrility, their in- 
satiate greed of money, their unblushing indulgence in 
every lust of the flesh. Such men must have been irri- 
tated to the last degree by the demeanor and by the doc- 
trine of the Christians. The Christian creed contained 
many of the elements of the Cynic system in a higher 



INTRODUCTION. xxi 

form— the Cynic system, I mean, as understood by an 
Epictetns, a Marcus Aurelius, a Maximus Tyrius; and the 
life of the Christian must have been a perpetual rebuke 
to the degraded followers of Antisthenes, who moved in 
much the same circles and addressed much the same au- 
diences with the Christians. Justin has himself o-iven an 
outline of his discussions with Crescens, and triumphs 
without disguise over his silenced adversary, who was 
' either ignorant of the religion which he reviled, or, if he 
knew it, could not understand it ; or, if he knew it and 
understood it, did not have the courao-e to acknowledo-e 
its excellence.' 

The mortified Cynic was the very man to bring the 
argitmentum hacuUmim to bear on his scornful opponent. 
Justin himself declares his expectation of filling a victim 
to the machinations of Crescens, and Tatian, the disciple 
of Justin, informs us that Crescens made the effort to put 
his mortal enemy out. of the way. 

The martyrdom of Justin took place in the reign of 
Date of martyr- Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Yerus, uuder the 
^'°'"* prefect Rusticus. The date commonly given 

is 16G. Aube puts it, where Baronius puts it, in the first 
months of 163, and in this he is sustained by Borghesi, 
'the greatest master of Roman epigraphy,' and by the 
distinojuished archaeoloo-ist Cavedoni. Accordins; to Eu- 
sebius, Justin suffered shortly after having Avritten his 
Second Apology ; his Second Apology was written not 
long after the .condemnations pronounced by Urbicus; 
Urbicus was prefect in the closing years of the reign of 
Antoninus Pius, and was succeeded by Salvius Julianus, 
who, in his turn, was followed in January, 163, by Junius 
Rusticus. By putting the Second Apology in 160, or be- 
fore March, 161, and the martyrdom of Justin in the early 
part of 163, Aube claims that all tlie data are satisfied. 



Xxii ' INTRODUCTION. 

The irreat name of Justin has been made to do service 

Works of Justin, foi' ^ number of works which are not his, 

furimi'lpuri: and the bulk of the doubtful and spurious 

*^"^- productions is more than equal to that of 

the genuine. 

In the front rank of Justin's works stand the two 
The two Apoio- Apologics, tlie genuineness of which has 
^^^^' never been seriously questioned ; and even 

if the liistorical allusions and the doctrinal positions did 
not fix tlie origin of the First or Greater Apology in the 
second century, the influence of it is to be traced in the 
wa-itings of Tatian, Irenaeus, Minucius Felix, TertuUian, 
and Theophilus, who transcribe, translate, and imitate 
passage after passage. And the Second or Lesser Apolo- 
gy is clearly by the same hand as the First, with which 
it shares every peculiarity of style and thought. Add to 
these internal evidences the express testimony of Euse- 
bius and Photius, and we may safely say that no writings 
of the Christian Church have a more certain warrant than 
these two. 

The First Apology is a noble appeal for liberty of con- 
„. „. . science, a manly protest a^cainst the pun- 

The First Apology. ' •' ^ ^ . . ^ 

ishment of Christians as Christians, a lofty 
vindication of the character of the Christian religion. The 
Second Apology, which is much shorter and bears more 
evident marks of hasty composition, repels the mockery 
of the heathen enemies of Christianity, and gives the 
reasons why Christians complained of persecution, why 
God did not interfere to deliver His people. 

The bold, as some might think, the audacious tone of 
The Apologies real the Apologies has led some to fancy that 

docuraeuts. ^|^^y ^^.^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^|^^y ^j.^-^^^ ^^ ^^^ actual 

documents intended for the eye of the emperor and sen- 
ate; but Justin Avas no holiday Christian, and it is incon- 



INTRODUCTION. XXlii 

ceivable tliat a man who vindicated bis faith with his 
blood should have shrunk from utterances which, after all, 
did not go beyond the boldness of a Peregrinus, to say 
nothing of the imaginary speeches of Apollonius of Tyana. 
To suppose that these Apologies are mere academic per- 
formances is to overlook the license accorded to the phi- 
losopher; is to shut the eyes to the earnestness of the 
Christian life of the century. 

According to Eusebius, the Apologies were written in 
DateofApoio- Kome, and this statement is not in the least 
^'^^* unlikely. The time has always been a matter 

of dispute, and is discussed elsewhere in this volume. 

The Dialogue with Trypho bears on its face the evi- 
Diaiognewith dence of its genuineness, and it is wholly un- 
Tiypho. necessary to mention the more or less frivolous 
grounds on which the Justinian authorship has been at- 
tacked. Apart from the historical allusions to the second 
century, apart from the testimony of Eusebius, apart from 
the general agreement with the Apologies in doctrine and 
thought and want of method, the language is evidently 
the same, and, though there are slight variations in vocab- 
ulary, as might be expected from the difference of theme, 
these have little weight in comparison with the remarka- 
ble coincidences in tricks of speech and irregularities of 
syntax. 

In the Dialogue with Trypho the prejudices of the Jews 
against Christianity are corrected, the doctrines of Christ's 
incarnation and redemption through His blood are proved 
by reference to prophecy, and the Christians are shown 
to be the true spiritual Israel and the true people of 
God. 

As our immediate concern is with the relation of the 
Dialogue to the Apologies, we may pass over the ques- 
tions as to the reality of the discussion, the personality of 



XXIV INTRODUCTION. 

Tryplio — identified by some with the Rabbi Tarphoii — 
and the pU\ce where the Dialogue is supposed to have 
been held. 

In time, the Dialogue with Trypho may be put after the 
First Apology, to which there is a definite allusion, and 
more safely under Antoninus Pius than under Marcus 
Aurelius. 

The genuineness of the Cohortatio ad Graecos, or Hor- 
The Hortatory tatory Address to the Greeks, has been much 

Address to the . n mi • i • i • -i t 

Greeks. questioned, inere is no such title in the list 

of Justin's writings as preserved by Eusebius, Jerome, and 
Photius. The personal relations of the author seem to 
Grounds of sus- Jis-ve been different from those of Justin, there 

piciou. -g ^ different attitude toward Paganism, and 

the absence of the characteristic doctrine of the Logos is 
hardly to be accounted for. The language alone is well- 
nigh a satisfactory evidence that the Cohortatio is not by 
Justin. From a stylistic point of view, the Cohortatio is 
a better performance than the Apologies, better than the 
Dialogue with Trypho; and those who have attempted to 
account for the superior finish of the Cohortatio on the 
ground of the leisurely prej^aration of the tract in the 
early period of Justin's conversion, have not sufficiently 
observed that the Dialogue with Trypho, the opening of 
which is Justin's best piece of composition, shows all the 
peculiarities of the more urgent and passionate Apologies. 
Semisch himself, after as elaborate a defence as the thesis 
admitted, has finally abandoned the case. 

Similar arguments have been brought to bear against 
Fragmeut on the the genuineness of the fragment on the Res- 

Kesurrectiou. ^u-i-gction. External evidence is lacking, 
there are discrepancies in statement, discrepancies in 
dogma, and the style varies widely from the style of 
the Apologies and the Dialogue. 



INTRODUCTION. XXV 

A tract of the compass of a few pages On the Sole 
On the Sole Gov- Government of God {-Trepl ixovapxtag) is open 
crnmeutofGod. ^^ ^^.^^,^ suspicion by rcason of style and 

contents, and seems to be nnsnpported by documentary 
evidence. 

It is hardly worth while to mention the Ex2)Ositio Re- 
Spiirions ^^<^<^<2 Flclei, the Epistola ad Zenam et Bevejium^ the 
works. ConfiUatio dogmatiim quorimdam Aristotelis, the 
Quaestiones et Hesj^onsioncs ad Orthodoxos, the Quae- 
stiones Christianorian ad Gentiles^ the Quaestiones Oen- 
tiliuin ad Christianos. These productions have long since 
been pronounced spurious by competent judges, and I 
have been content to leave tliem unexamined. 

Two works remain, to most minds clearly not Justin- 
ian, and yet to some minds not so clearly as to make the 
mention of them superfluous, even if the works them- 
selves were not of great intrinsic interest. 

The Oratio ad Graecos — \6yoQ Trpdg "EXXrjyag — is evi- 
Ao70f Trpof "E\- deutly by a diflerent hand. Justin is negli- 

\»va?. gent and prolix, his language is marked by 

the laisser-aller of every-day life, while the author of the 
Oratio ad Graecos has a rapid, pungent, incisive, rhetor- 
ical style. The author of the Oratio ad Graecos takes the 
popular view of Paganism, and attacks the mythology of 
the Greeks as the incarnation of immorality. Justin's 
philosophic training in the schools of Greek thought had 
given him a far deeper insight into the nature of Hellen- 
ism ; and the man whose great aim in life before he became 
a Christian was to see God must have been as incapable 
of the superficial mockery as he was of the brilliant rhet- 
oric of the author of the Oratio^ who, in my judgment, 
bears a strong family likeness to Ilermeias. But it is 
hardly necessary to dwell on the internal evidence, as tlie 
discovery of a Syriac translation, in Avhich this piece is 

B 



XXVI INTRODUCTION. 

attributed to one Ambrosius, has set the question at rest, 
so far as questions ever rest. 

In the Prolegomena to his elaborate edition of the 
Epistle to Diog- Epistle to Diognetus Otto has undertaken 

"®^"^" the liopeless task of vindicating the Justin- 

ian origin of this famous letter, of which Bunsen says that 
it ' is indisputably, after Scripture, the finest monument 
we know of sound Christian feeling, noble courage, and 
manly eloquence.' Otto's argument seems to have made 
little impression on the students of early Christian litera- 
ture, and it might suffice to say with the great scholar 
just quoted, ' I will not lose my time by proving over 
and over again that it cannot be Justin's.' But, as I 
have not been able to withstand the temptation to add 
this famous piece as an appendix to the Apologies, the 
reader is entitled to a statement of some of the grounds 
on which the Justinian origin is usually rejected. 

The historical allusions in the Epistle are so vague that 
Not by Jus- little can be made out of them for or against 

^^"' the time of Justin. This vagueness has been 

used by one school to bring the composition down to a 
late period, by others the authorship has been pushed 
back to an earlier generation than Justin's; while a recent 
writer of eminence recognizes in c. 7 an allusion to two em- 
perors, father and son, Marcus Aurelius and Commodus, 
and assigns the letter to the time between 1*77 and 180. 

The coincidences of thought between Justin and the au- 
coinciden- thor of the Epistle are found in all the Fathers ; 

^^^* they are the common property of the primitive 
Church. 

But the author of the Epistle looks upon heathen idol- 
Divergen- ^try as mere fetichism, as incomprehensible ab- 

^^^' surdity. To Justin the Greek gods are real 
beings — demons, not gods, but still real. The author of 



INTRODUCTION. XXvii 

the Epistle views with equal contempt Jewish and hea- 
tlien sacrifices. Justin recognizes the hand of God in 
this provisional form of worship. 

And the same observation holds with regard to other 
points of the Jewish ritual, the Jewish ceremonial law. 
The autlior of the Epistle has only a sneer for meats and 
drinks and circumcision. Justin had a deeper and truer 
conception of the relations of Judaism to Christianity. 
According to the author of the Epistle, Christ was hidden 
until his incarnation. According to Justin, the Logos 
was revealed in the theophanies of the Old Testament. 
According to the author of the Epistle, the execution of 
God's counsel was delayed in order to show that God's 
grace and favor alone could save, while Justin defends 
the postponement of the revelation on the ground that 
God had given man the power to choose between the 
good and the evil, and had strengthened his natural abili- 
ty by the presence of the Logos, which was with Socrates 
as well as with David. Besides, it is especially Avorthy 
of note that in the whole Epistle there is no express 
citation of any passage of Scripture, and that no use is 
made of the Old Testament : for it is utterly incredible 
tliat Justin should have written a work of this tenor with- 
out a solitary citation from the Septuagint, which else- 
where he quotes in season and out of season ; without a 
solitary argument draAvn from prophecy, which was to 
Justin the most cogent of all the proofs of the truth of 
the Christian system. 

But, if all this is not enough, the style of the Epistle 
constitutes the argument which it is hardest to in- 

^ ' validate by any hypothesis of youthful elegance and 
senile slovenliness. Justin's style is the every-day Greek 
of the educated man of his century, the EjDistle aims at 
classic expression; Justin writes negligently, though not 



XXVlll INTRODUCTION. 

SO incorrectly as is sometimes represented. The language 
of the Epistle is carefully polished. Except under the 
pressure of especial excitement, Justin keeps to the speech 
of his time. As a former Platonist, his diction is here and 
there colored by reminiscences of his master. As a diligent 
student of the Septuagint, his language shows occasional 
traces of that idolized version; but as he seldom sinks into 
sheer solecism, so he seldom rises above the level of the 
common dialect. There are many effective thoughts in 
Justin, few effective phrases, and the only rhetorically 
effective period is borrowed. The author of the Epistle 
reached whatever height w^as to be reached in that time, 
and is as determined an antithesis-monger as Maximus 
Tyrius. 

In the development of his theme Justin lacks logical ar- 
rangement, and interrupts his discourse by all manner 
of parentheses. The author of the Epistle pursues his 
subject with strict method. Finally, Justin's pet expres- 
sions are lacking in the Epistle, and there are many pe- 
culiarities of diction in the Ejjistle which we should seek 
in vain in the genuine works of Justin. 

A positive decision has not been reached as to author 
or century. In the opening of the Notes I have given 
some brief account of recent views on this interesting 
subject. 

To return to Justin himself. 

The ancient Church always speaks of the Martyr with 
Justin's stand- unconditional praise; Tatian calls him 6 ^av- 
^"°' fxaaiujraroQ, Tertullian counts him among the 

viri sanctitate et praestantia insigyies^ and Methodius puts 
him not far below the apostles. Soon after his death he 
received the surnames of ' Philosopher and Martyr,' be- 
cause he declared that he had found the only true philoso- 
phy in the Christian faith, because he had sealed his tes- 



INTRODUCTION. xxix 

timoiiy with his blood. The Fathers of the next genera- 
tion, such as Irenaeus and Tertullian, borrow largely from 
his writings, and Eusebius expresses his admiration in no 
measured terms. Nor has he been less esteemed in modern 
times, though in more recent days Justin has not always 
met with the same reverence ; and while all concede the 
importance of his writings for the history of the early 
Church, some have denied him all pretensions to jDhilo- 
sophic thought, have sneered at his inaccurate statements, 
his ' weak and inconclusive arguments, his trifling appli- 
cations and erroneous interpretations of Scripture.' True, 
many of the Fathers stand above him in solid learning, 
in natural endowments, in creative force, in lofty spirit- 
uality. But, for all that, lie was a man of earnest thought, 
of apostolic zeal, of immovable faith, of liberal nature, and 
if he had not the tongues of angels nor even the golden 
mouth of Chrysostom, his message falls from lips that 
have been touched with a live coal from off the altar of 
God. 

It must always be borne in mind that Justin's whole 
, . , direction was practical rather than theoretical. 
'Not for the school, but for life,' was more truly 
his motto than Seneca's, yet his title of 'philosopher' is 
not undeserved. Bunsen calls him 'a decidedly specula- 
tive thinker,' and Ritter, after making every possible de- 
duction, concedes his important influence on the progress 
of Christian philosophy. 

Nor should it be forgotten that he was a pioneer, that 
Justin apio- ^^^ was the first to make a path from philosophy 
"^^^'' to Christianity; and it is no wonder that in his 

earnest advance he brushed aside all the flowers of rhet- 
oric, and disregarded the thorns and burs of grammar. 
To the Greek scholar, familiar with the subtleties of Attic 
diction, the roughness of Justin is at first repellent, and 



XXX • INTRODUCTION. 

the bulk of the Dialogue with Trypho is peculiarly arid to 
a reader who has not a professional interest in the study ; 
but touch on the Christian life, and the eloquence of true 
feeling lights up the homely style, and as one learns to 
appreciate the thoroughness of Justin's conviction and 
the wide reach of the views which he is laboring to ex- 
press, the honest carelessness of his Greek garb is not 
less welcome than the studied costume of the fourth 
century. 

Granted that he is not to be measured as a mere writer 
with Chrysostom or Basil or Gregory of Nazian- 

Deductions. ,-,1 , o ti -i . pa.i 

zum ; granted that he falls short 01 Athenagoras 
in elegance, of Tatian in point; granted that he is not to 
be reckoned with the great master-thinkers of the patris- 
tic time — with TertuUian, who borrowed, be it remem- 
bered, with all the audacity of genius, with Origen, with 
Athanasius, with Augustin ; granted the vagueness of his 
views, the looseness of his terminology, the want of log- 
ical development of his theme — grant all this, and there 
still remains a man of no ordinary mind — a man much 
greater than his books, a man whose lead apologists of far 
more brilliant talents have been content to follow. 

Justin's theology was the theology of the heart. His 
faith Avas no mere intellectual faith ; it was 

Justin's spirit. ^ . _ , ^ . . 

no dogmatic craze, no day-dream 01 quietism. 
It was the principle of moral regeneration. Christ's test 
was his test. ' By their fruits ye shall know them.' To 
him Christianity consisted not in Avord, but in deed. 
' Without holiness no man shall see the Lord ;' or, as he 
phrases it, no man shall reach a blessed immortality. 

The love of the Gospel is the love of the truth. To 

Justin's love Justin tliis life is not worth a lie ; and Ban- 

of the truth. ^^^ ^^,^|j ^.^marks that his best epitaph may be 

said to be the words about truth which are quoted from 



INTRODUCTION. XXxi 

one of his lost writings, 'There is TnUb, and nothing is 
stronger than Truth.' 

But there is no real love of truth without courage, and 
the couraiije of Justin reminds us now of Soc- 

Jnstiu's courage. r' -r» i x • -i o 

rates, now oi i aul. It is not the courage oi 
an Ignatius, of a Polycarp, which is almost ecstatic, al- 
most feverish in its joy. It is based broad upon solid con- 
viction, and rests with massive squareness on God's Word. 
The language which he holds toward the emperors in 
his Greater Apology is the language of one ' that fears 
God, and has no other fear;' and De Pressense admires — 
as who would not? — 'its manly courage, its simple dig- 
nity, its noble frankness.' He lived as seeing Him who 
is invisible, as in the immediate presence of his Lord and 
Judge, and did not hesitate to warn his earthly rulers of 
the penalties of unrighteousness. The emperors were of 
more importance to him simply because of their greater 
responsibility. 

To this noble spirit we might forgive many inaccuracies 
of composition and not a little slovenliness of 

Justin's style. , t^ , i ■, i • . i • 

style. i>ut let us look more narrowly mto this 
charge which has been so often brought against Justin. 

In the first centuries, if we except Athenagoras and Mi- 
nucius Felix, logic and rhetoric are negligently treated 
by the Fathers. Photius himself says that the Apostolic 
Fathers wrote in a simple, inartistic, ordinary style. Even 
those who went from the schools of the philosophers to 
the school of Christ are said to have renounced delib- 
erately whatever charm of diction they might have ac- 
quired from converse with the literary heroes of classical 
antiquity. In Justin's day we are still far from the times 
Avhen Julian's interdict, which forbade Christian teachers 
to interpret the masterpieces of Pagan letters, was felt 
as a cruel blow by the Fathers of the Church ; and his 



XXXli INTRODUCTION. 

sneering allusions to the eloquence of Matthew and Luke 
would have fallen harmless on their ears. Christ was no 
sophist, no rhetorician, says Justin himself. Still I do 
not agree with those Avho suppose that Justin was one of 
that number who deliberately renounced style, nor do I 
attach much importance to the declamations of the Fa- 
thers against the meretricious charms of human discourse. 
They say that art is a hindrance rather than a help; that 
eloquence is a delusion and a snare; that the simple and 
naked truth is sufficient to prosper in the thing whereto 
it was sent. But tlie Fathers were men as well as Fa- 
thers, and the excellency of man's speech is generally at 
its best when that excellency is most depreciated. How- 
ever, Justin is an exceptionally honest man, and it is tol- 
erably evident that he was too full of his message to 
elaborate his composition. Of this composition few crit- 
ics have much to say that is favorable. True, Winer 
remarks that Justin's diction is unusually pure for his 
time, and Bunsen terms him a good Hellenistic writer, 
and calls the thirteenth chapter of the First Apology 
'sublime;' but the great majority of critics, from Pho- 
tius down, notice the lack of grace in his expression, and 
the awkwardness of his periodology. It would be easy 
enough to join the cry against Justin's style ; to call it 
incorrect, lumbering, colorless ; to point out the long di- 
gressions, the frequent repetitions, the indigestible paren- 
theses, the dragging clauses, the coupled synonyms. But 
Winer is right in the main as to Justin's vocabulary, 
and the percentage of post-classical words in the Apolo- 
gies is far from large — indeed marvellously small — when 
we remember how Justin was steeped in the study of the 
Septuagint, and how imperatively new relations call for 
new expressions. Most of the negligences of his syntax 
may be defended by classic warrant, many of its diver- 



INTRODUCTION. XXxiii 

geiicGs are common to tlie whole century, and may be 
found in such authors as Plutarch and Lucian, who are 
not excluded from the rano-e of text-books. At all events, 
lamentations over the decadence of the Greek lanirnasre 
of this period come with an ill grace from those who 
emend a corrupt text by impossible forms and unheard- 
of syntax; and while a Cobet may be permitted to de- 
claim against the depravation of post- Aristotelian Greek, 
it requires something more than mere declamation to 
make a man a Cobet; and it w^as to reduce the margin 
of false and superficial criticism, such as one hears from 
persons who ought to be more modest, that I have been 
at the pains to bring the peculiarities of Justin's lan- 
guage to the test of classic usage. No author, who is 
worth studying at all, should be negligently handled in 
any direction, stylistic or other, and Justin's message is 
sufficiently important to justify an attentive considera- 
tion. 

Perhaps it may not be out of place here to say that, so 
far from regretting the time consumed by my occasional 
excursions into patristic territory, I have only learned to 
appreciate more fully, as I go back to my special work, 
the wisdom of Niebuhr's advice, when he says, 'The Fa- 
thers of the Church ought to be read more by philologi- 
ans than they are; . . . and the example of such great men 
as Scaliger, Hemsterhuys, and Valckenaer should light the 
w^ay, and show us that we cannot become thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the history of those times unless we take 
into account the writings of a Justin Martyr, a Clement 
of Alexandria, an Athenagoras.' And in the preface to 
his excellent Outline of Roman Literature, Prof Hubner, 
one of the foremost epigraphists of our day, has said with 
emphasis, 'I have never been able to understand how 
Roman literature from the third to the sixth century 

B2 



XXxiv INTRODUCTION. 

could be taught without a detailed account of such men 
as Tertullian, Prudentius, Jerome, and Augustin.' 

A more serious charge than inelegance of language has 
Justin's iuac- ^^en brought against Justin, and it is not to be 
curacy. denied that in the heat of composition he has 
made many awkward slips ; that he miscalls the prophets, 
puts Zephaniah for Zechariah, Jeremiah for Daniel, Isaiah 
for Jeremiah, Hosea for Zechariah, Zechariah for Mala- 
chi; that he dovetails verses from difierent parts of the 
Scriptures, and shows a sovereign disregard of chronology. 
He makes Jethro the uncle of Moses, and Herod a con- 
temporary of Ptolemy Philadelphus. He implies that 
Heraclitus was a Stoic — and so he was by anticipation — 
and puts both Heraclitus and Musonius to death without 
good warrant ; and his confusion of Simon Magus with 
Semo Sancus is a stock example of uncritical identifica- 
tion. But who is so devoid of historical vision as to 
blame Justin for believing in the Sibyl and Hystaspes, or 
for deriving the wisdom of the Greeks from the books of 
Moses? And what does the whole bead-roll of blunders 
amount to after all in view of Justin's testimony on mat- 
ters of vital importance for the history of Christianity ? 
Rude he may be in speech, inaccurate in statement, but 
about him revolve some of the most momentous problems 
of Christian tradition. 

Among these problems may be mentioned the doctrine 

of the Trinity, the nature of the sacraments, the 
Problems. 

order of the Christian Church, and the establish- 
ment of the canonical Gospels, and so nicely poised is the 
testimony of Justin on all these points that his authority is 
invoked by partisans of the most diverse views. To enter 
into these questions at all would be to overstep the line 
which circumscribes the present undertaking; but it may 
be allowable, for the sake of illustrating the importance 



INTRODUCTION. XXXV 

of Justin's evidence, to give the student some hints as to 
the controversy on the topic last mentioned — on Justin's 
use of our canonical Gospels. The battle over the ques- 
Memoii-softhe tion whether Justin's Memoirs of the Apostles 
Apostles. ^j.g itjentical with our canonical Gospels has 
lasted nearly a century. Begun by Stroth in 1777, it is 
safe to say that the fight is going on at this very moment 
in the powder-magazine of some theological review. It 
is the Homeric question of the canon. Eichhorn and 
Paulus and Gieseler have each had his word to say on the 
subject, and Credner, whose entrance upon the field marks 
a recrudescence of the controversy, has gained great repu- 
tation by his acute and vigorous discussion of the subject. 
An English bishop, Marsh, has taken the negative side, an 
American clergyman, Norton, the affirmative. The num- 
ber of pages consumed is appalling. Bindemann is con- 
tent with 128, but Hilgenfeld does not sum up his complex 
result until he reaches page 304, and Semisch's book takes 
up no less than 409 pages. And yet these are only a few 
of the names that might be cited, only a few of the pages 
to be studied by those who would master the bearings of 
the controversy ; and the mere statement of the history of 
the question would take up more space than could be oc- 
cupied with profit by the introduction to a school-book. 
Suffice it to say that Justin's citations from the Memoirs 
of the Apostles do not tally exactly, save in a few instances, 
with the parallel passages in our Gospels, and, though the 
diff*erences are not considerable to the uncritical eye, 
some theory is demanded to account for the discrepancy ; 
and much stress has been laid on the fact that these 
divergent texts recur with the same divergences, not 
only in Justin, but in other writers who are known to 
have used uncanonical Gospels. Then there are certain 
statements, certain reports of sayings of our Lord, which 



XXXVl INTRODUCTION. 

do not occur in our Gospels, and these also are made 
much of or made light of by the debaters according to 
the side which they have espoused. The extreme posi- 
tions are occupied by those who deny that Justin made 
any use of our canonical Gospels, and by those wlio main- 
tain that Justin made little use of any other. The former 
either reconstruct for him a lost Gospel, or refer his cita- 
tions to a number of archetypal or apocryphal Gospels, 
such as the Gospel according to Peter, the Gospel accord- 
ino' to the Hebrews. The latter account for the variations 

CD 

mainly by Justin's careless quotations from memory — 
for which curious parallels might be adduced from the 
popular treatment of our own authorized version — and 
also by Justin's use of other recensions of the synoptics. 
Between the two extremes are those who admit only the 
subordinate use of one or more of the synoptics in con- 
nection with one or more gospels of the Petrine type. 

One great objective point in this whole struggle is the 
date of the Fourth Gospel. If Justin was acquainted 
with the Fourth Gospel, the whole fabric of a great his- 
torical school falls to the ground, and we can readily 
understand why the controversy assumes an almost per- 
sonal tone when it approaches the subject, and, like all 
other personal controversies, becomes more or less disin- 
genuous. 

Certainly confidence is not lacking to the leaders on 
either side, and trophies are erected with great intrepidity 
by conservatives and destructives alike. In such battles 
no truce is ever made for burying dead arguments, and in 
this war there is no immediate prospect of a discharge ; 
for while Keira,no mean authority, declares that the long 
struggle has ended in favor of the -conservatives, the 
author of 'Supernatural Religion' has demolished, to his 
own satisfaction, the last defence of those who maintain 



INTRODUCTION. XXXvii 

tliat the Memoirs of tlie Apostles are identical with our 
Gospels. 

But though this 'burning question' has blazed more 
other coiitro- fiercely than any other connected with Justin, 

versies. ^ formidable array of disputants might be cited 
for either side of the other controversies that have been 
indicated, and Justin has been claimed for widely diverse 
Justin a Plato- schools of Christian thought. Although he 

^^^^^ forsook Plato, lie is considered a Platonist, 

and to his influence the supposed infiltration of the body 
of Christian doctrine with Platonic elements has been 
freely attributed. Although he reprobates those extreme 
Jewish Christians who insisted on the observance of the 
Mosaic law by Jew and Gentile alike, the mildness of his 
tone toward those weaker Jewish brethren 

AnEbiouite? ■, t, ^ , • - ^ i ^ 

who adhered to tlie ancient ritual has caused 
him to be considered an Ebionite. Although his concep- 
tion of Christian doctrine is not unlike that of Paul, and 
although his phraseology reminds us now and then of the 
An antagonist PauUue Epistlcs, the argumentmn ex silentio 

of Paul? i^^g been racked to prove his hostility to the 
Apostle to the Gentiles; and the man who, of all the 
Fathers, seems to have least brooked any compromise 
with falsehood, is supposed to have kept back his real 
convictions out of regard for a respectable party in the 
Church, and to have relieved his mind by girding at Paul 
under the name of Simon Magus. Upon this debatable 
ground, thick-planted with caltrops for unwary hobby- 
riders and lurid with the glare of an undying odium theo- 
logicum^ I have neither inclination nor vocation to enter. 
Doctrine of the But there is one point so peculiarly Justinian 

t°k6^V^^^°' that it cannot be passed over in silence, the 
doctrine of the \6yoQ (nrepidaTiKck, or germinant word, for 
this doctrine is Justin's chief claim to a place among the 



XXXVIU INTRODUCTION. 

thinkers of the Christian Church, and, I may adcl, his 
strongest hold on the sympathies of those whose studies 
have made tliem more familiar with the world of classic 
thought than with the progress of Christian doctrine. 
We have already seen that Justin did not cease to be a 
philosopher in becomino- a Christian. To him the 

The Logos. •>,,.. , i • •, i -i i .i 

Christian system was the higher philosophy, the 
full-orbed perfection, of which other systems had only a 
few scintillations. Christianity is the pure and complete 
manifestation of Reason in humanity — Reason being at the 
same time the Divine Word. So far as other philosophies 
conform wuth the Christian philosophy they are true, they 
are emanations of the Divine. But they are only faint 
and troubled and broken images of the True. Their lan- 
guage is self-contradictory, their knowledge is not the ulti- 
mate, the irrefutable knowledge. What have they that 
they have not received ? Every truth that they jDro- 
claini is of God. Every good utterance belongs to the 
Christians, no matter who has uttered it; and all those 
who lived in conformity with reason are Christians, even 
though they have been accounted atheists. Socrates was 
a Christian, Heraclitus was a Christian — Abraham, the 
three holy children, Elias, and many others. God has 
never left himself without a witness, and, on the other 
hand, the demons have never ceased to persecute the men 
who have endeavored to enlighten their fellows with the 
partial light which had been vouchsafed to them. Socra- 
tes was persecuted in his day, as were the Christians in 
Justin's time ; accused, as were the Christians, of intro- 
ducing new divinities, of not believing in the gods. He 
taught men to renounce the evil demons by casting out 
of his republic the poets who had sung their praises, and 
he urged them to seek after the Unknown God. But this 
man, who knew Christ only in part, found none to die for 



INTRODUCTION. XXxix 

this doctrine, whereas Christ was followed to the death 
not by philosophers and men of culture only, but by arti- 
sans and nntutored people. For Christ is the power of 
the Ineffable Father, not the mere recipient of a seed of 
the Divine, which God has sown throughout the world. 
This Divine Logos came to earth complete in the person 
of Christ, and all the jangling contradictions of partial 
systems are harmonized in Him. 

The name Spermatic Word, or Reason, \6yog mrep/jLaTiicoQ, 
stoics. ^^ ^ ^^^'^^ term, but it was used by the Stoics in a dif- 
ferent sense. According to the Stoics, ' the Xoyog aTcep- 
fxariKug is that part of the Deity wdiich goes forth from him 
for the formation of the woi'ld, and is resolved into a plu- 
rality ot'XuyoL awEpixaTLKoi^ (Ueberweg). But Justin's doc- 
_ ., trine is much nearer the doctrine of Philo, with its 
\6yoQ evZia^ETOQ and its \6yoQ 7Tpo(f)opiK6g, the Xoyog kvota- 
Berog being the Word united with the Divine Essence and 
resting in the bosom of God, the Xoyog irpofpopiKog being the 
Word begotten, produced, separated from the Divine Sub- 
stance to create and organize the world. Of this doctrine 
the Xoyog (TTrepfiariKog is a further development. In Philo the 
Word is but the ' shadow of God.' To Justin as to John 
the Word is God. In Philo the Word is the type of human- 
ity, in so far as humanity participates in reason, and hence 
all men are the children of God and bear His image, the 
image of His Word. Justin considers tlie Word as spread 
abroad in the world, and, so to speak, 'incarnate in hu- 
manity ' (Aube). There is a particle of tlie Divine Word 
in every soul of man, but the seed does not germinate in 
all alike. Truth and virtue are the fruits which witness 
its presence. The search for truth and the practice of 
virtue show the active indwelling of the Word. Hence 
Christianity is no new thing, as its detractors allege ; it is 
as old as humanity. The Word liad its saints, its martyrs, 



xl INTRODUCTION. 

before the coming of Christ ; and all that is true, all that 
is noble in tlie instructions of Greek philosophers as well 
as of Hebrew prophets, is Christian. 

Tlie thought is audacious, and it is not strange that 
much has been written to explain away this short method 
of harmonizing the history of the world, for it would seem 
as if Justin did not simply recognize the hand of God in 
the preparation of the way for the coming of Christ. 
This tlie other Fathers have done, but according to him 
the footsteps of the Logos are to be traced throughout 
the ages, faintly luminous among the Greeks, brighter 
among the Hebrews, shining with full effulgence only at 
the advent of our Saviour. 

Whatever may be thought of this conception, it could 
not have entered into any mind but a mind of broad 
views, could never have been cherished except by a heart 
of wide sympathies. But Justin is none the less ardent a 
Christian for this generous fellow-feeling with an Hera- 
uirect obligations clitus, a Socrates, a Plato, a Musonius. He is 
philosophers^ to "OH© the less a firm believer in the necessity 
revelation. ^^^^^ revelation of God in His written Word. 
While he accords to the great heathen thinkers glimpses 
of the truth, he expressly declares that the resemblance 
of the Platonic doctrines to the teachings of the Old Tes- 
tament is due to Plato's direct acquaintance with the 
Scriptures. The doctrine of free moral agency was taken 
from Moses; and all that philosophers and poets have said 
of the immortality of the soul, of punishment after death, 
of the contemplation of heavenly things, was borrowed 
originally from Jewish sources. But even if we leave out 
these indications of dependence, we must not forget that 
Justin insists with the most earnest iteration on the com- 
pleteness of the Christian system, its adaptation to all 
sorts and conditions of men, the marvellous attestation of 



INTRODUCTION. xli 

its divinity by the holy life and triumphant death of its 
confessors. 

For all this the philosophy of the pre-Christian time was 
not sufficient. But, as Justin saw the powers of darkness 
in the worship of the heathen deities, so he saw the gleams 
of divine light in the words of heathen philosophers, and 
if he failed in the attempt to span the chasm — magnis 
tamen excidit ausis ; and the heart of every classical schol- 
ar will warm toward the rugged apologist for liis gener- 
ous recocjnition of Socrates and Plato as fellow-Christians. 



There are two manusci-ipts of the Apologies, tlie Codex 
JRegitcs, in the National Library at Paris, written in the 
year 13G4, and the Codex Claromontanus (Ifediomonta- 
onis)^ now at Cheltenham, of the late date 1541, whicli 
agrees closely with the Codex Meghis — so closely that it 
w^ould seem to be a copy of it. ' We must never forget,' 
says Bunsen, ' that we have only one manuscript, twice 
copied, and a very indifferent one, as will appear from a 
comparison of the passages which have been preserved by 
Eusebius.' Otto leaves it an open question whether both 
MSS. come from a comm.on source, or the younger is a 
copy of the elder. 



THE APOLOGIES OF JUSTIN MARTYR, 



AND 



THE EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. 



TOT AriOT iot:^tinot 

AnOAOriA nPQTH yhep xpistianqn 

nPOS ANTONINON TON EYSEBH. 



1. AvTOKptlTOpL TlTh) A(X/ti> ^A^fJiaVLO ^ AvTUJvivii) Eu(Tf/3£t 

SfiSacrrw Kaiaapi kol Ohr]pLa<jifXM vIm (J)iXo(t6- 
Address. *" ^ / "^ "^ / 

(jxjt) KOi AovKio) (^tAocro(^(ij Kaicrapog (pvati vioi 

KOL EixT^jSou^ tlaTTOiiiTWy IpatjTij waic^iag, hpa rs o-uy/cA?;- 

rqj KOL ^nfiio TravA '^Fivp.aiujv virep tu)V £k: Travrog yivovQ 5 

av^pwirwv a^iKioc fiKTOVjULu^wv kol tTnjpia^oimevbJv 'IouotT- 

vog UpiaKOv rov Baic^ffou, twv airb ^Xaoviag Nf'ac TroXetjg 

Tr}g SujOt'ac HaXaKJTivtjgj ug avrCov lov, rrjv 7rpo(T(j)U)vr}(7iv 

KOi hiTevE,iv TrtTroLYJiuiai. 

2. Tovg KGT aXii^^iav tuo-f/StTc Koi «^tXo(To^ouc /aovov 

Justin de- Tf^^^i^^Q TifMiv Ka\ aripyuv 6 Xoyog virayo- 

mauds justice. / / ^ ^y ^ \ " ''ff ^ 

p^vei, TrapaiTOv/xivovg cot,aig TraAatwv tsa/co- 

Xov^iiVf iiv (pavXaL wmv' ov yap p,6vov fii) tTrea^ai ToXg 

adiKCog Ti TTpa^acTiv i) ^oyfxaTicraaiv 6 Gwrppcov Xoyog vira- 5 

yopEvsi, aXX tK iravTog rpoTTOV Kcd wpo rrig iavTov \pv)(iiig 

Tov (l)iXaXi]^r], Kav ^avarog aiTeiXrjTai, to. diKaia Xiyeiv re 

KoX TrpaTTeiv aipHa^ai du. 'Yfmc filv ovv on Xiyea^E 

ivah^dg Koi (piX6ao(l)OL Koi ^uAa/cfc ^iicaioavvrjg koX epa- 

ara) waidEiag, ukov^te Travroxou * d ^t kol virupyiTZy ^u^h- 10 



4 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

atrai. Ov yap KoXaKEvaovT^g v/JLcig Sm rwvof tCjv ypa/x- 
fxariov ouSe Trpog X"i^'^ oixiXfiaovreg, aXX airaiTijaovTifj 
Kara tov aKpt[^iri kol fsfracrnkoy \6yov Tijv Kpiaiv iroiijaa- 
a^di TTpocreXiiXv^HfjLBv, /jli) irpoXiiipsL jlii]^' av^pwirap^aKU^ 

15 ry ^^(n^aiiiovijjv Karexof^tvovg i] aXoyw opfAy Koi xpovia 
irpoKaTiCTXT^KVia ^Vjiy KOKy ti)v Ka3"' iavTiijv ^jI^ov <^£- 
povrag. 'Hjuhc; julv yap irpog ov^evog Trato-ecrS'ai tl kukov 
duvaa^ai XiXoyidfi^^a, ijv fxr) KaKiag Ipyarai lX^y\(l)p.^'^a 
i) TTovripoi ^leyviva/JLi^^n ' vjuug 3' airoKTHvai filv ^vvacr^f, 

20 ftXa\paL S' vv. 

3. 'AXX' \i>a juri aXoyov (pcovrjv koi ToX/iripav So^y Tig 

Rif^ht to a ^"^^" fTi'a/, ctstou/ify ra Karrjyopovfieva qvtCjv 

fair trial. "•p-'yrv viv « v 'S* ' 

i^tra^ffT^at, jcai 6a y ourw^ t^ovra aTTOcaiKvv- 

CL)VTai,KoXa(^£(j^aL fjjg Trpiirov i(7T\v aXXov ye KoXa^Ety* d 

5 Sfc jU^jSty £ Y^t Tig lX^y\iiv, ov\ virayopevsi 6 aXri^rig Xoyog 

^la (pi]iur]v TTOvrjpav avaiTiovg av^pMirovg aciKtiv, fxaXXov 

^l tavTOvg, OL ov Kpicrei, aXXa ttcl^h to. irpayiuaTa lirayEiv 

at,LOVT£. KoX^yy Sf Ka\ finvrfv ^tKalav irpoKXtjaiv TavTr]V 

Trag 6 auxppovCov arrocpavtiTai, to Tovg up\ofi^vovg tvjv ew- 

10 ^vvr)v TOV tavTiov j3iou koi Xoyou aXTjTrrov 7rape\Eiv, o/uoiiog 

S' av Ka\ Tovg up\ovTag fxi) jSf'rt iur}be Tvpavvidi, aXX' evge- 

(^eia Kal (jxXoaocpia ciKoXov^ovvTag tyjv ^//t^^ov Ti^ia^ai. 

OvTOjg yap av icai ol ap\0VTig KOt ol ap^ojuevoi awoXaii- 

oiEV TOV aya^ov. "E^ry yap ttov kui Tig tCov TraXaiCw ' 'Ay 

15 /ir) ot ap\ovTig (^iXoao(pi]Gii)Gi kol ol ap\ofii:VOi,ovK av ht] 

Tag TToXug dv^aijuiovrjaai. 'HjutTepov ovv tpyov, fcat /3/ou 

Ka\ fxa^rjjuaTiov tijv iTridK^ipiv iraai wapt^eiVf jiriTrwg virlp 

tCjv ayvouv to. rjjLiiTspa vo/ui^ovTaiv ti)v Tijuwpiav, lov av 

TrXrj/i/xtXwcjt TV^Xu)TTOVTigf \_avTwv'] avTo\ ocfXiidiofjiEV ' 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 5 

vfitrepov ^e, tog alpu \6yog, uKOvovTag aya^ovg £U|Oto-K£-20 
(j^ai KpiTag. 'AvaTToXoyrjroy yap Xoittov /jlci^ovcflv, tjv 
fit] ra ^iKQia TTonjar^TEf virap^u irpog ^wv. 

4. 'Ovoparog plv ovv irpoatovvpia ovte tiya^ov ovre Ka~ 

Whycoudemn ^^^ tcplViTai hvEV Th)V UTTOTTtTTTOuawy tm dv6- 

auame? /p .■>/?/ ■> 

pan 7rpac,eo)v tirn, ocjov ye £»c tov KaTrjyo- 

povpivov npwv ovoparog, \pr](TT6TaT0i VTrap\opev. 'AAX' 

lirCi oh TOVTO diKaiov r}yovpf:^ay Sm to ovopa, lav KaKoX 5 

i\ty\wpE'^af a\Tu.v ci(l)h(j^ai, iraXiv, d pi]^lv dici re ti)v 

Trpoarjyopiav tov ovuparog Ka\ ^la tijv TroXiTeiav ivpKjKo- 

pe^a ahiKovvTZc y vp^Tepov ayiovLaaai Igtl pi) a^iKOjg ko- 

Xa^ovTeg Tovg pr] lX2y\opivovg t^ ^/k>? KoXaaiv 6(pXri(jr}T£. 

'E^ ovoparog plv yap x] trraivog i) KoXatJig ovk av evXoyiog lo 

yivoLTO, rjv p.ri tl IvapeTOv i) (jjayXov ci tpytsjv ano^UKVv- 

or^at ^vvr]Tai. Kai yap TOvg KaTijyopovpivovg f^' vpi^v 

TravTag irpXv lXiy\^Y\vaL ov TipwpuTEy l(f 7)pCjv St to ovopa 

wg iXey\ov Xap[5avETEy KainEp, uanv ye lie tov ovopaTog, 

Tovg KaTt]yopovvTag paXXov KoXa^eiv orpdXeTs. XpiaTi-w 

avoi yap uvai KaTtiyopovps^a ' to ^h ^p-qaTov piGiua^ai 

ov ^(Kaiov. Kat iraXiv lav piv Tig tlJv icaTrjyopovpivwv 

t^apvog ylvYjTaL rr} (jtwvyj pi) dvai 0//(7aC5 (x<l>ii:Te avTov wg 

pr]^lv IXeyxEiv ^^(ovTeg apapTavovTa, lav di Tig opoXoyi)- 

<7\] dvai, ^la TYJv bpoXoyiav /coXa^erc * of ov Ka\ tov tov 20 

opoXoyovvTog j3toy ev^vveiv Ka\ tov tov apvovpivov, owtog 

^la tCov irpa^EdJv oirotog Igtiv EKamog (jjaivriTai. '^Ov yap 

TpoTTOv 7rapaXa[56vTeg Tivlg irapa tov ^i^aaKuXov XpiaTOv 

pi) apvucT^ai l^eTa^opevoL irapaKeXevovTai , tov avTov Tpo- 

TTOv KUKwg ^o)VTEg 'iGCjg atpoppag Trapiy^ovat To7g aAXwc25 

KQTaXiyuv tCjv ttuvtijjv XpiGTiavujv aat-jScmy Ka\ adiKiav 



6 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

atpovfitvoic. OuK op^iog /dlv ovtl tovto TrpaTTBTai. Kai 
yap TOL ^fXorro^mc ovofia kol ay^^fia liriypacpovTaL Tivsct 
Of ov^lv (i^iov Tt]g V7ro(7\icreo)g wparTOvcn ' jivwfTKtTS 6 

30 ori Krai ot to. IvavTia co^aaavTEg kol ^oyfiaTtaavTig TtJv 
TToXaiCJv no tvl ovofxaTi Trpoaayopivovrai (jyiXoaocpoi. Kat 
TOVTWv TLvlq a^WTTjTa iSida^av, koI tuv Aia aa^Xyri ujua 
roLQ ciVTOv TTaKTiv Oi yivojuevoL 7roir}TaX KarayyiWovaL' 
KUKdvLOv TO. ^idayjuaTa ol /uErepxoiuBvoL ovk tipyovTai irpoQ 

ZoVfiCjv, a^\a Sfc Kcu tijuciq roiq tv(pwvojg v^pi^ovat TOVTOvg 

5. Ti S>) ovv Tovr av ut] ; 'E(^' i^fxCjv, vTn(j\vovjxivix)v 

Christiiuis no f^^l^^^ ct^iKUv /irjSt Ta a^ta ravra ^o^a^^iiv, ov 

atheists. / ,^/y '\>'>'A'' ■"v ^ ' 

KpiaEig tt,eTaL,ETE, aAA ciAoyco iraz^ei Kai juaorTtyi 

^aifiovwv (pavXijJV c^eXauvOjueyoi UKpiTivg koXq^ets fii) 

6(l)povTi^ovTeg. E«^);cr£rat yap raXyj^eg' Itth to iraXaiov 

^ai/Lioveg (pavXoi, iirKpavtiag iTOiriaafuvoL, Koi yvvalicag 

lliQi\i:V(Tav Kai TraT^a^" ^il(p^eipav Ka\ cpof^rjTpa av^pwiroLg 

tdu'^av, Cog KaTairXayyivai Tovg oi Xoyio rag yivofievag 

Trpa^iig ou/c £/c/)ivoy, ciXXa ^hi Gvvrjpiraaiutvoi /cat /ut) Iwi- 

10 (j-ajnivoL ^aifiovag ilvai (pavXovg, ^eovg Trpocrujvoiua^ov 

KaX ovQfxaTL %Kaarov 7rpo(jr]y6ptvov, oirep eKaarog kavToi 

Twv caijuoviov £rf.3'£ro. "Ore ^l ^toKpaTTjg Xoyoj aXrj^H 

Kai is£raoTf/cwc Tavra dg (j)av£puv lirupaTO (pepsiv Ka\ 

iiTTuyeiv TMV caifjioviov TOvg av^pwirovg, Kai avTov ol ^ai- 

l5fjiov£g cia tCjv yaipovrujv ry KaKiq av^pijjTTMv hnipyrjaav 

tjg (i^eov Kai acrf/3^ cnroKTEivai, XiyovT^g Kaiva uacpipnv 

avTov ^aijuovia. Kai ofioiuyg l(f i]fJLU)v to avTO Ivepyovaiv' 

ov yap juoyoy ^v^EXXrjai cm ^(x>KpaTOvg viro Xoyov riXiy- 

\^r] TttVTa, aXXu Kai ty (dapftapoig hif avTOv tov Xoyou 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 7 

jUOpCplO^iVTOQ KOL CLV^pCOTTOV y^VOjUiVOV KCtl ^IrjdOV XpKJTOV 20 

KXrj^ivTog, co TTiKT^ivTeg VfJi^lQ Tovg ravra irpu^avTag ^ai- 
fiovag oh fxovov /uli) op^wg ^aovg uvai (^afxuff aWa Ka- 
Koifg KCtl avoaiovg ^aijuovac, ol ovdh To7g apETTjv iro^ovcnv 
av^pujTTOig rag irpa^ug ofxoiag t)(OV(nv. 

6.'Ev3"£vS£ KoX a^eoL KSKXi'ijue^a. Kai ojuoXoyov/uv tmv 

Oar God is not '^^'^OVTWV VOIll^OjUtVMV 3"fwy li^eoL Hvaif aXX 

as your gods. 'v-'Arv/ v v^ / 

ou^t Tov aArj.g'so-rarou kgl irarpog diKaiO(jvi>r]g 

KOL aijj(^poavvy]g kui twv (iXXwv apiT^v, avi^'mfiiKTOV re 

KaKtag ^eov ' aXX' Ikuvuv re, koX tov Trap avrov vlov IX- 5 

3'ovra Koi cioac^avTa i]fJiag ravra, kolI rov rCjv aXXwv kiro- 

fiivwv KOL l^ofxoLOVfjLivii)v a-ya.^wv ayy^Xwv arparov, irvu)- 

fJLa rs TO irpocjirirtKOv a-6/3o/U£3'a Kal TrpoaKVVovjueVf Xoyqj 

/coi aXr]^^ia rifiwvTEg Kai Travrl jSouXo/zey/t) fxa^tiv, tt>c £^t~ 

^a^(Pr]ll^v, acjt^ovwg irapaCL^ovng. lo 

7.'AXXa (p{](ju rig' "H^}7 rivlg Xr](j>'^ivreg r}Xiy)(yr](7av 

The life the Ka/coujoyo/. Kal yap TCoXXovg iroXXitKig, orav 

true test. f/ - / ^Q^'S"' 

iKaarrore rojv Karr]yopovfii:V(i>v rov piov it,^ra- 

Z,\]r£, aXX' oi> ^m roue Trp o ^X^^^ivrag icaraStfca^trf. Ka- 

S'oXoU fxlv OVV KCIKUVO O jUoXoy OV jUEV , on OV rpOTTOV ol iV 5 

"EXXj]<ti ra avrolg apiara ^oy/iaricravriig Ik iravrbg rw Ivl 
ovofxari (piXofrotpiag irpoaayopevovrai, KaLirep riov coyjud- 
rcjv lvavri(i)v ovrwVy ovrwg Ka\ rwv tv [dapjddpoig yevo/ui- 
V(i)v /cat ^o^dvrujv (Tocpiov ro iTTiKarriyopovfi^vov ovojua 
KOivov lari * Xpiariavol yap irdvreg Trpocrayop^vovrai. lo 
"O^ev 7rdvr(ov ru)v KarayysXXofxivojv vfMv rag irpd^Eig 
KpLvea^ai asfou/icy, *iva 6 iXc-yx^ac <j^^ a^iKog KoXd^rjrai, 
aXXa fxi) wg XpLariavog, lav ^e rig aviXeyKrog (pdvrjrai, 
aTToXv^^rai wg Xpiariavog ovdlv a^iKUJV. Ov yap rovg 

c 



8 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

l5KaTt}yopouvTac KoXa^ftv vjuag a^iwa^ojuiv ' apKOVvrai yap 
ry 7rpo(TOV(T)j irovripin kcu r/J riov kciXmv ujvoia. 

8. /ioyiaacF^e S' oti virlp vjulCov ravra tfpi]fdw, Ik tov e^* 

This life is not T7/-fTy Hvai apvuG^ai l^irat^ofjiivovc;. ^AXX ov 
worth a lie. r> ^ . ^ y^ , Si \ " • -^ 

'We aspire povAoiu^-^a C,i]v ipwooAoyovvTec; tov yap ai(i)~ 

pire.' y[Q^J f.f{i Ka^apou j3/ou iTri^VfiovvT^g Trig /utra 

5^Eov TOV iravTOJV TraTpog koi cr^fxtovpyov ^layioyrig avTi- 

TTOiovfXii^a, Ka\ aiTiv^ojUiv £7rt to o^ioXoyai^ ol Tr^Tr^KjjUivoL 

KOI TTKTTtVOVTBg TV\UV TOVTWV dvVQa^ai TOVg TOV ^EOV ^L 

tpytjv TTHcravTag oti avTt[> httovto kcu. Ttjg irap avTio ?m- 
yojyrjg ripwVj iv^a Kawa ovic avTiTviru. 'Q^g lulv ovv cia 

10 (5pn\(wv tiTriiVf a te TrpoaSoicw/zfv /cat /^c/ta^Z/zca/ity ^in 
TOV XptcjTOv Koi cidacFKOjusv, TavTo. l(TTi. nXaTcov Cf 
6juoi(i)g trpr] 'Fa^aiuav^vv koi Mivio koXckteiv Tovg acUovg 
Trap' avTOvg iX^ovTag ' ijjuug ^l to avTO Trpayiia tpafiEv 
yEv{](Tea^at, a\X vwo tov XpicjTOv, Kav To7g avTolg atl)- 

lofxaai fiETo. Twv "^vyCov yivojuiviov kqi al(jji>iav KoXaaiv ko- 
Xa(T^r}<TOiulvii)v, aXX ov)(\ \iXiovTaeTri TTspiodov, wg iKiivog 
f0x/, juovov. El /ilv ovv aiTKJTOv T) acvvuTov TOVTO (pi}aH 
Tig, Trpog rj/iag I'l^e i) irXavr) tor/v aXX ov Trphg eTspov, 
jLiE^pig oif ipyio larj^iv a^iKOvvT^g EXtyxofXE^a. 

9. 'AXX' ov^t ^vaiaig iroXXalg /cat irXoKalg av^wv tljiCj- 

Idol-worship is M^^^ ^^"^C av^pumoi fiop(})U)aavT£g Ka\ tv vao7g 

idle worship, f^ ^ a ^ ' ■> \ v i 

icpvaavT^g -Zieovg it poaiovo fxaaav , itth a\pv)(a 

KOI veKpa TavTa yiviocTKOjuiev Kal 3"£0u fiop(f)riv /ii) e\ovTa 

5(ou yap TOiavTTjv ijyovpE^a tov ^eov f'x^/y r?)v iJLop(p{]v, r/v 

^aai Tiveg ug Tijurjv pEjuiiuria^ai), aXX' tKEtviov twv <paviv~ 

Tijjv KaKUJV ^aip.6vMV Ka\ ovojuutu koi (T)(iJiuiaTa f'x^fv. Ti 

yap cti ildoaiv vplv Xiyuv, a t))v vXrjv ol Ti:\v7Tai CiaTt- 



THE F.IRST APOLOGY. 9 

^tacTi t,tovTcQ Koi TifivovT^q /cm ^wyauovrfc *^cu rvirrovr^Q ; 
Kai £^ arifidyv iroKkiiKiQ gkwCjv ^ici T£)(i'r]Q to (j)(i]fialo 
juovov aXXa^avTEQ koi /nopcpoiroiiicravTtg 3'^ouc Ittovojulu- 
^ovdiv, "OiTEp ou /lovov aXoybv r}yovfi£^a, aWa koi tcj)' 
v[5p£i Tov ^wv jiveG^ai, og apprirov ^u^av kol juoptpyjv 
£\wv £7ri (f)^apTo7c koi ceofx^voig ^epairdag wpdyfjiaaiv 
^TTOvojua^tTai. Kai otl ot tovtojv Te^vlTai ucreXyHg te Kai 15 
Tracrav KaKiav/iva /xii KaTapi^iU(oiUEV,z\ov(nv,aKpif5tjr liri- 
(TTaa^s ' KciL Tag iavTU)V iraidicTKag avvepya^ofxivag ^S'et- 
povGLv. Qi Trig Ifi^povTYiGiag, av^ptJirovg ctKoXaaTOvg 
^Eovg ug TO 7rpo<jKVVEi(T^aL TrXacTdetv XiyEG^ai /ecu jUETa- 
ttou'lv, Ka\ TMV hpLJV, ev^a avaTi^evTai, (^vXaKag toiov-20 
Tovg Ka^idTcivai, inrj avvopwvTag a^QfUTOv koi to voeiv i) 
Xiyeiv av^ptoTTovg ^ewv Eivai (^vXaKag, 

10. 'AXX' ov ^E£<j^at Trig Trap av^pwirojv vXiKtig irpoG- 
Proper worship ft>^pag TT a p eiXiirpa/ucv Tov ^eov, avToif irapi- 

ofGocl. / r - . ■» / rvv ;-»/ 

yovTa TravTa opwvTeg EKeivovg C£ irpo&CL^ 
\EG^aL avTov juovov cEcioayibiE^a Ka\ TreirEiafit^a kuX tti- 



> -. > 



(jTEVOjUEV, TOvg TCI TTpoGOVTa avTio aya^a /unjuovfjLEVovgf 5 
aojcppoavviiv /cat diKaioavvriv /cat (l)i\av^pu)7riav, /cat oaa 
ot/caa 3'£<i> EGTi, T(^ jUTidsvl ovofiaTL ^ETio KaXovfiivM. Kot 
iravTa Tr]V apy^iiv aya'^ov ovTa ^rjiiiovpyriGai avTOV l^ 
afiop^ov vXrig ^l av^p(x)7rovg ^E^i^ayfie^a ' ot fciy at,iovg 

TCO EKELVOV (SovXEVjUaTl EUVTOVg ^L EpyUJV ^ElE,<0(Jt, Tr]g JLIET 10 

avTOv avaGTpofprig KaTa^io)^rivai tt apELX{i(^afiEv avp^aGL- 
XtvovTag, a(l)^apTOvg /cat a7ra^E7g yzvojiivovg. ^Oy Tpo- 
TTOv yap Trjv ap^^rjv ovk bvTag ettou^ge, tov uvtov riyov- 
fiE^a TpoTTOv ^la TO kXEG^ai TOvg alpovpivovg to. avT(o 
apEGTo. /cat acli^apGiag /cat GVVovGiag KaTa^uo^rivai ' to 15 



10 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

inlv yap r»)y afj)(rjv yevla^aij ov^ r]fxiTif)Ov 7iv, to o' £^a- 
KoXov^tjaai fug (^iXov avTco mpovfiivovQ cl wv avrog 
tdwpiiaaTO XojtKiov ^vvcijUEivv ttci "jft r£ koX hq ttlcjtlv ayu 
i]juac. Kai virep Travrtov av^pdmtjjv i^yovjii^a ilvai to 

20 fxi] upy£(T^ai TuvTa f.iav^av£iv, aXXa /cat TvpoTptirza'^ai £7ri 
TavTa. "OiTEp yap ovk 7icvvi)^r]<jav ol dv^pwTreiOL vojuol 
TTpa^aif TavTa 6 Xoyog 3'ao^ cjv dpyaaaTO, el pi) ol (pavXot 
^atpovEQ KaTBdKedaaav ttoXXol ifjuvd?} jcru a^ea KaTrjyopi)- 
paTu, Gvppa\ov Xa^ovTec t))v ev tKacrTOj KaK})v irphg 

257ruvTa Ka\ TroLKiXrjv (pvcrei eiri^vpiav, wv ovdlv irpoaeaTiv 
i)p7v. 

11. Kai vpHQ ciKOixTavTEg ftaGiXeiav Trpoa^OKiovTag 

'My kingdom vpag, aKpiTwg dv^ptjwivov Xeysiv vpag vttei- 
is uot of this f„^ y ^-vr f 

world.' Az/^arf, y^pCJv ti]v peTa ^eov XeyovTtov, wg /cai 

tK Tov dveTa^oplvovg vcf vptJv opoXoyuv uvai XpiaTL- 

5 avovg, yivdxjKQVTag T^j opoXoyovvTL ^dvaTov ti)v tir]piav 

Kua^aiy (jyaivETai. Ei -yajO dv^pwirivov ftaaiXdav irpoa^- 

2oK(opsv, Kav r]pvovpe^a oTTuyg pi) dvaipwpe^a, fcai Xav^d- 

VHv l7reipu)pe^a oirwg tCjv wpoacoKwpiviov Tv^wpsv' dXX 

iiru ovK elg to vvv Tag tXiridag t\opev, dvaipovvTwv oh 

10 7Te(j)povTiKapev , tov Ka\ iravTCog diro^avuv 6(l)£iXoptvov. 

12. ^Apwyo). S' vpXv Kai Gvppa\0L irpog t}pi}vr]v eaplv 

'Aseverinonr wavTCOV paXXov dv^p(i)7T(ji)V, 6i TaVTa oo^a^O- 
great Task- r ^ ^ v v a > / 

master's eye.' p^v^ tog Xa^eiv ^wv KaKOEpyov 7] TrXeoveKTrjv 

rj £7r/j3ouXoy rj IvdpeTOv d^vvaTOv uvai, Kai tKacTTOv eir 

salwviav KoXaaiv i) a(jJTripiav kut d^iav t(jJv Trpd^ewv tto- 

ptvECT^ai. El yap ol TrdvTeg av^pivTTOi TavTa lyivioaKOV, 

OUK av Tig Trjv KaKiav irpog oXiyov ypHTO, yivwGKijJv tto- 

pEVEG^ai Itt al(x)viav dia irvpog KaTadiKr]v, dXX Ik iravTog 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 11 

TpOTTOV iaVTOV (TVVH)(^E KOL hc6(TfX^l Cip^Ty, (JTTWQ TWV TTapCL 

Tov 3'sou TV\OL ayovwy seal rijjv Ko\aaTi]piMV aTnjXXay julC- id 
vog HY], Oi yap dta tovq x)(f vjutjjv KUfxivovg vopovg Kal 
KoXcKTEig TreipwvTai Xav^avEiv d^iKovvr^g — dv^pwirovg 3' 
ovrag Xav^dvetv v/uag cvvaruv liriaTctpEvoL dciKovaiv — d 
ipa^ov Ka\ tTr£ii(7^r]<Tav ^eov ddvvaTOV uvai Xa^Hv ri ov 
fiovov TTjoarrOyUEVor, dXXa Ka\ j^ovXivopevoVj kuv dia to. 15 
liTiKHp^va Ik iravTog Tponov icocTjUtOi riaav, wg Ka). vpug 
GvpfjirjcraTE. 'AAA' loiKare ctcdvai pi) iravTEg BiKaioirpa- 
yri(TbJ(Ji KOI vpt7g ovg KoXdatre tri ov\ t^trs ' ^ijpiujv ^' av 
ur\ TO TOLOVTOv ipyov, aXX' ovk dp\6vTwv dya^C)v. Ilf- 
TTuapi^a S' Ik. ^aipovwv ^avXiov, ot Ka\ irapa tCov aXoywc20 
(diovvTwv alrovai ^v/uiaTa Kot ^epaweiag, kqi ravra, wg 
wpoicjyr^psv, Ivspy^lcr'^ai ' dXX oij\ vpag, ot yt ev(j£(5dag 
Ka\ ^tXocro^tac opiyea^^, uXoyov tl irpa^ai vireiXij^apw. 
El dl Kal vpug opoiwg rolg dvoi\TOig r« t^y) irpo rtjg dXt]- 
^tiag Ti/mTefTTpaTTiTE o ^i>yacr3'f. ToaovTOv ^l ^vvavTai25 
KOL apxovT^g TTpo Trig dXr]^Eiag ^Osov TipwvTeg, oaov koI 
Xrjorai Iv lpy]pia. "On S' ov KaXXiepiiaeTS, o Xoyog diro- 
^eiKVV(7iv, ov j5acTiXiKU)TaTov /cat diKaioTUTOV ap\ovTa p^ra 
TOV yEvvy]aavTa ^aov ov^eva o'l^apsv ovtu. '^Ov yap Tpo- 
TToy ^ladex^a^ctL Treviag rj ird^ti rj d^o^iag irnTpiKag v^ai-za 
povvTai TravTsg, ovTutg Kai, oaa av virayopEvari 6 Xoyog 
pi) Say alpua^ai, 6 vovvE\rig ovx aipricrsTai. FeviidEa^ai 
TavTa irdvTa irpouirE, (jjripi, 6 {jptTSpog ^iSdaKaXog /cat rou 
TraTpog wavTuiv Kal ^eairo-ov ^eoxj vlog Kal diroaToXog wv 
'lr](jovg XpicTTog, a^' ov Kal to XpiaTiavol lirovopdZEd^aiZS 
l(yX)]KapEV. "O^EV Kal ^i^aioi yivopi^a irpog tu ^a^i^ay- 
piva VTT avTOV TrdvTa, ETTtidr) tjoyw (paiveTat yivopEva, oaa 



12 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

(P^aaag jEvta^ai Trpou7rs:V ' oirep ^aov Ipyov Igti, tt^iv i] 
j^vtcr^ai UTTUV Koi ovrwg ^£i\^rivai yivojiwov wq irpoii- 

40 prirai. ^Hv filv ovv koI ^tti tovtoiq fravrraj.dvovg jurj^lv 
7rpo(jTi^ivai, Xoyiaafityovg otl ^ikqui re koi uXri^ri a^iov- 
/U£i', «AX' iwu yvu)pit!,of.uv ov paov tiyvota KaTe-\(^oiJ.ivr}v 
\l>v\i]v (jvvTO/icjg fXiTapaXXuVj virlp tov Trtlaai rovg (piXa- 
Xi)^Eig fxiKpu TTpoa^ttvai Trpoe^vjuii^r^ibiEv, elboreg otl ovk 

45 a^uvarov aXi]^dag iraparE^dcrr^g ayvoiav (pvyuv, 

13. "A3f£0i fx\v ovv tog OVK Icrfiiv, tov ^rjiuiovpyov rouSs 

Our reasonable '^^'^ TTavTog (T^fdofiivoi, avevdeij aificiTOJV Kal 

service. r*- v(v ' '■'^'^'''Cu A' 

(TTTOVcixJV Kill ^vixiafxaTwv, ojg acicuX'^riiueVf At- 

yovT^g, Xoyio ev^rjg Kcii ev^apiGTiag £0 oig irpocj^ipofXi'^a 

siracTiv, odtj ^vva^ug, cCivovvthj, jiiovrjv a^iav avTOv riixiiv 

ravrriv 7rapaXaj3orrf^, to tu utt' iKtivov ug ciaTpo(l>i)v ye- 

vofxiva ov TTupt ca-!Tavav, aXX uivToXg kcu Tolg ceofjiivoig 

'7rpOG(l>ipHv, Ikuvm o£ iv\apiaTOvg ovTag cia Xoyov TrojuTrag 

KoX vfxvovg irifimiv virip ts tov yeyovivai koi tCjv ng tv- 

10 p 10 (TT lav iropwv TravTWVf ttoioti^tiov /jIv yovtov kcu fJHTa- 

/3oXojy iopbjv, Koi TOV ttoXlv Iv cKp^apaia yEvtfj^ai cia 

TTiGTiv Tr\v Iv avTis) OLTijdaig irifxiTOVTig, Tig Gii)(l>poviov ovx 

ojuoXoyyaeL ; Toy ^i^acTKaXov ts tovtiov yEyo^t/fvov r)/buv 

KCiL ilg TOVTO yevvrj^ivTa ^Irjaovv XpiaTov, tov dTavpw^ivTa 

15 Im IIovTiov niXaTOv, tov yevofiivov iv ^lov^aia £7ri XP^~ 

voig Ttfdipiov Kaiaapog tTriTpoirov, v\ov avTOv tov ovTwg 

^eov fxa^ovTeg koX iv ^evTtpa X^pa t)(0VTtgf Trvevjuct t£ 

TTpO(^r\TLK.OV Iv TpLTTj TU^H OTl flBTCL XoyOV TljJLCjflBV, liTTO^H- 

^ojuev. 'Evravva yap juaviav i]fJLC)v KaTafpalvovTaif ^evTt- 

20 pay Xiopav juieTa. tov aTpeTTTOV Km an ovTa ^aov Km yswi]- 

Topa TOV airavTUJV av^pwiroj (jTavpD^^vri ^idovai rijuag Xi- 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 13 

yovrfCj ayvoovvreg to Iv tovtio juiVGTiipiov, o) 7rpoai\jEiv 
vfj.ac l^riyovfi^vojv rjfxojv irporp^TTOfx^^a, 

14. YlpoXi-yofji^v yap v/uv (pvXa^aa^at, fii) oi 7rpodia[5i' 
The demous pAr^uivoL v(ti' imwv caluoveg i^airaTriaiixjiv vtxag 

mali<?n 
Christians. ^;^q\ aTTOTpiXpWGL TOV u\o)g eVTV\UV KOL aVVUVOL 

TCI Xeyop^va (^aywvi^ovTai yap f'x^fv vfiag ^ovXovg Kot 
virr}ptTag, /cat ttotI jliIv cl ovttpiov iirKpavkiag, ttotI o ai) 5 
cm fjiayiKwv (rrpocpcov \sipovvTai Tvavrag Tovg ovk ccrSr' 
oTTiog virl-p Trig avTU)v atoTripiag ay<jt)int^oibiivovg\ ov Tpo- 
TTOV Kal v/ittig fjiSTa to T(o \6y<o TT^ia^rivaL tKeivwv jU£V airt- 

<JTl]IUiEV, 3"£W Of JULOVliJ TtU Ctyei'VllTCO CIO. TOV vlov ^TTOjUE^a ' 

ol TfaXaL juty iropvtiaig \cupovTec, vvv cl awrppotrvvriv juo- 10 
vr]v cKjTra^ojUEvoi ' oi ^l Kal /uayiKalg Ti^(^'alg \p(jjfXEV0i, 
aya^M Ka\ ay'cVviiTco ^eio tavTovg avaT^^eiKOTtg ' \pr]ixa" 
TU)v ^e KOL KTYJiLiaTdJv 01 TTopovg TTavTog /LiaXXov GTtpyovTsg, 
vvv /ca) a t^ojuiv ug kolvov (pipovTeg Ka). iravT). ceojuivu) 
KOivuivovvTsg ' 01 jui<jaWY]\oi cl ku) aAAr{\o(l)6voi kol irpog 15 
TOvg ov\ ofiO(pv\ovg ^la to. e^rj Kal tcTTiag KOivag jui) ttol- 

OVfJLEVOl, vvv fUTa Tl)v i~l(j)UVEiaV TOV XpiGTOV oiuociaiTOL 

yivofiEvoi Kal virlp tCov lyppwv iiV^ofi^voi, Kal TOvg aciKwg 
jLuaovvTag ttei^eiv TrsipiLju^voi, o7rii)g ol kutu Tag tov Xpi- 
<TTOv KaXag v—o^tjjuoavvag ^luxravTsg eviXiridag (Lat (tuv 20 
ilfjuv Twv avTiov irapa tov TravTwv cEawot^^ovTog ^eov tv- 
X^^^' "Ii^a ^l l^i^} (TO(j)i^EG^aL vfxag ^o^wjuev, oXiycov tivCjv 
Twv Trap avTOv tov XpiaTOV ^idayiuaTCvv iTTijUviia^iivaL Ka- 
Xwg £\£fy irpo Ttjg a7ro^uE,Eiog riyr](7aiuE^a, Kal v/iiTepov 
fcrrw wg Suvorwv (5a(TiXi(i)v t^ETaaai h aXri^wg TavTa o£-25 
di^ayiUE^a Kal ^i^aaKOfisv. Bpax^Xg ^l Kal avvTOjuoi Trap* 
avTOv Xoyoi ysyovaaiv ' ov yap GO(piaTi]g VTrrjpxEv, aXXa 
bvva/iig ^eov 6 Xoyog aiVou 17 y. 



14 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

15. IlefH fxlv ovv a(x)(})po(jvvrjg toctovtov dw^v ' 'Oc civ 

Christ's own ^/^iSAt;///? yvvcuKi TTpog TO tTri^v/irjaai avrrig, ri^rj 

teachings. •> ^ - '?»/ ^ -o.- t/'.'i?' 

£jUOt^£U(T£ r>/ Kapcia rrapa tm •^Jiu). Kat li.t 

6 o^^aA^oc croi^ o 3f ^(oc cTKavSaA/^tt o-£, tKKO\pov avTOv ' 

5 GV/LKJiipii yap aoi /uLovocp^aXjuov uaeX^HV eig rr/v [daaiXiiav 
Twv ovpavCjv, rj jxtra twv ^vo 7r£^^3'rjvat elg to aiivviov 
TTvp. KaL''^Oc yafJLU aTro\iXvfiivr]v a(f kripov uvcpog 
fXOiyuTai. Kat * Etai riv^q oIti.veq avvov\i(j^r}aav vno 
Tiov av^pwTTwVf clcri ^£ Of lyavvii^rjaav ivvov\ot, clot of ot 

10 avvovxiaav iavTOvg ^la rrfv (^aaiXaiav tCjv ovpavCjv ' 7rAf/v 
ou TTcivT^g TOVTO ')(^b}p()V(nv. 'i2crr£ kol 01 vojuo) av^pijj- 
TTivo) diyafiiag noiovfxavoi ajuapTwXoX irapa tQ ri/jitTipio ti- 
^jacTKoXio dai, kol ol TTjOOcrjSAtTTorrEC yvvaiKi irpog to Ittl- 
^v}ir\aai avTrjg' ov yap juiovov 6 jioi^evcjv apyto £K)3f/3A?}rad 

15 Trap' avTio, aAAct Km 6 juoixavaai j3owAo/.tEyoc, wc oi) tCov 
ipywv (^avapCjv p()VOV tm ^ao>, aXXa Ka\ tCov lv^vfiy]jj.aTLov. 
Kat TToAAoi rtvfc ^ai TroAAai t^Y]KOVTOVTaL /cm ijd^ojurjKOv- 
TOVTai, Of Ik irai^wv l/na^rjTiv^r^Gav tco XpiaTui, a.(l)^opoi 
^lafiivovm' /cat tu^o^at jcara Trtty ytvog av^p(i)7ru)v toiov- 

20 roue ^£<Saf- Ti yap Kcit Xtyofxav to avapi^fxr}TOV irXtj^og 
Twv l^ ciKoXaaiag /i£ra|3aAovrwv /cat TavTa jua^ovTcov ; Ou 
yap Tovg ^iKaiovg ov^l Tovg adxppovag aig fXETcwoiav t/caAc- 
atv 6 Xjo/(T70c, «AAa roue d<ye[5t:7g Ka\ aKoXacTTOvg kol act- 
Kovg. EfTTf Se ovTwg' Ovk rjX^ov KaXiaai ^iKaiovg dWa 

25 afjLupTwXovg ilg juaTuvoiav. GtAet yap o 7raTi)p 6 ovpdviog 
TYjV fxaTavoiav tov ajuapTtoXov rj tijv KoXaaiv avTOv. Ilepl 
2t rou (jTtpyeiv airavTag tuvtu i^i^a^ev ' Et dyairciTe TOvg 
dyarriovTag vfxag, tl Kaivov ttoiut^ ; Kat yap ol Tropvoi 
TOVTO TTOiovaiv. 'Eyw Sf vp^v At-yw * F^vx^a^e virlp tCov 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 15 

b)(^pCjv vjutjv KoX ayairare Tovg jiKJOVVTaq vfiaq Ka\ £i;Xo-30 
yuTe Tovg KarapwjiivovQ vfuv /cat £u^fcr3'£ vnlp tCjv lirrjp^- 
a^ovTMv vjuaq. Elg ^£ to koivwvuv toIq dwjuivoiQ Kai 
/zrjcsv irpog co^av ttoihu ravra i(f)ri ' TLavA roJ alrouvri 
St^orc fcai Tov j3ouAo/i6vov ^aveiaaa^ai juij airoGrpacpriTE ' 
il yap ^avd^iTE Trap* wv iXiri^eTE Xajdtiv, ri Kaivov 7rof-35 
arf ; Touro kol ol rtXdvai ttoiovctiv. 'Y/udg ^£ jU?) ^>7- 
(Tavpi^ETE icwT()7g lirX Trig yrigj oirov o-j/c ko) j^pCjcng a(j)a- 
viZ^EL Kcii Xyorm ciopvaaovai ' ^i}(7avpi(!^ET£ cl EavTOig iv 
ToXg ovpavotg, ottov ovte <7))g ourf [5pu)(Tig ufpavtt^Ei. Ti 
yap w(l)e\tiTaL av^pcoTTog, av tov koct/uov oXov K£p^{j(jy, r»)y 40 
^£ "ipvxrjv avTov cnroXiay', 'H ti ^wau avTtjg avTaWayjua ; 
Qrjaavpi^iTE ovv tv Tolg ovpavolg, ottov ours ai]g oure j^pC)- 
(Tig a<pavi^u. Kai ' Tiveg^e ?£ T^prjo-roi /cat oiKTipfiovig, too 
/cat 6 iraTijp vfxuw \pr]aT6g Igtl kcu o\KTipfX(ji)v, /cat tov rjXtov 
axjTOv civaTeWti liri apapTwXovg Kai ^iKaiovg /cat 7rovr]-i5 
povg. Ma) fXEpipLVCLTE Sc TL (pciytiTE i) TI i:V^v(7r}(j^e. OuY 
v/^iug tCjv TTtTeivCjv /cot Ttov ^rip'njjv ^ia(j)EpETE ] Kai 6 ^eog 
Tpi(l)EL avTa. Mi) ovv /UEpifwijcrriTE tl ^ayrjTe i) ti Iv^v- 
(Tr}(T^£ * oto£ ycip o iraTrip vjucJv o ovpaviog ort tovtwv 
\pEiav E\ETE. Zr\TUTE cl Ti]v ftacnXEittv tCjv ovpavCov, /cat 50 
TavTa iravTa Trpo(TTE^{}(JETai vjuiv. * Ottov yap 6 ^7}(Tavp6g 
tdTiVf IkeX /cat 6 vovg tov av^pwTTOv. Kai* Mi) ttoieXte 
TavTU TTpbg to ^Ea^rjvai vtto tCjv av^pioTTwv, el ^e /uij yE, 
fiKT^ov ov/c £\£rf TTapa TOV TTUTpog vjjlCjv tov ev Tolg ovpa- 
votg. 55 
16. rifpi 0£ TOV avE^iKciKovg eIvql /cat VTrr^pETiKovg ttcktl 

Bear all thhio's'. '^"' ^opyrjTOvg a f 0rj TavTO. e(ttl ' Tm tvtttovtl 

Swear not at all. \ /• / n v "A a s 

aov T}]V tjiayova, 7TapE\E /cat ttjv aAAr}v, Kai 

C2 



16 JUSTIN MARTYR. 



\ f / 



Tov alpovra gov tov \LTOJva i] to ifiuTiov fJLi) KUJAixryc. 

s'^Oc S' civ 6pyi<T^yytvo\og lariv tig to irvp. YlavTi cl uy- 
yapEvovTL (7f fxiXtov, tiKo\ov^i](TOv ^vo. Aa/ixjjaTU) cl vfiCov 
TCL KoXa ipya i/unrpoa^ev tCov av^pu>7rwv, 'iva /BXtTTOvrfc 
^■au/ia^cuaf tov TraTipa vjjlCjv tov Iv toXq ovpavo7g. Ou 
yap avTaipiLV ^a * ov^l fiifiriTaq uvai tCjv (pavkisjv /3s- 

w ftov\r]TaL Vjuag, uXXa Sat rf/c virofxovnQ Kcd TTjOoorrjroc l^ 
ma\vvi]q Kcti iTri^vjULiag tCjv kqkwv ayeiv iravTag rrpoiTpi- 
ipaTO. "O ye kol IttI ttoXXwv tCjv Trap vjjlIv yeyivr^/uivtov 
aTTO^ii^aL txofxiv * £k f^iaiwv Koi TVpavvojv /uet/ jSaXov, ?jr- 
TYj^tvTtg i) yeiTOvwv KapTepiciv jdiov 7rapaKo\ov^{i<TavTeg 

15 rj Gvvodonropwv TrXinviKTOv/uiivcjv v7rofiovi)v ^Ivrjv kutuvo- 
ijaavTsg rj (jv}nrpayf.iaT^vofiivwv Tntpa^evTig. Uepl 0£ 
TOV jur) QfJLVVvaL o\ii)g, TtiXrj^ri ^l XtyEiv au, ovTing wapEKt- 
XevaaTO' Ml) 6jUV(Tr]T£ oXiog. "Etrrw St v/iwv to vaX vai, 

k'Ot TO OV OV ' to ^h TTEpiGfJOV TOVTWV EfC TOV TTOVr/pOU. 

20 'Oc §£ Koi TOV 'S'eov juovov ^H 7rpo(TKVVHV, ovTiijg Ittektev 
elTTiLv' MeyidTT] tvToXi] laTi' Kvpiov tov ^sov aov Trpoa- 
KVvi}(TEig KOL avTio juovu) XaTpevdEig l^ oXif]g Tijg Kap^iag 
GOV Koi t£ oXi]g Ttjg l<T\vog gov, Kvptov tov ^eov tov ttol- 
ilGavTu fTf. Kal' UpOG^X^ovTog qvtm Tivog koi dnovTog' 

25 A/Sao-K:aX£ liya'^i, arnKpivaTO Xiywv' Ov^ng aya^og, il 
fii) juovog o ^wg 6 7rou]Gag to. Travra. Ot o av ju») tvpi- 
GKijJVTai ftiovvTEg wg iS/Sa$£, yvwpiZeG^wGav /lu) ovTtg 
XpiGTiavoi, Kuv XeywGiv ^la yXwrrrjc to. tov XpiGTOv ci- 
duyjuiaTa ' ov yap Tovg juovov XiyovTag, ciXXa Tovg koi tu 

30 ipya TTpciTTOVTag Gio^ijGEG^aL ifjjii. EfTTf yap ovTiog ' 
Ou;)(^i TTag 6 Xiyojv fioi Kupis Kvpie UGtXtvGtTai ilg tijv 
l^ttGiXtiav TtJv ovpaviov, aXX o ttouov to vtXrj/ia tov ttu- 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 17 

TjOoc fiov Tov Iv TOig ovpavo7g. '^Og yap ukovel fxov koX 
TTOitX a \byu)f ciKOVH TOV aTToardXavTOc; /lis. IloXXot St 

IpOVGl jUOL ' Kvpie KVpiBy OV T([> (TO) OVOjUaTl i(pdyOjUiV Koi 35 

litiofiiv Kui cvvajjLtiQ i7roi{i(Tafj.bv J Km rore Iptj avTo7g' 
A7ro)(^iopL'iT£ a7r' ifiov Ipydrai ttiq avojuiag. Tote kXuv- 
^fxug laraL Kai (dpvyjuhg tCjv o^jovnov, orav ol filv Z'lKmoL 
MifXilibiaiv wg o i'lXiog, ol ^l aSiKOL TTt/iTrwvrat dg to alw- 
viov wvp. UoWoi yap y^ovaiv lirX tco ovojuaTi fxov, t'^w-40 
^ev filv Ivct^vjuivoi ^ipfxaTa TTjOojSoron', tam^ev ?£ ovTeg 
\vK0i apirayeg ' Ik twv 'ipywv avTtov iTriyvtoaEcr^e avTOvg. 
Uav ce civcpov, /ud) ttoiovv Kopirov KaXov, tKKOTrrcrai Ka\ 
dg TTvp (daXXiTai. KoXat^ea^aL ^l Tovg ovk aKoXov^tog 
Tolg cicayfxaaiv avTOv jSiovvTag, Xeyofxivovg ^6 ^orov XpL-i5 
GTiavovg, Ka) V(p' vfxujv a^iovfxtv, 

17. ^opovg ^£ Ka\ dcTcpopag Tolg v(f vjjlCjv TiTayf^iivoig 

'Eender unto 7I'«»^^«X°'^ ''"P" ITaVTijJV ireipWjUi^a (pep^iv, ujg 

Caesar.' ■'<>^'''>. ?•>- -fi- •< ■, ^ \ - 

i:CLca-)(^^rijU£v nap avTOv. ivar iKUi'O yap tov 

Kaipov npoaiX^ovTeg Tivig ijpwTwv avTuv, d Sa Kaiaapi 

^ijpovg teXhv. Kal aTr^KpivaTO * EtVars juo/, Tivog diKova 5 

TO vofiicTjua 1e\^ei ; 01 ^E irpaaav ' Kaicrapog. Kal iraXiv 

uvTairzKpivaTO avTolg ' ^AiroboTa ovv to. Kaicrapog T(^) Kat- 

aapiy Ka\ to. tov 3'eou tm ^u>j. O^ev ^ebv julv julovov irpoa- 

KwovjUEv, vfilv ^f Tvpog TO. aWa \nipovTEg virripeTOv/xiv, 

(daaiXdg Kai ap\ovTag av^pwiruyv 6/.io\oyovvT£g Ka\ iv\6-w 

juiEVOL jueTci Trig [SaGiXiKiig ^vvajUEwg Ka\ (TW(ppova tov Xo- 

yiafxov E\ovTag vfxag ivpi^rjvai. El ^e Kat rjiuiijv EV^OfXE- 

vii)v Kal TTCLVTa E}g (^iavEpov ti^evtwv a(PpovTiceT{]aETE, ov^lv 

■fijULE^g /3Xa]3rj(ro/i£^a, iricTTEvovTEgj paXXov ^l Ka\ TTETTEiafxi- 

vol, KttT aE,iav TWV irpa^EtjJV EKaaTOv tiueiv cm irvpog aiw-i5 



18 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

viov ^tKag kui irpog avaXoyiav lov tXape ouyo/uawv irapa 
^wVf T()v \6yov inraiTr}^ii(Ti(T^ai, wg 6 XpiGTog iiu{}vvaiv 
tlirtjv ' ~i2i TrXtoy i^wKSv 6 ^wg, irXiov Kal cnraiTr^^riaeTai 
irap avTOv. 

18. 'A7ro/3A£;//arf yap Trpog to reXog Ikcicttov twv ycvo- 

Proofs of /^^^^^ (daGlXicJV, OTt TOV KOIVOV TTaGL ^UVaTOV 

immortality. ' /q. . "_ •>•,■> (v / ■> / ti 

ttTTii-uavov oirep n eig avai(T'Ur](Jiav i^topei, ip- 

fiaiov av r]v Toig ahiKOig Traaiv. 'AXA' Itth kol aiG^rjCtig 

5 TratjL ysvojuivoig fiivH kol KoXaaig alujvia aTroKHTai, /utj 

a^aXrjarjre Treicr^rivai r£ icai TTiGTivcrai on a\r\^ri twuto. 

Igtl. ISisKVOfiavTEiai julv yap kol al acia(p^6piov irai^wv 

iTTOTTTtvcrug Ka\ \pv\(i)v av^pwiriviov KXijang Kal ol Xeyo- 

juevoi irapa roXg fiuyoig vvsipoTTOjunrol Ka\ Trap^cpoi kcu to. 

10 yivofuva viro rwv ravTa el^OTWv 7rei(TaTU)aav vjuag otl Kal 
fiera ^avarov iv ald^rjaeL eIoiv al "ipv^ai, Kal ol \pv\aig 
(iTTO^avovTOJV \afi^avof.uvoi kcu piTTTOVfiEvoL av^pojirotf 
ovg caijuovioXijiTTovg Kal jiaivojiivovg KaXovai TravTsg, Kal 
TO. Trap* vjulv X^yoju^va fxavTua^ Afit^iXoypv kol Aiv^ujvijg 

15 Kal Uv^ovg, Kal oaa aXXa TOiavra Icfti, Kal to, twv Gvy- 
ypa^i(x)v cicayfiara, ^EiuTredoKXiovg Kal Uv^ayopov, IlXa- 
Tijjvog TE Kal '^(jOKpaTOvg, Kal 6 irap 'O/LLijpco (io^pog Kal 
i) Ku^ocog ^Oovaaiiog tig ttjv tovtwv liriaK^ipLV, Kal tCjv 
TO. avTci TOVTOig Blir6vT(i)v ' olg kuv o/noitog vjnag airode^a- 

20cr3'£ ov\ ^TTOv iKHvcjv ^'Cfj) TTiGTevovTag, aXXa juaXXov, ot 
icai Tu viKpov/ueva Kal ilg yr]v (daXXo/ieva TraXfy airoXii'^i- 
cr3"at iavTwv aiv/ia-a TTjOOcrSoKw/zfv, advvaTOV juirjdkv tivai 
^£6) XiyovTsg. 

19. Kat KaTavoovvTL tl aTridTorepov av fxaXXov ^o^ai, 
7] £1 Iv.awfxarL fxrj v7n)pxofxev Kai Tig fXfycy £k: fxiKpag TLvog 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 19 

'Why should it pavicoQ Trig Tov av^pwiTEiov airipfiaTOQ Suvaroy 
be thought a , , ^ ^ , , , 

thing lucied- OOTCa Tf Kai VtVOa KQL (TaOKaQ tlKOVOTTOirj-JiVTa, 

ible with you 

*h ^M^^*^ Ota bpCjfXiv, yfvfo-vat ; "Eorw yap vvv £^' viro- 5 

the dead?' (^.' \ ^ t?'' r ^ \ t , 

K7f o-fojc Atyo^Evov. Li rtc vfxiv fxi] ovai tolov- 

TOiQ iur]cl TOtovTixw iXeyi, TO Girippa to av^pivireiov ^eiKvvg 

KOL UKOva jpaTTT/jv, Ik tov TOiov2e oToy t£ jEvsa^ai ^la- 

pepaiovibievog, 7rp\v l^tiv yevo/u^vov tirLaTevcraTe ; Ovk av 

Tig To\fx{]<y£i£v avTeiiTiiv. Toy avrbv ovv Tpowov ^la to lo 

lUiiTTO) kwpaKbvaL vjuag avaaTavTa veKpbv UTriaTia s'x^f. 

'AAX^ ov TpoTTOv Ti]v ctp^rjv OVK uv liTiaTtvactTz Ik. Trig 

jUiKpag pavi^og dvvaTov ToiovTOvg ysvia^ai, kol opciTE yi- 

vopivovg, TOV avTov Tpimov Xoyiaaa^e otl ^laXv^ivTa koI 

tLK)iv aTTEpfiuTwv ug yiiv avaXv^ivTa ret av^pwireia <rw-i5 

/nuTa Kara Kaipov irpocTTa^eL 3'eou avaaTrivaL koX cKft^apaiav 

Ivcixraa^aL ouic a^vvaTov. Tloiav yap a^tav 3"£ou Svva- 

piv XiyovfTiv OL (f>a(TK0VT£g ilg Ike'ivo ytopuv iKaaTOv, 1% 

ovirep lyivETO, Ka\ irapa TavTa prjclv aWo ^vvaa^ai firj^s 

TOV ^eoVf OVK t\opEV Xiyeiv ' aAX' Ikuvo avvopCofx^v, oti 20 

oiiK uv i:7ri(TT£vaav Suvarov elvai TOiovTOvg ttotI yevia^aif 

bwoiovg KOL iavTOvg kol tov (rv/uLTravTa koctjuov koX ts otto/- 

ii)v yeyevrjjuiva opCjGi. Kparroy ot iriaTivuv kcll to. r>y 

kavTCov <pvau /cat av^pwTTOig a^vvaTa, i) bfioitjg ToXg aX- 

Xoig airi(TTHv,7rap£LXi](f)aiLi£v, ettei^}) kol tov rnuiTspov St^a- 25 

OTKaXoy ^Irjaovv XpidTov tyvwji^v HTTOVTa ' Ta a^vvaTa 

irapa av^pwTToig ouvarct Tra^a ^eio. Kai ' Mi) ^oj3ao-3'£ 

Tovg avaipovvTag vfjutg kcli fXETO. TavTa prj ^vvapivovg tl 

TTOiriaaif utte, (l>o^{i^r]T£ "^l tov jUfra to airo^avCiv ^vva- 

p.£vov fcat ipvxnv Ka\ awfjia ug yhvvav Ij^i^aXuv, 'H ^£ so 

yUvva IcFTi TOTTog, Iv^a koXu^eg^ul piXXovGiv ol u^iKiog 



20 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

piixXTavreg kol /di) iriarivovTiiQ ravra yeviia^a^ai, oaa 6 

20. Kai 2/|3uXXa o£ Koi 'YaTCKTTrrjg 'yev/ycrtaS'at rtlty 
rreathen anal- ^^^P"^^^^ avciXuxjLv cia TTvpoQ f^acray. 01 Xe- 

David cum JO/UiVOL Ct 2jT(jJLKOL (pLAOaOCpOL KUL aVTOV TOV 

SibijUa. rs. ^ •> -'^'c'^ 'V vt 

r^wv iig TTf/j uvaAvearjai coyjLiaTiC^ovGi jcai au 
57ra\iv Kara /iGrc/j3oX)}i^ roi^ Kuafiov y^via^ai Xiyovaiv' 

VjUHg cl KpCiTTOV TL TU)V jUfrCllBaXXo/itVtUV VOOV/bLEV TOV 

7ravT(vv iTOLr]Ti)v ^eov. Ei ovv Kai o/noitjog riva roig itap 
vfjLiv TifiwfiivoiQ TroirjTaic; koi 0tXocro0o/c Xtyo/iEv, tvia ^t 
Koi fXH^ovwg KaX ^eiwg icai juovot /xtra ctTTO^ffsfwr, rt irapa 

loiravrag ddiKwg jLiKTOV/d^^a ; T^J yap Xiyuv iifj-cig vtto ^wv 
iravra K^KoapHia^ai kol y^yi^vHia^aL Yl\ar(x)vog ^o^ofi^v Xt- 
y^iv doyfxa ' tlo ^£ iKTrvpojaiv y^via^ai ^twikCjv ' no ^£ 
KoXo^ccr^'at Iv mG^i](T^L koi juera ^avaTOV ovaag Tag tCjv 
a^iKwv ipv\agf Tag ^l Ttov a7rovcaiix)v dirrjWayjuivag tCjv 

15 Ti/juvptCov fu didyi:iVf TTQn]TaXg kcll ^iXoaoc^OLg to. avTo. \i- 
yuv SosO/xfy * ro> ^£ kcu juij ddv \Hpu)v epya dv^pwwovg 
7rpO(7KVVUV, IS/lsvdvcpii) TM KcopiKio Ka] Tolg TavTU ^ijaacTL 
TavTu ^pd'^op^v ' /Jiei^ova yap tov ^rjjuiovpyhv tov crKtva- 
Zojulvov d7re(l)i]vavT0. 

21. T(;; Sf Ktti TOV \6yov, o IcTTi TrpwTOv yLvvr]pa tov 
Analogies to 3'£0u, dvev l7ripiE,iag ^daKHV "i^fiag yiyhvvii](j^aiy 

the history ^ ^ ^^^^'^/^r- 

of Christ. ^\r](jovv HpiGTov tov cidaaKaAov i^fiCov, /cat tov- 
Tov GTavpui^tvTa Kai diro^avovTa Ka\ dva^TuvTa dviXrjXv- 
5 3"£ vat ug TOV ovpavov, ov irapa Tovg irap vplv ^eyojuivovg 
viovg TO) All Kaivov ti (ptpofjiEV, Yloaovg yap vlovg (pd- 
(TKOVGi TOV Aiog oi Trap* vfXiv Tipivjuisvoi <7vyy pa(l)eig, iiri- 
GTaa^i ' 'Epfxiiv jutv, \6yov tov tpprjviVTiKov Kai wavTUw 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 21 

^L^acTKaXov, 'AcrfcXrjTTiot' cf kol ^spaiTLVTriv yevojUievoVf 
Kspavvu)^tvTa avi\r}Xv^^vai tig ovpavov, Ai6vv(tov Sc §m-io 
a7rapa)^^ivTa, 'HpaKXta cl (^vyy ttovmv kavTov irvpX ^ovtq, 
TOVQ Ik A{}^aQ Se AiodKOvpovg, KaX tov Ik Aavatjg Hepaiay 
KoX TOV £s civ^pwircov ^l icj)^ 'iTTTTOv Yly^yucTox) ^eX\epo(l)6v- 
Tr]v. Ti yap \iyofXtv rrjv ^Apiacvrjv kol tovq bfxoiovq avri] 
KaTr]aT£pi(T^ai Xeyo/ULivovg ; KaX tl yap rovg citto^vijctkov- 15 
Tag Trap* vfilv avTOKpaTopag, ov g an arra^avaTi^ea^ai c^i- 
ovvTeg KaX ojiivvvTa tlvo. npoaysTS iiopaKivai Ik Trig irvpag 
av£p\6iuevov tig tov ovpavov tov KUTaKaivTa Kaiaapa ; 
Kat oTTolai tKuaTOv tC)v Xeyojuevcov vliov tov Aiog ictto- 
povvTai al npa^tig, Trpog tl^oTag Xtytiv ovk avuyKrj, irXriv 20 
otl tig ^ia(popav KaX 7rpoTpoTn)v tljv tKiraidtvofitvaw TavTa 
yiypaTTTai ' /aijurjTag yap 3'swy KaXov tlvai TravTtg r}yovv- 
Tai. ^AirtiT) Of (T(i)(l)povov(Tr}g ipv^rig tvvoia ToiavTrj ntpX 
^eu)v, wg KaX avTov tov i)ytp6va KaX ytvv{\Topa iravTOw 
KQT avTOvg Ala TraTpocfxwTrjv ts KaX iraTpog toiovtov ^e- 25 
yovivaif hphJTL Tt KUKiov KaX al(T\pu)v i)^oviov 'f]TT(jj ytvo- 
fitvov tirX ravvp.{ibrjv kuX Tag TroXAac poi\tv^ti(jag yui^ai- 
Kag tX^tlVf KOL Tovg avTOv Traldag to. ojuoia irpa^avTag 
Trapact^aa^at. 'AAA', wg 7rpot(j)riiutVf 01 (j)avXoL ^aipovtg 
TavTa tTTpa^av. ^ Aira^avaTi^tG^at ^t -qiutlg /uovovg ^tdi-'-''^ 
dayiJ.t^a Tovg oaibig KaX tvaptTwg tyyvg ^to) (^LOVVTag, 
KoXat^ta^aL ^t TOvg a^tKOjg KaX juif fxtTaftaXXoi'Tag Iv alto- 

vtuj TTVpX TTKTTtVOjUtV. 

22. Yiog o£ ^tov 6 'Irjaovg Xtyofxtvog, tl KaX Koivtog jjlo- 

Christ's son- vov av^pioTTog, cia aofbiav a^iog vlog ^tov Xt- 
ship and its 
analogies, ytcy^ai ' iraTtpa yap av^piov Tt ^tCjv Tt TTuvTtg 

<Jvyypa(l>Cig tov ^tov KaXovcnv. Et St KaX l^iojg napa Triv 



22 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

6K0ivriv yiVi(Tiv jey^vvricT^ai avTov Ik S'fou Xbyojusv \6yov 
3'fou, wc 7rpoi(^r]fJLn>, koivov tovto earu) v/uuv rolg tov Ep- 
juriv \6yov tov irapa ^tov ayyeXTiKOV Xiyovaiv. El le 
oLTiaaaiTO Ttg tcrTuvpwa^aL avTOVf Koi tovto kolvov rote 
TTpOKaTTjpi^luiYiiJiwoig Tra^ovatv vlolg kq^' vfiaq tov Aiotj 

10 vTTiipXH. ^Ekuvwv r£ yap ov^ ofJLOia tu Tra^rj tov ^ava~ 
TOV, aXXa dicKJyopa laTopuTai, wgte p.r)^l to 'i^iov tov ira- 
^ovQ i]TTOva doKHV uvai TovTov, aW\ (JL)Q v7re<T)(oiULe^a, 
Trpo'iovTOQ TOV Xoyou kol KptiTTOva airobti^o/iEv, fxaWov 
^l Kol aTTodtduKTca ' 6 yap KptiTTWv Ik tCjv irpa^^wv (f)ai~ 

15 vsrat. Et St kai Sm irap^ivov yeyivvtia^ai (ptpo/xiVy kol- 
vov KOI tovto Trpog tov Uspaia tGTw v/uuv. 'lit o£ Atyo- 
jutv x^oXovg icai irapaXvTiKOvg /cat tic ytvsTrjg avaTryjpovg 
vyiEig TTETTOir^Ktvai avTov Ka) veKpovg aveyu pai, ofioia Tolg 
vtt' ^A(TK\r}7riov yeyevrjcj^ai Xeyojuivotg Kal TavTa (paGKUv 

20 So^O/XfV. 

23. "Iva St I't^Y] jcai tovto (j)av£pov vfiiv yEvrjTai, oti. 

Statement of ^^^'^^ X^yo/^tv jua^ovT^g TTapa TOV XpKTTOV Ka\ 

the argument. « Aa' ■>- j" ''A 

Tlov TrpoEA'JOVTWV avTOv TTporprjTOJV, fiova oArj- 

'^ri laTL Kai irp^a^vT^pa TravTOJV tCov yty svr^iuivujv (Tvyypa- 

5(l)i(ji}v, Ka\ ouY' Sf" TO TavTo. Xiyeiv avrolg 7rapace\^rivai 

a^iovfXEV aXX oti to aXr}^ig Xtyo/icv * koi ^Ir](TOvg XpiaTog 

fULovog l^iwg viog Tto ^em yEytvvr}Tai, Xoyog avTOv virap- 

\(ix)v KOL irpiOTOTOKog Ka\ ^vvajuig, kqX ry /BouXrJ avTOv ye- 

voiUEVOc av^ptJTTog Tavra Vjuag l^ica^ev lir' aXXayy Kal 

10 tTravaywyr/ tov uv^pojiruov yivovg' Ka\ irpiv i] tv av- 

^pcjTTOLg avTov yivia^ai av^piowov (p^aaavTig Tivsg cia 

Tovg -TTpoup-qnivovg KaKOvg ^aifiovag cm tCjv ttoly^tlJv log 

yivofXEva u~ov a fw^oTTOiqaavTEg Icprjaav, bv Tpoirov koj 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 23 

TO. Ka3^' rjjuwv X^yofisva ^va^r)jia Koi ItGd^t] ipya Ivi^pyt}- 
aav, ujv ovdaig fiuprvq ov^£ airo^^i^iQ 1(tti, tovtov fXty^ov 15 
TTOirjcrojue^a. 

24. UpioTOV julv OTL ra ojuoia roTc'EXXrjcrf Xtyovng ji6- 

Variations of ^^^"^ jJLKyovfXi'^a ^L ovofxa Tov XpiGTOv, KOL fjir^clv 

Heathenism. ^^^- r r Av' /o>'AA 

aciKovvTtg wg a/napTwAoL avaipovju^-^^a, aAAwv 

aWa)(Ov Koi ^ivdpa <Tf/3o/i£vwy kol TTOTa/uiovg koi jllvq kol 

aiXovpovg koi KpoKOcdXovg kcu rCcx> ICkoyiov ^wtvv to. 5 

TToXXa, KoX OV tCjV aVTWV VTTO TTClVThJV T I fJUt) fliV (i)V , oiXX 

aXX(i)V a.XXa\6(TE, war tlvai dcrel^tig dXXriXoig Travrag dia 
TO jut) Ta avTOL ai^uv. "OwEp fiovnv lyKoXilv v/uiv E\£Te, 
VTL /zr) roue avTOvg vfXiv ai^ofiEv ^eovg, jU)]^£ To7g dwo^a- 
vovai X^oc Kctt Kviaag kol Iv ypacpaig (jTScpavovg kol ^vaiag lo 
(l.tpof.i£v. "On yap ovv to. avra irap olg jjilv ^eoi, irctp 
oig dl ^r]pia, Trap* dig c£ hpua vEvofiiafiEva lariv, aKpiftCjg 
lirtaTary^e. 

25. AtVTEpov ^£ OTL Ik iravTog yivovg dv^pwiriov ol TraXai 

Christians aban- (TiBojUEl'Ol Aiowrrov TOV "SiijuiXijg KOL 'AttoX- 
don the world % <> , ; 

of false gods. Xoji'tt TOV Ar]TOicr)v, o'l CL tpwTag dpcrivow ocra 

tirpa^av cu(T\og koi XiyuVf kol oi IlfjOCTS^oi^rjv kol 'Aj^/do- 

^/ttjv, Tag §m tov *'A^ti)vtv ol<TTpr}^d<jag, (bv Ka\ to. juvaTij- 5 

pia aytTE, i) 'Acr/cXijTTfoi/ ?'/ Tiva twv dXXwv ovo/uat^Ojuivcov 

^EtJv, KaiTTEp ^avaTOV diTEiXovuivov ^la 'IrjcroO XpiaTOv 

TOVTtiiv fxlv KaTE(j)povf](Tafxev, 'S'fw o£ TO) dyevvrjTM jcai dira- 

3"£i utuTOVc dvE^ijKajuev, ov o'vte Itt ^AvTioTTriv Kal Tag dX- 

Xag ofjLoi(oc, oi;o£ Ittl Tavvjuiicr}v cl oicTpov tXrjXv^tvai 10 

TTCtS'o/xE^'a, ov^E Xv^rivaL l5oT]^Eiag TV)(ovTa ^id QETi^og 

VTTO TOV EKaTOVTayEipOg EKELVOV, OVCE fiEpiJUvioVTa ^id TOVTO 

TOV Trig QETiEog 'A\<XXfa ^id ttiv TraXXaKiEa Bpicrr^idn 



24 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

oXiaai TToWnvQ rtJv 'EXX/yvwv. Kat roue Trei^o/uLtvovg 
15 tXeovjuEv ' Toijg ^l tovtwv alriovg dai/iovag yvivpit^o/nsv. 

26. TpiTOV §£ on KOI jUiTU TVIV llviX^VCTLV TOV XplGTOV 

Human agents ^^^ ovpavfjv Trpoe[^aX\ovTO ol ^Mipov^g av^pu)- 

of the deiuous. ^"\' ' ^"^ G,' <^ 

TTOvg TLvag AkyovTag ^avTOvg uvai ':7aovg, ol 

ov fiovov OVK. ldi(ji)\^r}(jav ixf vjjlCjv, aWu kol rifiCJv kut- 

5 i]t,ia)^r](Tav ' 'Stijuujva fxiv riva ^apapia rov anb K(l)pr\g 

Xeyofiivr}g Tlttwv, og tirl KXavdiov Kaiaapog dia rrig twv 

iVEpyovvTwv ^aip6v(i)v rixvrjg ^vviipeig iroiijaag payiKug 

Iv rtj TToAtt vjuwv jSacriX/'^i 'Pwpy ^eog lvof/i<T^Y} koI avdpi- 

uvTL Trap" vpwv wg 3'toc rertpriTaif og ctvdpiag civiyiiyepraL 

10 £y TM T//3£f)t TTOTapu) psTa^v TU)V ouo yEcjivptJV, fXwv liri- 

ypa(f)})v ptt)pa'iKi)v Tavrrjv ' SIMQNI AEQ SAFKTO. 

Kai (j\^^ov TTcivTEg plv 'Sia/LiapiAg, oXiyoi cl kcu Iv aXXoig 

i^vEGiv, wg rov irpCJTOv ^ebv iKtXvov opoXoyovvregy IkeIvov 

KCll 7rp0(TKVV0U(JL' KOi KXivYJV TlVCl , TrjV (T V pTTSpiVOGTllGa- 

15 miv avTio KttT Ikhvo TOV Kaipov, wpoTspov Inl Ttyovg ara- 
^tiaaVf Tijv air' avrov Ivvoiav TrpwTrjv yBvopivrjv Xiyovai. 
Mtvavcpov ^b Tiva, kcCi avTov ^apap^a rbv cnro Kwpi}g 
KcnrTTcipeTaiag, yEvopevov pa^r}Tr]v rov ^Ipinvog, IvEpyr]- 
^ivra Ka\ viro ru)V datpoviufv /cat tv Avrio\Eia yEvopEvov 

20TroXXovg iE,aTrarT}GaL dia payiK^jg rE^yrjg ol^apEv ' og kuX 
rovg avrijj tiropEvovg wg pr]^E cnro^vrjcFKOiEV ettekje, kol vvv 
eI(ti TivEg air' ekeIvov rovro opoXoyovvrEg. MapKiwva ^i 
riva IlovrfKOi;, o^ Kai vvv eti ecttI ^idaaKdJV rovg TTEi^opE- 
vovg, (iXXov riva vopi^ELv pEi^ova rov drjpiovpyov ^eov, 

25 og Kara rrav yivog av^pwiriov cia rtig rwv caipovwv gvX- 
X{i\pE(jjg TToXXovg TTETTOirjKE (3Xa(T^r]piag XiyEiv ical apvtX- 
a^ai rov Troirjri'iv rov^E rov iravrhg ^eov, aXXov ^irivaj wg 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 25 

ovra fxu^ova, ra jud^ova irapa tovtov vfxoXoytLV 7rf7ro/rj- 
Kivai. YlavTsg ol airo tovtcov bpjiilyfJLi^voi, wq Ie^yj^ev, Xpi- 
(TTiavoL KaXovvrat, ov rpoirov koX ol ov KOivtovovvTeg rwy so 
avTwv doyfxaTb)v roTg ^i\oaij(poiq to tiriKaTt^yopoviuevov 
ovofxa Tr\Q (jxXoaocpiag Kotvov e)(0V(nv. Et ^h /cat ra dvcr- 
^rjjua iKHva [j.v^oXoyovjutva tpya irpajTOvai, \v\VLaQ julv 
avarpoTrriv kol rag a.vi^r}v fii^UQ kol av^pojirdwv aapKwv 
(5opacj OV yLvw(jKOfXEv ' aXX on fii] ^iWKOvrai jar}di 0oy6u-35 
oi'rai v(f vfxCov kclv Sm ra Soy/iara, lirLaTafjUi^a. "Eort ^£ 
ilfiiv KcCi avvTayfxa Kara iraaCjv tCjv yeytvyjiuivivv aipicrkiov 
GVVTETayfiivov ' to h (^ovXecr^s IvTvxeiv, dtLcrofxn'. 

27. HjueiQ ce/iva fjir}dlv oc//cw/xfv fxrjcl aa^^Cjfxiv, Ikti- 

Guilt of expos- "^^'^^^ '^*"' "^^ jevvivfJiEva TTOvr]pCov eivai ct^iday- 

iiig children. ■^..- / n \ / <^\ 

fULS'^a wpwTov jU£v, on tovq iravrag (t\scov 

optjjuev £7rt TTopvtia Trpoayovrag ov fxovov Tag Kopag, aXXa 

Kal Tovg apaumg, Kal ov Tpoirov XiyovTai ol TraXatoX ayt- 5 

Xag /3owy i) alyujv rj TTjOo/Sarwy Tpi(piiv fj 'iTnrwv 0op/3«- 

cwv, ovTW vvv Kal TraXbag ug to a}a\p{og ^^pri(7^al povov ' 

Kat opoiiog ^yiXhlJv Kal uvcpoyvvuiv Kai appr}T07roLwv 

TrXri^og kuto. wav t^vog lirl tov avrov riyovg i(TTr]KE. 

Kal TOVTUiV pia^ovg Kal tlacpopag Kal t^Xi^ Aa/ij3ay£rf, lo 

^iov iKKOipai (iTTo Trig vperspag olKOvpivr]c. Kat rwy tov- 

TOig ^pwpivwv Tig irpog tIj a^ioj Kal acfjSa kol ciKpaTU 

jUL^ei, £1 Tv\oi, riKVM i) cricyyaya i) a^eX(p^) piyvvTai. Ol 

Of Kal TO. iavTiov TiKva Kal Tag bpo^vyovg Trpoayu)yEvov- 

raif KoX (pavEpiog elg Kivaiciav inroKOTrTovTal Tiveg Kal elg 15 

firjTipa ^sivv Ta pvGTijpia avacptpovcri, koI irapa ttuvtI tojv 

vopi^opiviov Trap vpiv ^eCw o(pig avpl^oXov piya Kal pv- 

GTiipiov avayparpETai. Kal Ta ipavipwg vpTv TrpaTTO/neva 



26 ' JUSTIN MARTYR. 

Kai TifJLijjfXiva (t>c uvaT^Tpajifxivov koli ov irapovTog ^turoc 
20 ^eiov iijuiv TTjOOtrypa^fTE, oirsp aTTrjXXay/iivoig i^jjXv tov 
irpcLTTeiv Ti TOVTiov ov /SXa/Bj]!^ (^ipUy aXka toIq tt parTOvai 
Kol ipEv^ojuaprvpovai juaXXov. 

28. Ilayo' i]p'iv plv yap 6 ap^rjytTrjc rwv KaKuJv ^aifio- 

God cares for ^^'^ ^0'^ KoXuTaL KOL (TCiTavag Kai ^ui^oXog, 
His creatures, r v ■> - r > / ■> , 

wg KQL tK T(i)v imETtptov GvyypajdfxciTwv epsvvi]- 

aavreg fxa^tiv dvvaG^e, ov tig to irvp irejui^^ticTea^ai /zjrct 

5 Trig avTOv arpaTiag KcCi twv kTTOfiivwv av^pwTrwv KoXaa^rj- 

Gopivovg TOV airipavTOV aliova, Trpoijurivvaev 6 XpicTTog. 

Kai yap r] iTTip-Ovi) tov jUTq^tTrio tovto irpa^ai tov 3"£oi/ ^ici 

TO av^pu)7rivov ytvog yEyivr}TaL ' irpoyivwaKH yap Tivag 

iK jxiTavoiag (Jiv^tjcjeG^aL piXXovTag Kal Tivag ^r/StVw 'latog 

10 yevvr}^^vTag. Ka\ ti)v ap\r]v voepov kol ^vvap^vov alpCi- 

G^ai Ta\r]^ii] kcu ev TrpuTTeiv to yivog to av^pivTTivov tte- 

TTo/rjjcfv, oj(JT dva7ro\6yr}TOv uvai Tolg ttcktiv dv^pivTroig 

Trapa Tio ^eio ' \oyiKol yap Ka\ ^£U)pr]TiKo\ ysytvr}VTai. Ei 

^i Tig aTTiaTu piXnv tovtwv ro) ^tto, i) pi) eivai avTOV ^la 

i5Ti)(yr}g opoXoyrirjEi, i) ovTa )(aipeiv KaKia ^{]<j£L ?} Xi^io 

toiKOTa pivuv, Koi prj^tv tivai dpETYjv pr}^l KaKiav, ^os>? ^£ 

povov Tovg dv^ptoTTOvg i) dya^a i) KaKci tuvtu iiyua^ai, 

riTTEp pEyiaTi) dael^eia /cat dcticia Ictti. 

29. Kat TTClXlV, pi] tCjV iKT£^EVTO)V Tig jU)) di^aXij^^'f t^ 

The bounded S'ara.rw^'r/, kcu wpsv dv^pocjyovoi. 'AAX' i) Ti]V 

continence of ^ ^ ^ •> \ •, /c\ i 

Christians. dp\i)v ovK lyapovpEv, d pi] fTTi TTaioivv ava- 
Tpo(f)y, i) TrapaiTOvpevoL to yijpaa^ai TtXeov Iv £ k paTevu- 
s/^tS'a. Kai i]^r] Tig tiov iipsTtpiov, virtp tov Truaai vpug 
uTL ouK t(TTiv ^iplv pv<7Ti]piov 7] dvihr]V p1t,ig, [5lf3XlClOV 
dvidoJKEV Iv ^ AXi^av^pEi(^ <i>i]XiKi i]y EpovtvovTi, d^iiov Itti- 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 27 

Tpiipai larptj Tovg ^icvfxovQ avTov ac^eXiXv ' avev yap Tjjg 
Tov rjyEfxovog iTriTpoirriq tovto TrparrHv cnrupria^aL ol Iku 
larpol iXsyov. Kal /nrjdoXwg [5ov\r]^ivTog ^{jXiKog vtto- lo 
ypa\pai, £^' kwrov fxtivag 6 veaviaKog r)pK^(7^rj tij tavrov 
Kol Tojv bfxoyvwjjiovuyv crvveiciiaet. Ovk. aronov ^£ tTrtfxvr}- 
(T^ilvaL tv TovTOtg rjyrjcraju^^a kol Avtivoov tov vvv yf-yc- 
vrjjuivoVf ov kol iravTEg wg ^eov ^la (f)6[5ov ai[^etv wpjurivro, 
iTTLaTafXEvoi Tig te 7}v kol tto^ev V7ri]pXEV. 15 

30. "Oirojg ^l fxi] Tig E^iirrj avTi'^Cig i]fxiv,TL kijjXvei koX 

Bnt was not TOV TTap^ l]flLV XEyOjlEVOV XpiaTov, av^pujTTov £^ 
Christ a ma- ,^ ^^ ^ , i\ ^ , f>, 

giciau? av^pioTTiov ovTa, fJLayiKrj te^vtj ug XiyofXEV tvva- 

fiEig TTETTOirjKEvaL /cat Sosat ^ta tovto vibv 3'foD E^vai, tijv 

airocEi^iv i']ot} TroirjcrojUE^a, ov Tolg XEyov<Tt iriGTEvovTEg, 5 

aXXa ToXg 'irpo(^r]TEvovai irplv rj yevicr^ai kqt avayKi)v ttei- 

^ojUEvoL cioL TO KOL oxpEL wg TTpoEcprjTEV^ri opciv yEvofXEva fcai 

yivofXEva' i]TTEp jjiEyiGTr] kcu aArj3"£crrar»j airo^Ei^ig kol v/LuVf 

wg vofii^ojUEv, (j)av{](TETai. 

31. ' Av^pwTTOL ovv TivEg iv ^lovcttioig yEyivrjVTaL ^eov 

Of the Hebrew '^P0(()^ITai, Cl WV TO Trp0^r\TlKOV TTVEVfia irpOEKT]- 

prophets. &*^ ^ rs. /\\ \^\ / f\ 

pv<r,s Ta yevrjcTECT-jai fXEAAovTa irpiv rj yEvta^ai ' 

KOL TOVTwv 01 Iv 'lovduioig fcarci Kaipovg yEvofXEVOi (5aGiXe7g 

Tag 7rpo(pr]TEiag, wg EXE)(Pr](Tav ore 'iTpoE(^r]TEvovTO, tt) Idia. 5 

avTLov ildpdL^t tpujvij ev /3//3A(o<c vtt' uvtCov tCov irporpri- 

Th)v GvvTETayfiEvag ktljjuevol TTEpiE^TTOv. "Ore ^£ TItoXe" 

juaXog b AlyvTTTiwv (5a(TiXEvg j3ij3Xio^i)Kriv KaTECTKEvat^E Kal 

Ta TravTOJv av^pwirwv (Tvyy pa jUjuaTa (TvvayEiv lirEipa^rif 7ru- 

^OjUEVOg Kal ITEpl tCjV 7rpO(l)r}TELU)V TOVTWV, TT pO(TE7rEIU\pE TM 10 

Twv 'louSa/tuv rore (^aaiXEvovTi 'Kpio^tj, a^uov ^<a7r£/i^3"fjyat 
ai/raj Tag ftljdXovg rwy 7rpo(pr]TEiu)v. Kat 6 iilv (5a(TiXEvg 



28 JUSTIN MARTYK. 

HptocriQ T?J Trpouprifiivrf c/Spa/^f avriov (})wvy yeypajUfxi- 
vag ^leir^juipaTO. ^ETreidi) ^l ovic r/y yvujpifia ra iv avralg 

15 y By pa/ufxiva Tolg AlyvTTTioig, ttuXlv avrov y)^i(i)cTE wijuipag 
Tovg lUTafiaXovvTag avTiig ug ti]V iWiiba <p(i)vi)v liv- 
^pwTTOvg aTTOdTuXai. Kai tovtov yn>opivov i/mivav at 
l3i(5\oi Koi Trap AlyvwTioig fJ.B\pL tov ^tvpo, kqI TravTa^p^ 
irapa rraaiv iicriv^Iovdaioig, oi kol avayivwdKOvreg ov aw- 

2(iici(ji TO. Hprifiivaf aXX i\^povg i]fiag kol TroXtjuiovg i^yovv 
Tcii, buioiojg vplv avaipovvreg koi KoXa^ovreg i]fxag oTTorav 
C'VV(i)VTai, (I»c Koi 7rei(j^7}vaL cvvaa^e' koi yap h> tco vvv 
ysytvrjfjiivu) iouddiKto iroXtjuc^ ^ap)((o\il5ag, 6 T7jg ^lovdaiwv 
aTTOcFTCiattog ap^Yiyi:Tr]g, XpiGTiavovg juovovg ug rt/xwpiag 

25 dBivag, d ju)) apvolvro 'Irjcroui^ tov Xpiarov kol /3Xa(T^>j- 
fioTsv, IkbXbvev airayEG^ai. 'Ey o>) TaXg tCov irpofpr^Twv 
/3//3Ao<c svpofxev 7rpOKr]pv(j(j6iiivov TrapaytvofiBVOv, yEvvto- 
fievov cia irap^Evov, /cm av^povjuEvov Ka\ ^epainvovTa tto- 
(rav vuaov Ka\ Trciaav inaXaKiav Ka\ vsKpovg aveyilpovTaf 

sOKal (p^ovov/iEvov Kal ayvoovjUBvov koi (JTavpov/usvov 'Irj- 
Govv TOV i]jutTepov XpLdTov, ica). airo^vijaKOVTa Kot ave- 
yupofiEvov Ka\ tig ovpavovg avsp\ojuevov kol vlov ^eov 
ovTa Kal KeKXrjjuivoVy Kai Tivag TrEjuirojidvovg utt' avTov dg 
TTuv yivog av^pioniDV Kripv^ovTag TavTa, kuX TOvg l^ 

S5£3"vwy av^pwTTOvg juaXXov avTio ttlgtevhv. IIpoE(pr]Tev^r] 
ol, 7rp\v i) (^avrivaL avTov, tTtai ttote /uev 7riVTaKi(j\iXioig, 
TTOTf ^£ Tpicr^iXioig, ttotI ^l ^i(7\iXioigj fcai iraXiv '^(^LXioig 
Kal aXXoTS OKTaKoaioig ' Kara yap Tag ^la^oy^ag tCov ysviov 
tTEpOL Kal tTEpOL EyivovTO 7rpo^ii]Tai. 

32. Mwvffijc jusy ovv, TrpCoTog tCjv 'Kpo(j>r]TCov yevojuEvog, 
eIttev avToXE^EL ovTwg' OvK ekXeIiJ^ei ap-)(jt)v l^ ^lov^a 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 29 

Christ foretold ^^^^ vyovfXEvog iK Twv fiy)pwv avrov, twc cw 
of Moses. »'\ ^ 'p ' / . V •> N ,' rN , 

fA^rj (jj aTroKeirat kcu civtoq tarai irpOGCOKia 

t^vujv, ^ifffieawv irpog a/iTTfXoy rov nwXov avTov, TrXvi'ttn^ 5 

£y aifxaTL aracpvXtig rrjv (jtoXijv avrov, 'YjUiTipov ovv lariv 

iiKpiPbJQ l^traaai koX /na^dv, jutxpi tivoq ijv ap\bjv kol 

fiacriXevg iv 'lovdaioig 'Idiog avTwv ' fiixP'- ^'/C (l>av£p(x)cnb)g 

'Irjrrou XpLGTOv, Tov ij/xiT^pov ^L^aaKaXov Kai rwv iiyvoov- 

f^iviov 7rp()(l)r]Ttiu)v t^jjyrjrou, wg Trpo^ppi^r) vtto tov ^eiov 10 

ayiov TrpotpriTiKOv irvev/LiaTog dia tov Mwvativg fxrj iKXei- 

ifjHV apxovTci awo 'lovdai(Dv, iojg av tX^yj to airoKUTai to 

(5a(jiXeiov. 'lov^ag yap irpoTraTwp 'lov^alwv, d(j)' ov Ka\ 

TO 'louoaTof KaXuG^ai l(j\{]Kaai ' /eta vfAiTig /utra r?)y yevo/ui- 

vr]v avTOv (pavipiocjiv Ka\ ^lov^aiujv Ij^aaiXivaaTZ Ka\ Tr]g\5 

iKuvijJv 7raar]g yiig tKpaTijaaTe. To ^f Airog tarai irpoa- 

coKia l^v(Ji)v fxr\vvTLKov i/y on £/c Travrwv rwv l^vwv irpoa- 

coKr}(TOV(Tiv aiiTov iraXiv iTapay^vi](y6fJi^vov, oir^p oipei vjuiv 

TrapzdTiv \^HV Ka\ tpyu) 7rffcr^r/yai* Ik. ttcivtijov yap yevcov 

av^ptoirojv irpo&boKWGi tov Iv ^lovoaia aravpuj^ivTa, /ueS^' 20 

ov iv^vg ^opiaXwTog vfuv 1) yt] ^lov^aiwv irapedo^t]. To 

o£ Aecriuevwv irpog a/inreXov tov ttiJjXov avrov Ka\ ttXvviov 

rriv (ttoXjjv avrov iv a'l/nari araipvXrig (TVfj^oXov crjXiori- 

Kov rjv TMV yevrjcTOjuiviov ro* Xpiarh) Kai ro)v vir avrov 

7rpaxpr]aoixivb)V. HwXog yap rig ovov drrrijKEL av TIV125 

Udocw KWfirjg irpog a/uTriXov ^e^ejuivogf ov tKtAtuo-fy aya- 

yuv avriij rore rovg yviopijuovg avrov, Ka\ ax^ivrog i:7n[3a.g 

£»ca3"fcr£ fcai HaEXrjXv^ev dg ra 'lepoaoXv/xa, iv^a ro julyt- 

(TTOv hpov i]V ^lov^aiiovj o vcp* vjuwv varepov Kartarpacpr]. 

Kai /nera ravra laravpM^^rjj OTTwg ro Xhttov rtjg irpocprjreiag 30 

avvreXea^yj. To yap YIXvvljv rrfv aroXijv avrov Iv aifiari 



30 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

<TTCi(pv\Tjg, TrpoayyeXriKov yv tov ttu^ovq ov Tra(T\Eiv ^juieX- 
Xe, ^l cujuaTog Ka^aipcjv Tovg TnartvovTag avT(Jij. H yap 
KEKXi^juivri vwb tov ^tiov Trv^vjuaTog cia tov TrporjiifTov 

35 crroX?) Oi TTicTTevovTsg avTi^ Hijtv av^ptoTTOi, Iv oig oIku to 
Trapa tov ^eov airippa, 6 \6yog. To ^e tiprjin^vov aipa 
Trig aTa(l)v\rig crrjjuavTiKOV tov i\etv /ulv aijjLa tov (pavriGO- 
juevov, aXy ovk is av^pioiTEiov cnripfxaTog, aXX' Ik ^eiag 
^vvajU£ii)g. 'H ^£ TrpwTui ^vvafiig peTci tov iraTtpa TravTwv 

40Kat Sfo-TTorrjv ^wv kol viog 6 \6yog ^gtiv, og Tiva Tpoirov 
(rapKOTTOirj^big av^pioirog yiyovtv, iv Tolg k^i]g ipov/UEv. 
'^Ov Tpoirov yap to Tii]g ajunriXov cufJLa ovk av^pioirog tts- 
7roir]K£Vy a\X 6 ^tog, ovTwg Ka). tovto ipr^vv^TO ouk l^ av- 
^pujTreiov (TiripjuaTog yevfiaerr^aL to a^i/ua, aXX Ik cvvajuitog 

45 3'foi), u)g TTpoi^^jJLEV. Kca ^Yiaaiag ci, aXXoc TrporpiiTtjg, 

TO. avTo. ^i liXXiov pi](jE(i)v 7rpo(^r]TEvix)v, ovTwg Hirtv ' 

AvaTEAdL acsTpov £s laKwp, Kai av-^og avapi](jETai otto 

Ttjg pi^rig ^liaGal ' Ka\ £7ri tov l3pa)((ova avTOv t^vr} iXiri- 

ovaiv. "AGTpov ^£ (P(i)T£ivov uvbTEiXe, Ka) av^og avej^ri 

50 OTTO Tii]g pi^rig ^leaaal, ovTog o XpicTTog. Aia yap irap^E- 
vov Tijg airo tov airipfxaTog ^YaKio^y tov yevofxivov iraTpog 
'louSa, TOV dtdtiXwjuivov ^lovdaiivv TraTpog, dia ^vvafxsujg 
^eov aTTEKufi^r} ' fcat 'Icrrcrai irpoiraToyp plv KaTci to Xoyiov 
ysylvr^Tat, tov de 'IaKw/3 /cat tov 'lou^a kutcl yivovg Sm- 

55 do)(riv vibg V7rt]p\ev. 

33. Kai TToXiv cjg avToX^^ei ^la irap^ivov fxlv Te^^rjcro- 

Mamier of ixEvog ^la tov ^Haa'/' ou 77poEd)VTtv^ri, aKOvaaTe. 
Christ's birth , ^ ovx ,, , ^ J , 

foretold. 'EXtY^"?/ 0£ ovTO)g ' 'loou i) wap^ivog Iv yacTTpX 

f'stt Km Ti^ETai VLoVj Koi epovaiv kirX tw ovojuaTL avTOv 

5 Mc v' i]/x(t)v 6 ^wg. "^A yap riv airiaTa KcCi ci^vvaTa vofxi- 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 31 

^ojueva Trapa ToTg av^pijJTroig yevijata^ai, rama o ^^og 
Trpo^fiiivvcy^ Sta rov 7rpo^r]TiKov irvivyLaToq fxiWeiv ytyf- 
a^aif '/y' otuv yivrjrai /ij) cnriaTri^y, a\X eK rov irpoEipricT^aL 
TTKJT^v^y. "Ottwc o£ fit) Tivsg, fii) voi)(7avT£g Ti)v de^riXu)- 
fiivriv iTpO(pr]Tdav, lyKaXiaiiXJiv rifXiv, airep £y£/caX£cra^£vio 
To7g 7roir}Taig i^rrovaiv cKppociaicov "x/ipiv i\y]\v^ivaL IttI 
yvvaiKaQ Tov Ala, ^laaacpiicrai rovg Xoyoug Treipaao/x^^a. 
To ouv 'l3ou 1] irap^ivog Iv yaarpl iE,ei, arijuaiveL oii avv- 
ovcTiaa^uaav rijv irap^ivov auXXajSay. Ei yap lavvov- 
aia<j^r] vtto otovovv, ovk tri riv irap^tvog ' aXXa ^vva/uig 15 
^eov liT^X^ovtra r// Trap^ivM tTreaKiaaev avTi]v, icm kvo- 
(jyopiijaaL irap'^ivov ovaav TTCiroir]K£. Kai 6 aTTOoraXac ^£ 
TTphg avTrjv ttjv irap^ivov Kar iKUvo rov Kaipov tiyyeXoQ 
3'£0u evr)yyiXi<TaTO avrriv tliTtov ' 'I^ou avWyjipy Iv yaarpl 
Ik TTvevfjiarog ayiov fcai rtsy vluv, koi viog viplarov kX)j-20 
^{jatrai Ka). KaXiaEig ro ovojua avrov 'Irjo-oui', avTog yap 
(TLOGEL rov Xaov avrov otto riov afiapriCyv avrCov, wg ol 
aTTOjuvrijuovevcTavreg Travra ra irspl rov awrripog i]fxCov 'I»j- 
aov Xpiarov tdii^a^av, o'lg iTTLGreixjaiuev, iirei^i) Kal ^la 
Haaiov rov 7rpocecr]X(i)idivov ro TrpofpririKOv irviiVfia rov~ 25 
rov yevi](JOjUEvov u>g rrpo^fxrivvofx^v c^ry. To rrvevfia ovv 
Koi rriv ^vvajuiv rr)V wapa rov ^eov ov^lv aXXo voi^aat ^t- 
fiig i) rov Xoyoy, og Ka\ irpujrorOKog no -3'£o> Icrri, ojg 
M(jJVGrig 6 Trpo^edriXiofxivog 7rpo(pi]rr\g tfi{]vvGE. Km rovro 
£X3"oV £7rt rrjv irap^ivov /cat liriaKiaaav ov ^la Gvvov(Tiag,30 
aXXa cia cvvauEwg lyKVfiova Kariarrjas. To ce ^Ir}(TOvg 
ovofxa ry t/BpatSi (pMvy (Tiorijp ry kXXrfviSL ^laXeKrio ^rj- 
XoT. "O^av Kal 6 ayyfXoc irpog ri)v wap^ivov uire ' 
Km KaXiaeig ro ovofxa avrov ^Iriaovv ' avTog yap awaei 

D 



32 JUSTIN MAPwTYR. 

35 701* Aaov avTOv utto twv cifxapTiiov qvtljv. ' Oti cl ouoevi 
aXXoj ^eo(l)OpovvTai oi Trpocpi^ravovTeg il jui] Ao-yo^) ^dti), koX 
vjuutj, wg vTroXajLifdavio, (pijcreTc. 

34. "Ottou St KOL Tijg yrjg y^vva(y^aL ^juieWiv, wg Trpo- 
Place of Hirev trtpog ir po4)i]TT(]g 6 Mixaiag, aKOvaare. 

Chiisl's birth ^^ 

foretold. "Ef/>?7 0£ ovTtjg ' Kat GV Br]vA£5//, yn 'lovSa, 
ovdafxiog l\a)(i(jTri a iv Toig i^yE/moaiv 'Iou8a * £/c crov yap 
5 l^^Xevaerm riyovjUEvog, oGTig iroiinavH tov Aooi/ juov. Kw/nt} 
c£ Tig lariv Iv ry X^P^ ^lovcaiijjv, awixovaa GTa^iovg rpi- 
UKOvra irivTi. 'lipoGoXvjuwv, Iv y lyEvvij^rj^lrjfTOvg Xpicrrog, 
wg Kol fia^tiv cvvaa'^z Ik. twv a7roypa<j)iov tCjv yevojuivojv 
iwl Kujorjvtou TOV vfX5:Ttpov tv ^lov^aiq irpwTOv yevojuivov 

10 tTTLTpOirOV. 

35. 'i2c c£ Kat \7](Ttiv tjUbXXe Tovg aXXovg av^piLirovg 
Other proph- 7^^^^^^^'^ ^ XpidTog, axpig avdpw^, OTTep /cot 

ppipc! thnt. ' ' ' " / > — 

have come y^jovev, ciKOuaaTS TdJV 7Tpoupr]fiiiVWV ug TOVTO. 

to pass. „j^ o,v ~ . rr S" ■■ 'a ' - '> 

hcTTL ce TavTu liaiciov tyivvij-z^i] Vf^f-^y Kat 

5 veavicTKog rjjuiv cnre^o^r], ov i) ap)(i) IttI tCov wfxwv, /nrjvvTL- 
Kov Trig ^vvcifjLBijjg tov GTavpov, oj irpoat^riKi: TOvg wfxovg 
aTavptj^dg, wg Trpo'iovTog tov Xoyou aacp^GTepov cei)(^{jaa- 
Tni. Kat TTuXiv 6 avTog 7rpo(p{iTr]g Hdotac ^eo^opov/xevog 
TO) TTVi^vjuaTi T(Jo TTpoc^riTLKw 'icpY) ' 'Eyw £s£7r£raa-a Tag xu- 

10 pag fjiov fTTt \aov diTti^ovvTa /cat dvTiXiyoijTa, im TOvg 
Trop^vojutvovg tv o^co ov koXtJ. AItovcti jue vvv Kpiaiv Koi 
lyyiZ,uv ^uo To\fiCo(jiv. Kat ttoXiv Iv aXkoig \6yoig ^l 
tTtpov Trpo^ijTOv XlyEL ' AvToX lopv^dv pov TTO^ag kol x^- 
pag, Kcd £/3aXov K\r]pov tTrl tov ifxaTLcrpov pov. Kat 6 

16 plv AamS 6 j^aaiX^vg koi 7rpo(pi]Tr]g, 6 hitwv TavTa, ouofy 
TOVTwv tira^ev ' ^Irjaovg Sc XpiaTog i^tTCL^r] Tag x^^P^^> 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 33 

aravptJ^eiQ vtto tu)V 'louoa/wv uvrtX^yovriov avrot kciX 

^acricoyrwv juj) u.vaL avTov XpicFTov, Kcd yap, wg nrrev 

6 irpocpijTrjg, ciaavpovTEg cwtov iKa^icrav tm [^iijuaTOc Kcd 

UTTOV ' Y^plvov iifxiv. To c£ "OjOu^ay fiov yupag Koi 7ro-20 

^aq t^fjyrjGig rwv tv Ttjij aravpio iraytvrivv tv tolq X^P^'- 

KOI TOLQ itogIv avTOV 7]X(ov rjv. Kal fji^Tu TO GTavpuxrai 

avTOv i(5aXov KXijpov tirX roi^ IfxaTKJjULuv avTOv, kch Iji^pi- 

(ravTo iavToTg ol araiipwaavTeg avTov. Kcd ravra on 

yiyovEf 8uvacr3'£ fxa^uv Ik. tujv Inl YiovTiov UiXarov ytvn- 25 

fiiviov aKTO)v. Kal on prjTUjg Ka^ecr^riGopevog tm iru)\ov 

ovov KOL ficrsXeucrojUSVOc £ic ^a 'IfjOoaoAu^a TTjOOETrt ^Z/- 

TEVTO, htpov 7rpo(p{]TOv Tou 2o0oy(oi» Tag Trjg irpoip^Tuag 

\i^ug Ipovfi^v. Efcri cl avrai ' Xalpe <T0o^/3a, ^vyaT^p 

Sfwy, Ki]pv(T(j£, ^vyaTep lepovdaXiip, ' idov 6 (3acnXuig^o 

GOV ep\eTaL gol irpaog, lin^^^r]Kwg Im ovov KaX ttCjXov 

vlov viroL^vyiov, 

36. 'Oray dl Tug Xi^eig twv 7rpO(pr]TU)V Xsyo/iitvag ojg 

Prophets repre- aiTO TTpOGcoTTOv aKOvr}T£, jui) utt avTiov tCjv 
seut differeut 
persons. IpiTtirviVGiiivwv Xiy^G^at vopiGr]T£, aXX utto 

Tov KivovvTog avTovg ^eiov Xoyou. Ilore plv yap wg 

TrpoayyeXTiKiog to. /u^WovTa yeviiG^G^ai Xiyei, ttotI Se 5 

wg ctTTO 7rpoG(i)7rov tov ^egttotov iravTiov Kal iraTpog ^eov 

(p^iyyETai, TTorf c£ wg otto irpoGMirov tov HpiGTOv, ttote 

Se tog CtTTO 7rpOG(JL)7rOV XaCJv ClTTOKpiVOflivMV TIO KVplM rj T(ti 

iraTpl avTOv ' ottoXov Kcd I— I tCov Trap vplv Gvyypacpiwv 
\cuv iGTLv, eva juiv tov ret TvavTa GvyypacpovTu ovTa, Trp6-lo 
G(x)Tra c£ TO. ciaXsyoiuEva TraparpipovTa. "O—fjO fxri voijGav- 
Teg 01 iXovTsg Tag [^ifiXovg tCjv TrpO(l>r]TCov ^lovcaXoi, ovk 
lyvwpLGav ovcl Trapayevojui^vov tov XpiGTOv, aXXci koI 



34 JUSTIN MARTYR. 



Tjjuag rove Atyovrac Trapaysyi^vija^ai uvtov, Kai ujq irpo- 
15 f K£Jc/;jOUK:ro utto^ukvvvtqq IcjTavpwG^ai vir avrujv, f^iaov- 



(TIV. 



37. "Iva cl Kcil TOVTO vfMv (pavtpov yivr\Taii airo irpoato- 

The Father '^^^ ^^^ TTaTpoQ l\i\^r](jav ^ui Rddiov Tou 

^ TTpoeiprjiutvov 7rpo^)/rou oict oi Aoyoi hyvii) 

|3ouc Tov KTrjGctfJLi^vov Kctl ovo^ Ti)v ^aTvr}V Tov Kvpiov av- 

5 TOV, ^lapmiX di fJiE ouk tyvio kol 6 Xaog fiov ov (JvviqKEV. 
OvaX i^voQ ajuapTwXov, Xaog TrXv/jOrjc cifiapriivv, (jirepina 
TTovYipov, VIOL avojuoi * iyKareXiweTS tov Kvpiov. Kai ira- 
\iv aWa\0Vf OTCiv X^yy 6 qvtoq tt po(l>{\Tr\q ojulolwq airo 
tov TTciTpoQ ' IloXov fiOL oIkov olKO^ojuijcrETe ', Xtyu KvpLog, 

10 'O oiipavug jhol ^povog, Kai i] yr) viroiro^LOV tCjv Trocu)v 
juov. Kai iraXiv aXXaxov * Tac vovinr}viag vfiwv Ka\ tu 
o-aj3/3ara fXi(TH r} \pv)(f) fiov, kcu fiEydXiqv i]fjLipav vr](JTua(: 
Koi apyiav oi/k avt)(pf.iaL' oi;8' ay tp\y]<j'^i Ofp^^jvai jliol 
uaaKOiKTOjuai vfiujv. nXi]peig aijuaToc ai Xt7pEfj vjulwv. 

15 Kay (p^pi^TE (Ti/uii^aXtVf ^vfxiaiua, f^^iXvy/ua jjlol Igtl ' artap 
apvwv KOI aTjUa Tavpwv ov [5ovXo/xai. Tig yap l^e^ijTrjfre 
TavTa Ik tCjv \tipu)v vjiCov ; 'AXAa btaXv^ iravTa avvbe- 
(TfJLOv adiKiag, ^lUGTru arpayyaXiag /Bmtojy auyaAXay/ia- 
Th)Vf acTTByov Kai yvjJLVov GKiire, cia^pvTTTe tteiviovtl tov 

20 apTOV (TOV. 'OiroXa filv ovv Igtl kuX to. cicaGKOfieva tui 

tCjv TTpo^rjrwy otto tov 3'eou, vohv cvvua^e. 

38. "Oray ^6 otto wpoaijJTrov tov XpicFTOV X^yrj to tt/oo- 

(prjTiKov TTVEVjua, ovTwg ^^iyyeTaL ' 'Eyw ts£7r£- 
Christ speaks. ^ _^ , , , . . , ^ . 

Tacra Tag ^eipag fiov ettl Aaov uTTEi-z^ovvTa Kai 

avTiXiyovTa, Iwl Tovg TropEvofxivovg Iv odco ov KaXy. Kai 

5 7raAty' Toy vCjtov juov Tt^eiKa ilg juciGTiyag koi Tag aia- 



THE FIEST APOLOGY. 35 

yovag jliov ug pairiaiuaTa, to Se TrpuawTrov fiov ovk uiri- 
(TTpE\pa airo al(j\vvr]g IfxirrvcriidTtov. Kcu 6 Kvpiog /3o>j- 
^6g jULOv tyivero ' bia tovto ovk £i^£r|0a7rr}v, a\X t^rjKa to 
irpoGumov fiov wq ar^piav liirpav, Koi tyvwi' on ou pr] 
a\(j\vv^Cof UTL tyyi^ei 6 diKaiMtrag jue. Kai ttoXlv orav lo 
Xtyy * AvTol il^aXov KXypov tnl tov ipaTirrpuv pov, kol 
u)pVL,av pov TTo^ag Koi \i:7pag. 'Eyw ^6 iKOipij^rjv kol 
viTvii)(Ta, Kcd avt(TTr]v, ort Kvpiog civT^Xal^BTO pov. Kai 
TTciXiv oTav Xiyy ' 'EAoXijaay iv ^iiX^cnv, iKivYiaav Kf^a- 
Xyv XiyovT^g' 'Pucracr3"(t) tavTOv. "Ariva Travra ytyoyfy 15 
VTTO ru)V 'loudaiwv Tt^ ^pioTio tog pa^uv ^vvaa^e. ^rav- 
puj^ivTOg yap avTOv i^iarpicpov to. x^'^^^ '^'"^ Ikivovv Tag 
KifpaXag Xiyovreg' 'O v^Kpovg uvtyeipag pvcraa^w iavTov. 
Sd/'Orav dl wg Trpocprjr^vov to. piXXovra yivea^ai XaXy 

The Spirit "^^ TTjOO^rjTf/coi' TTVivpa, ovTiog Xtyei * 'Etc yap 

itself speaks, sr^ -^ •>y \ ^ ' ^ \ ' / -^y 

2jIO)v ts^AfuorfTOt vopog Kat Aoyog Kvpiov £c; 

'lepovoraXijp, KOL Kpivtl ava picrov l^vtjv koi iXiy^^i Xaov 

TToXvv' Ka\ GvyKOxf^ovai Tag pa\aipag avTwv Eig apoTpa 5 

Ka\ Tag Z^L^^vvag avThiv ug ^piirava, jcai ov pij Xi]\povTaL 

t^vog IttX t^vog pa\aipav kol ov pi) pa^ioaiv Itl TvoX^peiv. 

Km on ovTwg yiyov^, iruG'^rivai ^vvaa^i. 'Atto yap 'If- 

povaaXijp avop^g ^eKabvo tov api^pov i:E,}jX^ov ug tov 

Koapov, Kai ovtol IbiCoTai, XaXuv pi) cvvapevoij ^la ^l lo 

^eov ^vvapewg lp{\vvGav TravTi ytvei av^pdJTTUJV wg aire- 

(jTaXr^aav vtto tov XpiaTOV cica^ai iravTag tov tov 3'sou 

Xoyov * Ka\ oi —aXai aXXr^Xo^oyroi ov povov ov iroXepov- 

pev Tovg ^x^povg, aXX virlp tov py\^l xpiv^ea^ai pr}^^ 

i^airaTriaaL TOvg l^iTaZ,ovTag i)cHog opoXoyovvTeg roi;i5 

XpidTov a-o^viiGKop^v. AvvaTov ycip rjv to Xeyopevov * 



36 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

'H yXwaa oj.L(l)fjLOK^v, i) ^t (ppyv uvojjuotoq, 

WOIUV yjfJLUC £(C TOVTO. FeXoloV T/V S/) TTpUyfia, VflLV jilv 

Tovq avvTi^efXivovc /cat KaToX^yoiutvovc OTpariwrag koI 
20 TTph Tt]Q iavTwv t,(.OTi]g Kol yovtii)V koI iraTpicog koX iravTwv 
TU)v oIkuwv Ti]v vfiiTipav aanaZ^a^at ojuoXoyiav, firj^lv 
a(l>^apTOv ^vvafxivbiv vfiCjv avTolg irapaaxuVy ^pxiq ^t, 
acp^apaiag IpCjvTag, jui) 7rdv3"' virofidvai virlp tov ra tto- 
^ovfieva irapa tov ^vvafxhvov covvai Xapeiv. 

40. ^AKOvaare dl ttCoq kol ir^pX rCov Kiipv^avrtov ti)v di- 

Adveiit of ^«X^'*^ avrov Kcd jurjvvGavTiov tyjv iTTi^avEiav 

Christ foretold. /a, - ' j ' ^ 

TrpoEpp^'^r}, TOV 7rpoHpi]jutvou 7rpo(p)/rou kcu 

f5a(Ti\tu)(j ovTivg uttovtoq dia tov 7rpo^Y\TiKOv irvivfiaTog ' 

s'H/ie'joa TTj iyupa ipEvy^Tai ptj/ua, /cat vvt, Ty vvktI avay- 
yiXX^L yvCxjLV. Ow/c uaX \aXia\ ov^l \6yoi, wv ov\l 
O-KOvovTat al (pufvai avTwv. Etc* "iTaaav ttjv yrjv Ic,tiX^£v 
o (p^oyyog avTiov /cot ho tu iripaTa Tiqg oiKOVjutvrjg tu 
pijfiaTa avTtov. 'Ev to> i}Xioj sS'fro to aKrjvioiua avTOv, /cat 

10 avTog ojg vvfX(l>iog iKirop^vofx^vog Ik iraaTOV avTOv ayaWi- 
aa^Tai u)g yiyag cpafiuv ocov. Upog TOVTOig of icai Xo- 
y(t)v tTtptJv Tiov 7rpO(pi]Tev^tvT(i)v ^l avTOv tov Aav\d Ka- 
Xojg f'x'^v /cat ot/cf/'a>c Inifjivr^a^rivai X^Xoyicrju^^a, fs wv 
fxa^eiv vjuiv irap^aTi irwg TrpOTpiireTai Zr\v Tovg av^ptowovg 

15 ro 7Tpo(pr\TiKov TTVEVfia KOL TTUjg iur}vv£L Ti)v yey n't] idivrjv 
'Hpw^jov TOV /BacrtXfoJC ^lov^aiow /cat uvtCjv ^lovcaitjjv 
Kcd ritXarou tov vfxzTipov Trap avTolg yevofiivov liriTpo- 
TTOv avv Tolg avTOv arpaTHoraig kqtu tov Xptorou crvvt- 
X^vaiVj Koi otl TTKTTiiVBcr^ai iiuiXXEv VTTO tCov Ik iravTog 

2oyivovg av^pivTTUJV, /cat oti avTov viov /coXa 6 ^sog /cat 



,a 



VTTOTCKraeiv avT(,) Travrag ^^(ypovg i:—i]yyiArai, /cat ttwc o* 



fXi 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 37 

daifXOVSigf oaov lir civtoIc;, rl]v ts. tov Trarpog iravTitw kol 
Sfo-TTorou 3'£ou teal ti)v avrov tov XpiaTOv l^ovGiav (jjvyuv 
TTEiptJvTaif fcai cjg elc jUiTavoiav icaXa iravrag 6 ^eog irplv 
iX^uv Ti)v i]pipav rT/c Kpicjstog. E'/prjvrai ^£ ovrtjcg' Ma- 25 
Kiipiog ctvr)p og ovk iTTOp^v^r] iv j3ouXy aa^jdiov Ka\ Iv ocio 
a/maprcoXiov ovk tarrj koX tir) Kci^icpav XoifiCjv ofic iKci^L- 
G£V, a\X rj Iv TO) vojULo Kvpiov to ^i\r]pa avTOv, koX Iv roj 
vOjUtj) avTOv ptXeTrjdei i]p^pag Kcd vvKTog. Kai t(7TaL log 
TO ^v\ov TO 7re(l)VTevpivov irapa Tag ^iit,6covg tCjv uoarwy, so 
o TOV Kapirov avTOv ^uxjtL tv Kaipu) aurou, kol to ^uAAov 
avTOv OVK (t7roppvi](TeTaL, kol TravTa oaa uv iroiij KaTEvocw- 
^{{(TiTui. Oi;\ ovTiog ol cWf/Bac, ovx ovTwg, aXX i) waa 
Xvovg, ov iKpiTTTH 6 uvepog airo irpOGWirov Tr]g yijg ' om 
TOVTO OVK ava(jTij(jovTai aGS^eig Iv Kpiau, ovcl ajuapTomol 35 
Iv j5ovXy ^LKaiwv, otl jivmctkei Kvpiog ddov ^iKaiaw, Kal 
odog ao-ej3wv urroXHTai. "Iva tl l<l>pva%av t^vr], Ka\ Xao\ 
i/ieXtTrjaav Kaiva ; Uapl<7Tif}aav ol (3aaiXug TTjg yng, KaX 
OL ap\()VTEg (TVvi)\^r}(Tav £7ri to qvto kutcl tov Kvpiov Kai 
KttTa TOV XpidTOv avTOv XeyovTEg' Aiappii^ii)p.EV Tovg id 
^Edfiovg avTCjv Ka\ airoppixpaJiuEv a(f y\ixu)v tov Z,vyov av- 
Twv. 'O KaTOiKwv Iv ovpavolg t/cyfXaaera/ avTOvg, Koi 6 
Kvpiog EKfjiVKTrjpiEL avTOvg ' TOTE XaXfi(TEi Trpog avTOvg Iv 
opyij avTOv, kol ev tio ^vjuko avTOv Tapa^Ei avTOvg. 'Eyw 
^E KaT£(JTa^r]v fdaaiXEvg ini avTOV Inl 2(wy opog to uyiov45 
avTOv, ^layyiXXwv to irpoaTayfia Kvpiov. Kvpiog eitte 
TTpog /.{£ * Ylog pov it av, lyiv aiipspov yeyEvvrjKa ge. 
A'/rrjo-oi Trap' Ipov, koi ^<oa(jj gol e^vy] ti)v KXr]povopiav 
GOV, Kal Trjv KaTaG\EGLV GOV TO. TTEpaTa Tt}g yrig ' iroipavEXg 
avTOvg EV pajd^ro Gidr]pa, wg gkevt] KEpaplwg GVVTpi\pEig 50 



38 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

avTOvg. Km vvv, jSacrAac, ffuycrt, vrat SiU'3'Tjrf, iravreg ol 
KpivovTsg Ti)v yriv. AovXevcraTS riti Kvptoj Iv 0o/3w k-oi 
ayaWiaa^e aurtij tv rpo/uoK ApaE,a(j^a irai^eiag, fii] ttots 
opyia^ij Kvpior, koX ciTToXaa^f ts ocov ciKaiag, orav Ik- 
SbKav^tj iv ra\u 6 ^vfihg avTOv. MuKapiOL iravTic ol irt- 
TTOi^oreg liravTOv. 

41. Kai TTuXiv CL aX\r]g TTpo^y]Ti[aQ jurivvov to Trpo^rj- 

Christ's king- T'^KOV TTvevfjia ^t' avTov Tov Aavid, on /utra to 

(lorn foretold. a- /QA' ^ ^v ' " "* 

<TTavp(x)<[i]vai pa(JiA£V(T£L o XpiaTog,ovTik)g £t7rcy 

' AiaaTE TM Kvpiit)y iraaa i) yij, kol civayyiiXaTE iifxipav is 

SYifiipag TO GWTijpLov avTOv ' OTL /uiyag Kvpiog Koi aivtTog 

Gcpocpa, (popepog virlp irnvTag Tovg ^wvg ' otl TravT^g ol 

^£01 tC)v I^vCjv ctowAa daijuoviiiw uaiv, 6 ct ^ihg TOvg 

ovpavoijg Iwoir^iTE. Ao^a koi alvog Kara TrpoawTTOv avTOv, 

Koi <crx^C Kat Kav\riina Iv tottco ayiaafxaTog avTOv. Aote 

10 rw Kvpiit) T(^ TraTpt tCjv alwviov co^av. Aa|3£T£ X^piv koi 
il(j(\^£T£ Kora TrpocTtoirov avTOv kol irpoaKVinjciaTt Iv av- 
Xaig ayiaig avTOv. 4>op»j^/irtt> otto irpOGwirov qvtov 
TTCKTa 1] yrj koL KaTOp^ii)^r}Tii) koi jut) GaXtv^{}Tio. Ei;0joay- 
S'/jrwcav £v To7g e^vsGiv ' 6 KVpiog IpauiXevaev cnrd tov 

15 ^vXov. 

42. "Oray ^l to Trpocpr^riKov rrvevjua to. juiXXovTa yiv^~ 

Past tense for ^^^'- ^^ '1^^' yEVOjueva Xhyr), wg kql Iv Tolg irpo- 

futurc. / "^ y ' •> f ri "> \ ^ V 

iipr]iiiV0Lg cot,a(jai kttiv, owtog airoAoyiav juii 

7rapaG)(ij ToXg lvTvy')(avovGLVy Kca tovto cia(ja(pii(joiun'. 

5 Ta TTcivTijjg lyvojGfJiiva yivr^GOjueva rrpoXiyu, ojg i]C)ri -yf vo- 

peva, "Ort §£ ovTwg ott iKct)(^eG^a{, IvaT^viaaTE T(o vol" 

To7g Xsyopivoig. AamS ETfcrt xiXioig koL TrevTaKoaioig 

7Tp\v 1] XpKTTOV aV^pWlTOV yeVOpEVOV GTavpijJ^nVaL Til 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 39 

TTpouprifiiva E^rj, Koi ov^hq twv wpo iKeivov y^vojuivcov 
(TTavpLo^i^Q iV(ppocrvvr]v iraplay^i: rolq t^viiGiv, aAA ouotio 
tCov fi^T iKtXvov, '0 Ka^' "nfJiai; ^l 'lj](jovg Xpiarog, 
(TTavpid^Elg Kai uTTO^avcov aviaTY] Ka\ i[5aai\tv(j£v avtA- 
^wv iig ovpavov, KaX Im To7g Trap* avTOv ^la tCjv uttogto- 
Xiov Iv To7g waaiv t^v^ai Kr]pv\^ii(Tiv evcfjpocjvvr] tarl 
TrpoadoKijjvTCov t>)v KaTriyyi\iuivr}v vir avTOV acp^apaiav. 15 
43. "Ottwc ^^ At>} Tiveg ^k tCjv 7rpo\i:\i:yfjiivwv vcj)' iijuow 
Doctrine of ^o^aawGL fca^"' upapfitvr^f; avuyKrjv <l>a(TKUv 

human 
responsibility. 7;^tac Til yiVOjULEva yiViO^ai tK TOV TTpOUTlUV 

TrpoByvuxTju^vcif koi tovto diaXvofi^v. Tag TijLHopiag jcat 

rag KoXaaeig koX rag uya^ag a/iO/j3ac '^o'"' (i^tav tuv 5 

iTpaL,uov £*cacrrou liiro^i^oa^aL via rCov iTpo^r]Ti.ov p.a^6v- 

T£g Koi aXr]^lg aTTO^a/vo^tS'a. 'Etth tl lui) tovto IdTiv, 

aXXtt KoS"' dpappivr}v iravTa ylvtTai, oijo£ to l(f i]fxlv Igtiv 

oXtog. El yap upapTai roi^^e Tiva aya^ov tlvai /cat Tovce 

(pavXov, ou^' ovTog cnro^^KTog our' iKUvog pspirTiOg. Ka< 10 

av d fii] irpoaipiau tXev^tpa irpog to ^evyeiv to. al(T\pa 

Ku\ aipua^ai to. KaXa ^vvafuv sS^ti to av^pwiruov yivog, 

avaiTiov iaTL twv oTrwcr^TjTTorE TrpaTTOfxivijJv. 'AXX' otl 

iXiv^Epa Trpoaipiav. koi KaTop^oi Kal (T(paXX^Tai, ovTtog 

air o^ El KvvjUiv. Tov avTov av^pwirov tCov IvavTiuw ttiv 15 

fxtTeXevmv Troiovjuevov opw/mev. Et ^£ ii/uapTO i) (pavXov rj 

(Tirovdalov uvai, ou»c av 7ro7£ tCov IvavTiuyv cEKTiKog rjv KaX 

TrXeiaTaKig fjiETSTi^ETO * aXX oi/S' ol plv rjaav Girovcaloi, 

ol ^£ (l)avXoi, tiTH Ti)v upapinivr]v airiav (pavXtov koi tvav- 

Tia iavTy irpaTTOvaav liv uTTOfpaivolfi^^a, i] f/cai^o ro 20 

irpoQ^ipripivov oo^at uXy]^lg uvai^ otl ovctv Igtiv ap^rri 

ouo£ Kojcm, (lAAci tot,r^ [xovov rj aya^a i] KaKa vojuiCfeTai 

D2 



40 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

I'lTTSp, WQ ^eiKvvaiv 6 a\t)^))g Xuyog, jusyicTTr] aat^ua koI 
aciKia a<7Tiv. 'AXX' ufxapjuivrjv rjtafxlv liirapa^arov Tavrriv 

25 cTva^, To7g to. KaXii iKXeyofx^voig tci a^ia IwiTijUia, koi toic 
ofxolcoc TO. ivavTia ra a^ia l7ri\eipa. Ov yap uyawEp ra 
aWa, Oiov ^iv^pa kcu TiiTpcnro^a, firjclv cvvauEva irpoai- 
piaH TrpuTTHV, liron^aev o ^eog top av^piiJirov ' ov^l ycip 
ijv a^ioc o^o</3r/c rj liraivov, ovk cKf)" laiirou aXofjievog to 

30 aya^ov, aWa tovto yevofievogj ouS' et KQKug V7r}}p\e, di- 
Kaiug KoXcKTEwg trvyy^avev, ovk a^' laurou TOiovrog wv, 
aXX' ov^lv ^vvafjievog dvai trepov Trap 6 ly^yovu, 

44. 'E^toa^e ^t ^ipicig tuvtu to ayiov Trpo(l>r]TLKov Trvev/ia, 
This doctrine the cici Mwvaiwg (brjdav T(o 7rpu)T(o TrXacT^ivTi 

doctrine of the ^ , v*" „ *" - 

prophets. aV^ptOTTM UpilG^aL VTTO TOV ^EOV OVTljjg ' 

'loou irpb Trpoawirov gov to uya^ov /cat to kukov, f/cXt^at 
5 ro aya^ov. KaX TraXiv cia 'Haatou, tov Iripov 7rpo(})iiTov, 
o)g ctTTo TOV iraTpog rwv oXwv tcai ^egttotov ^eov ug tovto 
X^j^^rivai ovTwg ' Xovaaa^e, Ka'^cipol yiv^G^z, cifp^X^Te Tcig 
TTOvripiag airb tiov ipv\u)v vfxihv, pci^eTE KaXov ttoiuv, 
KpivaTE opf^aviJo kol oiKaiuxraTE y{]pav, Kcii cevte /cat cta- 
ioXe\^u)Iuiev, XiyEL Kvpiog. Kai lav waiv at ctjuapTiai vfxCjv 
wg (poiviKovv, wcra tpiov Xevkuvw, /cat Eav waiv uyg kokki- 
vov, ojg ^Lova Xevkuvw. Kai Iciv ^eXyite /cat ElaaKOvcrriTE 
pov, TO. uya^a T}]g yrig ^ay eg^e, euv ^e pi) ElauKOvariTE 
pov, pd\aipa vpag KaTE^ETai * to -yajO GTopa Kvpiov tXo- 
isXrjcrc TavTa, To dl irpoEtprjpEVOV Mti)(^aipa vpag KaTE^ETai, 
oi) XtyEL CLCL pa\aipu)v (povEv^iidEcr^ai Tovg irapaKOvaav- 
Tag, aXX' rj pa\aipa tov 3"fou e(jtl to wvp, ov (5opa yivov- 
Tai oi Til (^avXa irpuTTEiv alpovpEvoi. Aia tovto XiyEL' 
Ma\aipa vpag /carf^erai * to yap <jTopa Kvpiov eXciXtjctev. 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 41 

El 0£ Kol TTEjOi T^jivovariQ Kctl avTiKU aTTaXXacTcroi/crrjc jua-20 
Xaipag iXey^v, ovk av utte KaTtd^Tai. "^crrE Kat UXurwv 
nTTMV ' Alria iXojuivov, ^wg 3' avalriOQ, irapa Ma»vcr£OJc 
Tov 7rfjO(f){]TOv AajSwv U7re, npe(jj3vT£pog yap Mtjvarjg 
KQL TravTiov TOW £y 'EXXrjcTi (yvyypa(j)iwv. Kal Trcwra, uaa 
TTEpl a^ava(JiaQ i^^xTig i) TifiwpiCjv rCov /xera ^uvarov i) 25 
^E(i)piag ovpavlwv i) tCjv bfioiiiw ^oyjuartjv kol ^iXocto^oi 
KOL TTO/ijrat Ic^acrav, Trapa TtJv 7rpo(l)r]TCov rag a(f)opfjiag 
\a(56vTeg kol voriaai ^^^vvrjvTai Koi l^r]y{i(TavTO. "O^ev 
Trapa Traai airipfxaTa aXrj^eiag ^o/ca tivat * ^Xty)(0VTai ^l 
ju?) aKpiftwg voi'iaavTegf orav IvavTia avTol tavTo7g Xtyw-so 
aiv. I2aT£ 6 (pajuevy TrfTTjOo^jjreCo-S'at ra juiXXovra yive- 
G^ai, ov cia TO d/uapjuivTjg avdyKij TrpuTTEa^ai Xiyofi^v, 

aXXct TTpOyVWGTOV TOV ^fOU OVTOg tCoV fxiXXoVTWV VTTO 

TravTwv liv^pioirwv irpa^{](jia'^ai, Ka\ ^oyfxaTog ovTog 
Trap' f aurwy t /cor' a^iav tCov 7^|0a^£wy t/cooroi' ajiaiipEG^aidS 
t/xtXXovrat TU)V av^ptoirtov, Ka\ to. Trap' avTOv kgt a^iav 
tCjv TTpaTToph'tov a7ravTii(j£(T^ai cia tov rrpo^r^TiKOv irvtv- 
fxaTog TTpoXty^i, £<c liriaTaGiv Kcd ava/jivriaiv «a ay tov to 
tCov av^pwirwv yivog, ^eiKVvg otl kcu /ulXov 1(tt)v avTU) 
Kal irpovoHTai avTUJV. Kar' Ivipyuav Ih twv (pavXcjv 40 
caijuoviov ^avaTog wpia^r] jcara tujv Tag 'YaTctaiTov ») 
2</3uXXtjc V T^^ TJ-pofjjTiTivv fti[iXovg avayivwGKOvTcov, 
oTTwg ^la TOV ^o^ou air OGTpL^WGLV lvTvy\avovTag Tovg 
av^pwTTOvg tCjv KaXwv yvuxjiv Xa^Hv, avTolg cl covXlv- 
ovTag KaTt^waiv ' oirep dg TtXog ovic 'i(T)(V(jav irpa^ai. 45 
^A(f)6[5(i)g julv yap ov /wvov IvTvy^avojuiiv avTalg, aXXa 
/cat vfxXv, wg bpciTSj dg iTTia-Kiipiv ^ipopev, liriaTafiEvoL 
TcaaLv ivapiGTa (pavriaea^ai. Koy oXiyovg ^l iruawfJiEv, 



42 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

TVL jatyiara KEp^uaavTig laojut^a . wg yttopyoi yap ayaSroi 

50 7rapa tov ^eaTroZovTog ti)v a/io</3/)v f'so/xev. 

45. "Oti ^t avayuv tov XpicTTov ug tov ovpavov u ira- 

Christ's thion- T))p TtJv TTUvTwv ^tog [XiTo. TO avaaTTiaaL Ik 
iuj? ill Heaveu ^ ■)nvaa v / f '^ 

foretold. v£Kptov avTov efXEAAe, KttL KaTt^HV eojg uv ira- 

Ta^r) Tovg tx^pcti^o^'^^^ avTi^t ^ai/uiovagf KaX GVVT^X^cT^yj o 

5 api^fiog TU)V TTpoeyviVdjuivtov avTo) aya^wv yivo^ivujv kcu 

haptTWV, ^L ovg koi fxridtTTd) Tr)v tK7rvp(i)(Tiv TmToir]Tai, 

iiraKOvaaTS tCjv elpnu^vi^^ ^'" AawiS tov 7rp0(l)r}T0v. "Egtl 

^e TavTa ' Elirtv 6 Kvpiog tuj Kvpito fxov ' Ka^ov Ik ^e^iujv 

fULOv, £ii)g av ^w roue Ix^povg aov VTroTTO^iov tCjv tto^ujv 

loo-ou. 'Fajooov CwafiBwg ESaTTOorcXa coi KvpLog l^'lepov- 
aaXijiu' Koi KaTaKVpievs Iv julcru) tCjv £\Srpwy gov. Metci 
GOV 7] «/0X''^ ^'^ Vl^^pf} '"'Ic ^vvafji^dyg gov Iv Toig \afnrp6Tr\GL 
tCov ayi(i)v gov ' t/c yaGvpog Trpo twcr^opou lyivvrjGti Ge. 
To ouv upr]jiivov 'PajSSoy ^vvajjiHog l^airoGTiKu gol i^ 

-[s'lepovGoXrjiu, TrpoayyeXTiKov tov \6yov tov iG^vpov, ov 
ciTTo 'lEpovaa\i)iu ol cittogtoXol avTOv It^sX^ovTig iravTaxov 
tKijpv^av, Kui, KaiTTEp ^avcLTOV opiG^ivTog KaTVL tCjv cLda- 

GKOVTbJV T] oXwg OldoXoyOVVTLJV TO OVOfXa TOV XpiGTOVf 

Viueig TTavra^ou kol aGTrat^ojUL^a koi ^i^aGKOfiEv. Et ot 
20 Kcd vfiCig tog l^^poX £vr£u^£ar3'£ toIgce Tolg Xoyoig, ov 
irXiov TL ^vvaG^Ef wg 7rpoi(pr]juiev, tov ^oveuhv ' oTTtp y)juiv 
julv ovde/Lilav ftXaf^riv tpipn, vfiiv ^l KaX ttclgi Tolg a^iKiog 
i\^paivovGL KoX jui) fd^TaTi^ejutvoig koXqgiv dta irvpog mix)- 
viav IpyaZyiTm. 

46."Ii'a ^e jUTj TLv^g aXoy iGTaivovT ^g, ug aiTOTpo7n)v tCjv 
cecioayii'cvbjv i;^' ijfxujv, aVwcrf irpb tTwv t/caroy 7rfyr//»cov- 
Tct jtyEvvr^a^ctt tov XpiGTov X(y(iv vjuag tiri Kvprjviov, 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 43 

. bibihay^vaL ce a (pajuev dicut,aL avTov varepov 



The Word iu 

foiVchrfsUs Xi^'^'^*^'^ ^^^ JlIovtiov HiXaTOV, KoX tiriKoXwcnVj 5 

Christ. <■'&.'" " ' ' 

wg avev-QWDV ovtujv tljv Trpoytyevr^iutvtijv nav- 

Twv av^pwTTwVf (p^a(TavTeg ti)v airopiav Xvao/ae^a. Toi/ 

XpiGTov TTjOwroroKOV Tov ^eov avat i^ida^ytjfi^v kqX Trpoe- 

iui)vvaau£v \6yov ovra, ov irav jivog av^pivmov jUcTea^e. 

Kal Of /liTa Xoyov (^iMcravTig XpiGTiavoi hgi, kuv a3'fOf 13 

ivojuia^ricFav, oiov tv"^XXi](7i fxlv ^WKparrjg kol 'HjoaicAct- 

Tog KoX 01 u/uLOLOL aiiTo7g, tv (dapl^apoig ^l 'Aj3paa/u kol 

^Avaviag kol WZctpiag Kal MiaarjX Kid 'HXmc kol aXXoi 

TToWoi, iov rag 7rpaE,^ig rj to. ovofxaTa KaraXiyuv fnaKpbv 

tlvai iiriGTafx^voL ravvv TrapaiTovfi^^a. "^are Koi ol ttjOO-is 

yevofxwoL avw X07OU f^Kjjaavr^g a\pr]GTOi kol e)(^poi ro) 

XpiaTttj 7]<jav KOL (^(jvilg tCjv fi^TO. Xoyou ftiovvTOJV ' 01 §£ 

fXETu \6yov ^L(i)GavTEg Koi [5iovvTig XpiaTiavoi koi afjjoldoL 

KOL aTapa\oi virap^ovGi. At' t]v o oLTiav cia cvva/uewg 

TOV \6yov Kara riiv tov iraTpog iravTwv koi offfTTorou 3"£0i) 20 

(5ov\{]v ^la Trap^u'ov uv^pojirog aTreKuf]^rj kol ^hjaovg 

bTTiiyvojuaa^riy Ktd GTavpiv^ug a7ro3'ava>v civlgti] kol av^Xi)- 

Xv^Qv tig ovpavoVf tK tCjv ^id togovtwv {ipr]fxivij}v 6 vovv- 

^XVQ KaraXajdHV ^uvZ/rrcraf. 'K/ung ^i, ovk dvayKaiov 

ovrog Tavvv tov iT£p\ Trig aTTodti^ewg tovtov Xoyou, £7r<25 

Tag tTreiyovaag aTTodei^eig irpog to irapov -y^uipiiaofxtv. 

47.*'Ori ovv /cat £/C7rop^rj3"?'j(7£(T3"at ?/ yi] ^lovcaiojv t/utX- 

Desolation of Xsi', UKOVGaTE Twv Hprijutvajv viTO tov irpocprjTi- 
Judea pre- ^' , , ^v ' A ' r , v 

dieted. Kou TTvevjuaTog, i!i<prjyrat o£ ol Aoy ol wg airo 

irpoGioTTOV XaCov ^avfxa^ovTUJV rd ytyevyiju^va. Eifji o£ 

otSs • ^Eyev7]^r} tpr]fXog ^iiov, wg tpiq/uog lyevti^rj 'lepovaa- 5 

Xi]iu, tig KaTctpav 6 o^Kog, to ciyLOv i^jiCjv, icot 7j ^o^a 7]v 



44 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

ivXoyijaav ol iraTtp^g ijfjitov £y£v//3'?7 irvpiKavaTog, koX irdv- 
Ta TCI lvdot,a avT}]g avviir^az. Kcu- £7rt tovtolq liviavov 
KUi l<ji(jJ7rir](TaQ Kol iTaireivaxraQ riiuag cr^o^pa. Kai on 
lorjpiiiuwTO 'liipovaaXiifJLf wq npouprjTO yeviiGeG^ai, tt^ttu- 
(jfxivoL lari, Kipr^rai ^£ kol Trepl TJ]g ipr)fXb)G^wq avriic, 

KOL TTEpl TOV Jill) iTTlTpaTrilGifT^ai /JLTJ^tVU aVTtJv oIkUV, ^tCl 

'Kaa'LOv tov irpoipiiTOv ovtljq * 'H yrj avTwv ip)]p.og, t/n- 
TTpoG^ev avTiov ol fc\3"pot avTwv avTi)v (pdyovrai, kol ovk 
l5taTat t^ avTwv 6 kcitoikujv £y ai/ry. *'Otl ^l ^vXdacraTm 
vcf vfXbJv, OTTWQ fxr\^iiQ Iv avTij yivrjTai, kol yCivarog Karci 
TOV KaTciXafi^avofjilvov ^lov^aiou elcFiovTOQ wpiaTui, ctKpi- 

48. "Ori ^£ Kcti ^epciTTeixjeiv Trdaag votrovg koi veKpovg 
Piedictions of aviyepEiv 6 rjutTepog XpiaTog TTpoecbrjTev-^i], 

Christ's work 

aud death. ciKOvaaTE Twv XfXfy/icvwi'. "F,arL th TavTa ' 

Tij TTapovcria avTov aXarat \(jo}<ug wg tXatpog, koi Tpain) 

5 LGTai YAo7(Tcro juoyiXdXdJv * rui^Xoi dval^Xiipovcn koi Xeirpol 

Ka^api(T^{]GOVTaL kol v^KpoX avacTTijdOVTcu Ka\ TTEpnraT)]- 

Govaiv. "On te Tavra t7roir]GEV, t/c t(Jjv Im Uovtiov Yli- 

XaTOv yEVOjuivwv tncrwv fia^Eiv ^vvaa^E. Uwg te TrpofAE- 

jjiilvvTaL VTTo TOV 7rpo(j)r)TiKOV irvEVjiaTog dvaipE^rjaojuEvog 

10 ujua Tolg ETT uvTOv eXtti^ovcjiv dv^pu)7roig, dKOvaaTE tujv 

XE)(^EVTb)v ^ict Hcratou. "EoTi Se TavTci ' "Ice wg b ciKaiog 

aTTwXtro, KOI oiJ^E\g EKdixETai Ty Kap^tq, kol dv^pEg ^iKaiOL 

mpovTai, KOL ov^Etg KaTavoEt. 'Atto irpOGwrrov ddiKiag 

ripTUL 6 ^iKaiog, kol egtul ev Eipiivri i) Ta(j)i) avTou, ?ipTat 

15 £K TOV jUEaOV. 

49. Kot TrdXiv TrCJg ^l avTOv 'Hadiov XeXektoi, otl ol 
OX) irpoacoKiiaavTEg avTov Xooi tCjv e^vCjv TrpocjKVvfiaovcnv 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 45 

His rejection avTov, Of o£ aa 7rpO(TdOKU)VT^g 'louoaTot ayvoii- 
by the Jews ^ •> ^ ■> a , 

foretold. aovcTL TTapayevofisvov avrov. EAtY^rjcav o£ 
oi Xoyoi (l)g aiTO Trpoatonov avTOv rov XpiaTOV. Etort 0£ 5 
ovToi * F,iu(pavi]g tj^vii^r]v Tfjig ijul /nij iTrspwTUJCFiv, evpt- 
^r]v Toig £/i£ firj ^riTOVcriv. Flirov ' 'iSou iljui, 'i^vei, ot 
oifK iKuX^aav to ovojua juov. ^ E^tTrtraaa rag \upag fiov 
liri \aov aiTH^ovvra Kca avTiXiyovra, tTri Toijg iropivopi- 
vovg £y o^io ov Ka\r}, aXX' OTriau) tCov ajuapTtiov cwtCov. lo 
'O Aooc o Trapo^vvwv ivavTiov fiov. 'lou^aTof yap i^xov- 
Teg rag Trpoipr^reiag koX ati 7rpoadOKij<javT£g tov Xpiarov, 
Trapay^vofjL^vov i]yv6r]<jav, ov /uovov o£, ciAXa icca irape- 
;^jOv/o-avro * oi ^l otto twv t^vwv jur^ciTTore juriolv ciKOVcrav- 
reg irepl tov Xpia-rov, jU£-\jOtc ow ol otto IfjOouaoX?/// t^tX- 15 
^ovng aiTOdToXoi avrov efiiivvaav ra 7rtp\ avrov /cat rag 
irpo^rjreiag irapicixmav, 7r\r]pii)^ivreg ^apag ical TriarEiog 
rolg il^wXoig cnr^ra^avro »co( toJ ayevviirto ^i<o dia rov 
Xpiarov iavrovg avi^t]Kav. "On §£ Trpo^yivtvaK^ro rii cvcr- 
(prjiua ravra X£X^>?cro/i£va Kara rwy rov Xpiarov 6/ioXo-20 
yovvrwv, icai wg u^v raXav^g ol cvcj^rifiovvrig avrov Kal 
ra TTaXaia t^rj KaXov dvai rriptlv Xiyovrag, ctKOixrars ru)v 
iSpaxyETTiog upr]fxivb)v ^la 'Haaiov. "Eari ^£ ravra' Ova) 
roXg Xiyovai ro ^Xuku iriKpov Kal rb iriKpov yXvKV. 

50. "On ^l KOI virlp i]pwv yevoju^vog av^pwTTog Tra^uv 

Christ's Ka\ arijuacj^rivai virtuEiVE, jcat ttciXiv riera ^6E,r}c 

humiliation 

foretold. 7rapay£V7](Ttrai, aKOvaars rtjv ilprjfxivwv dg rov- 
ro 7rporj)r]reiojv. "Ecrn §£ ravra * 'Av3^' wv Trapi^ijjKav dg 
^avarov ri)v xl^v\riv avrov Ka\ juera rCov avofiiiyv IXoyia^y], 5 
avrbg cijuapriag 7roXXd>v f'/Xrj^E Ka\ rolg avo/uoig £^<Xa(7£- 
rai. *'!§£ yap, avviiau 6 iralg jiiov Kai vipw^ijaerai kuI 



46 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

^oE,a(T^f}(jSTai a(()6^pct. '\^v Tpuirov eKfTTijaovrai ttoXXoi 
in I ai, ovTWQ a^o^iia^i itno av^pMiTMV to dbog aov koX t} 

loSosCt (TOU aTTO TMV tlV^pWTTWV , OVTU)Q ^aVfiaUOVTai i^VY) 

TToXXa, KOi cTVvi^ovai /3a(T/XtTc to GTOjiia avTbJV ' oti oiq 
ovK uvr]yyi\r] wipl avTOv oxpovTai, kol o\ ovk aKr)Koa(n 
(TVViicTOVcn. KvpiSf Tig lirifTTevae ry iiKOy ijjuijv, Kctl 6 
[^pa\iojv Kvpiov TivL airsKoXv^^r] ', ^AvriyydXafXiv Ivwiriov 

i5tWT0v tog Traihiov, wg piZ,a iv yy dfipway. Ovk taTiv 
iidog avTco ovcl ^o^a ' kol aSo/iev avTov kcu ovk itx^v 
iicog ouo£ KaXXoc, aXXa to sl^og uvtov utijuov Kat EJcXet- 
TTOV Trapa Tovg uv^proTrovg. "Av^pumog iv TrXijyi^ (i)v Koi 
iicojg (})ip2iv juaXaKtav, oti cnrlcTTpcnTTai to irpoawTrov av- 

20TOV, i]TiiLiaG^t] Km ouk: IXoyia^t]. OvTog Tcig a/LiapTiag 
i]fiC)V ^ipu Kin TT^pX i]fxC)v odvvuTaif kol i]pug iXoyiGafi^^a 
avTov dvai Iv ttovm kclI Iv 7r\r}yy kiu ev kqkmcfei. AvTog 
c£ iTpavjuuTia^r} dia Tag avo/iiag i]iuCJv kcu pifia\aKiGTaL 
cia Tag cijuapTiag lyxwv ' Trai^tia elpijvrig In avTov, tio 

25ji((jL>X(t»7rt avTOV ijjUidg la^r]iuev. UcivTeg wg TrpojdaTa tTrXa- 
v{]'^r]p.Ev, a.v^ph)7rog Ty odio avTOv tTrXavij^rj. Kai irapi- 
^wjcfv avTov Talg ci/iapTiaig i]jUh)Vy kcu avTog ^ui to ksku- 
KtoG^at ovk uvoiyei to oTopa avTOv. '£2^ npo^aTOV liri 
(jcfjayrjv v\^r] ' kuX wg ajuvog tvavTioP tov K^ipovTog avTov 

30 a^(i;yoc 0VTix)g ovk avoiyei to <jT(j{j.a avTOv. Ev ry ra- 
TTUVWGH avTOV i] Kptdig avTOv ijp^T}. Mfra ovv to orau- 
pw^rjvai avTov kcu ol yvh)pi}iOL avTOv TravTeg anidTrjcrav, 
apvr]actfiEvoi avTov * vaTepov of, tK vEKpCov civaaTuvTog kol 
Ofji^ivTog avTolg ku\ Ta7g irpofpriTdaig Ivtv\hv, Iv aig irav 

S5 ra TavTa 7rpoupy)TO yevrjaojuiva, ci^a^avTog, kqX slg ovpa- 
vov av£p\oiuivov icovT^g Kot TricTTivaavT^g Ka) cvvafnv 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 47 

iKH^ev avToig TTEjiifp^iiaav irap avTov \a[^6vTeg icai eiq 
nav ytvog av^ptoiraw iX^ovref^, ravra i^ida^av kol airo- 
aroAOL Trpoar^yopiv^rjaav. 

51. ' Iva cl fir)vvmj i)fuv to 7rpo(f)r}TiKov Trvtv/uia otl 6 
The majesty ■'""^^^ 7rci(T\(i)V ctVEK^uiyrjTOV t\iL To yivoq kol 

of Christ. O \ ' " ' Cv - "j f . rp ^ N 

avTOV Tig Cir]yi]aiTai ; 'On alpeTai airo Tjfg yrig r) ^ixji) ai>- 
Tov, OTTO Ttov avofiiCJv avTtJv i]KeL tig ^avuTOv. Km ^wctm 5 
Tovg TTOvrjpovg avTi TT^g Tacprjg cwtov koi Tovg irXovaiovg 
uvtX tov ^aviiTOu avTov, oti avofxtav oi/»c STTo/rjcrfv ov^l 
evpt^t) ^oXog Iv tio (jTOjuaTL avTOv. Kai Kvpiog J^ovXetol 
Ka^apiaat avrov Tijg TrXrjyrig. 'Eai/ dtoTe irepl ctjuapTiag, 
i) ipv)(ri vjuwv oif^ETaL airipfxa fxciKpo^Lov. Km jSouAfrano 

KUpiOg ttCpeXuV CITTO TTOVOV TIJV \pV\l)v aVTOV, du^at aVTU) 

^Cog, Kcd TrXaGai tij avvtaEi, ^iKaiCjaaL EUaiov tv covXev- 
ovTci TToXXotg. Km Tag a/napriag rijuiov avTog avoicrsi. 
Aia TOVTO avTog KXripovoju{](7H TroXXovg kol tu)v \a\vpCjv 
fxepiH (TKvXaf av^^ wv irapEdo^ri ug ^avaTOv ri '^pv\r] avTov, 15 
KOL tv Tolg avofiQig iXoyla^ri, Kcti avTog cijuapTiag ttoXXujv 
civijvtyKS Koi ^ui Tag avofuag avTtov avTog Trapeco^r], Q,g 
^l /cm ug TOV ovpavov tjitiXXev avitvai, Ka^wg TrpoefprjTtv- 
3")7, uKOvaaTe. ^EXi^yt] ^l ovTU)g ' "ApaT£ irvXag ovpaviov, 
«yot'\3'rjr£, fva uaiX^yj 6 jSaaiXEvg Trig 36s'7C« T/^ taTiv 20 
ovTog 6 [^aaiXevg Trig ^o^rjg ; Kvpiog KpaTaiog Ka\ Kvpiog 
^vvaTog. 'Q.g 3f Kal 1% ovpavCov TrapayivEa^ai fXETo. co^rig 
fitXXuf (iKOvauTE /cm twv uprjjutvtov ug tovto cici 'lEpifxiov 
TOV TrpO(^r]TOv. "Eart ^f TavTU ' 'I^ou (hg viog av^pivirov 
ip\eTaL tTTuvio Twv r£«/>fXwi' TOV ovpavov, /cm ol ciyyeXot 25 



avTOv Gvv avTio, 



48 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

52. 'E/TCiSj) TOivvv ra jevvinEva i]^i] iruvra aTTfOetKvu/i^v 

Tii)v, iheWovtwv 3f 7tv€o-3'at, TTiaTiv c'x^fi^ wc Trttvrwc yf- 
5 viifTOjuivwv. '^Ov yap Tpoirov to. i}dr] yevojuwa Trpo/ccKij- 
pvyniiva kol ayvoovfjuva a7rt/3r/, rov avTOv Tpoirov Kcd ra 
Xeiirovra, kuv ayyor/rat jcai cnridTriTai, cnrofdiiaovTai. Avo 
yap avTOv Trapovdiag 7rpoEKi)pv^av oi 7rpofl)t]TaL ' juiav fitv, 
T/yv ?')§*] ytvojuivriv, wq ctTijUOV kol 7ra^r}Tou av^pojirov, ti)v 

10 Sf ^evTtpav, orav /ULera ^6t,r}C e^ ovpavCjv juetu rrig ayyeXi- 
Ki]Q avTOv arpariag irapayeviiaea^ai KEKiipvKvai, ore kol ra 
GLOfxaTa avEyEphl iravriov tCov yevo/utviov av^pdJiriov, kql 
Tiov fiilv a^iwv IvdvcreL acp^apcriaVf tCjv o aciKivv Iv alrr^if- 
GEi aluwia jlleto. tujv (^avXwv ^at/xovcjv f<c "^^ qImviov irvp 

i^TTEjui^ei. '12c ^fi f^f^i'^ TavTa TrpoEiprjrai yfyrjcro/xcva, drjXuj- 
aofiEv. ^Eppi^t) ^£ 3m 'Ic^tjcn/X rou TrpocpijTOV ourwc * 
"SiVva^ptjcjeTaL apfxovia irpog lipfioviav koi ogteov irpoQ 
oariov, /cat aapKeg avafpvijoovTai. Kai ttuv yovv ico/i^ft 
T(^ KvpiM, KOL TTcicra yXwcraa lL,op.o\oy iiget at avrto. Ey 

20 om c£ aicr3'//a"£f /cm /coXaaet 'ycvfcS'at jiitXXoucr/y ol acf/co/, 
uKOvaaTe tmv bfioiwc e\q tovto E\pi]p.ivii)v. "Egti c\ rav- 
ra ' 'O (7/cwXlJ^ avTiov ov irav^iiGErai, /cm to Trvp avTtJv 

OV G(5eG^{)GETai. Km tote JUSTaVOllGOVGLVy OTE OVCEV W0£- 

XilGOVGL. rioTa Of jueWovgiv oi Xooi Tb)v ^lovcaiwv XiyEiv 
25 /cm TTOtctr, oTav ^I^iogiv auTov Iv <^'Ot;y TrapayEvojuEVOv, cia 
Zayupiov Tov 7rpo(j)iiTOv Trpoc^riTEV^EVTa EXi)(^r} ourwc * 
^EvTEXovpai roTc TtGGapGiv avtfwig GVVuc,aL to. EGKopiri- 
G/HEva TEKva, lvTE\ovfxai TM l^oppn (pipEiv, /cm Tio voTM jui) 
TrpoGKOTTTEiv. Km TOTE Iv 'lEpovGaXi)/! KOTTETog fiEyag, ov 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 49 

KOTTcroc oTOfiaTijJV 7/ \u\i<ji)v, aWa kottetoq Kap^iat;, koa 30 
ov jLu) (T)(j(j(jO(nv avTtJV to. IficiTLa, aXXa rag ^lavoiac. 
KuipovTai (l)v\i) TTpvg 0uX>'/i/, kcii t6t£ oipovrai c/V ov i^e- 
Kn'TYjaav, Kcd Ipovai ' Ti, Kvpie, tTrXavrjaag rifxaq ano rrjg 
ooou (Tou ; 'H ^osa, ?)v evXoyrjaav ol TrartpEg i^fxCjVf iy^- 
vij^rj ijjuiv tig ovticog. 35 

53. IloXXac /^^v oiiv KOL tT^pag TrpotprjTeiag t)(0VT£g 

Importance of iliruv iTTavauue^a, avTcipKtig kcu ravrag dg 

prophecies for 

^'^"^^^- 7T£L(JIU0Vl)v T07g TCI UKOVfTTlKll KOt VOEpU Una 

t\ov(Jiv uvai XoyLGUfitvoiy koi vohv ^vvaa^cu avrovg 
i)yovfievoL utl ov\ ofwiwg roXg juv^OTTOiri^HaL irept tCjv 5 
vojiKJ^kVTiov viojv Tov Aiog Kcii ■{]fXHg fjLovov Xtyojutv, aW 
ovK aTTOoascu f^o/ic-y. Tivl yap av Xoyw av^pcoiTM arav- 
pw^tvTi tTrii^o/uis^a, on irpwroroKog tio aysvviiroj S'fto tern 
KOL avTog Trjv Kpiaiv tov rravTog av^pdmeiov yivovg Troi- 
iiatTai, u fxri juapTvpia irptv i) tX^elv avTov civ^pojirovio 
'ycVO/i£vov K£Ki]pvyiiitva 7r£p\ avrov thpoju^v Ka] ovTwg yt- 
v6ju£va bpwjUEv, yTig jutv ^lovcaiwv Ipiifiwaiv, kcii Tovg aizo 
TravTog i^vovg av^pioirojv ^ici Trig Trapa tCjv ciTrocTToXtJv 
avTOv ^L^a\i]g irna'^ivTag kol TrapaiTyicFajnivovg to. TraXaia, 
tv olg TrXavwpwoi ai'£cr-pa07]crav, £3'77, avTOvg i)f.iag 6pu)v-i5 
Teg, TrXdovag te »cai aXri^eaTtpovg TOvg i^ l^vdiv tCjv ano 
^l-ovcaiiov Ka\ 'S.ap.apiwv XpiaTiavovg ei^oTEg ; Tci julv yap 
aXXa TTavTa yevrj av^pwireia vtto tov TTjOO^rjrt/cou TTvevfxa- 
Tog /caXarat t^vi], to ^e lov^a'iKOV Ka\ (jajuapEiTiKov (jjvXov 
'IcTjOaT^X Kat olKog 'lafcwjS Kt/cXrjyrat. '12^ ^£ TTjOOf (^Tjr£i;3"rj 20 
OTL TrXeioveg 01 utto tCjv I'^vljv TTiGTEvovTEg TLJV airb 'lou- 
^aiii)v Ka\ ^ajuapicjv, to. 7rpo(l)i]Tev^ivTa cnrayyEXovjuev. 
'EX^y^")] ^f ovTUjg ' FjiK^pav^riri cTTtipa i] ov TiKTOvaa, 



50 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

fjij^ov KOI l^uridov i) ouK iocivovaa, on TroAAa tu TtKva tT/^ 

25£/o//jUOU juaWov i) Trig t)(OV(Ti]g tov avcpa. ' Eprfjua jap 
ifv TravTa to. i^vr) a\r}^ivov ^eov, \eipu)V ipyoig Xarpivov- 
Ttt * 'louSaTof ^l KOL ^afiaptigf t\ovTEc tov Trapa tov ^eov 
Xoyov ^la Tiov 7rpo(pr]Twv irapaco^ivTa avTolg kol atX 
TrpocT^OKiiaavTeg tov XpiaToi', irapay^vop^vov rjyvorjaav, 

soTrXj/y oAf'yojy tlvCov, ovg Trpouire to ayiov Trpo^rjTiKov 
irv^vfxa ^la Hca/Vju aio^iia^a'^ai, ETtte ^£ tog airo irpo- 
atJTTOv avTOJV ' Et jui) Kvpiog tyKaTi\i7r£v iifiiv aTrtppa, wg 
"^obopa KOL Topoppa tiv tyevii^rjpev. ^ohopa yap kol 
Topoppa TToXeig Tiv^g aaf/Swv dv^ptov iGTopovvTai viro 

?i6M(i)vat(jjg yevoptvai, cig 7Tvp\ kol ^Uio Kavcrag 6 ^eog Ka- 
TiaTpbipSf pil^Evog TU)v tv avTciig aw^ivTog 7rA?}y dXXo- 
i^vov^g Tivog XaXdaiov to yivog, (o ovopa Awt, gvv lo koX 
^vyaTL-pEg ^fecw.wrjrroy. Kai tj]v Trcicray qvtCjv ^wpav 
ipripov KOL KEKavpivriv ovaav Kcti ctyovov pivovaav o\ [5ov- 

io\6pi:voi bpav t\ovGiv. 'Q>g ce kol dXrj^^GTepoi ol utto 

TWV l^VOJV Ka\ TTlGTOTEpOL TTpO^yiVWGKOVTO, OLTT ay y i:\ov pi:V 

TCI upripiva ^la ^Hrraiov tov 7rpo(pi]Tov. "Erpr} ^l ovTwg ' 

^lapaijX aTrepiTpriTog Tt)v Kapdiav^ tu ^i t^vr] ti)v ctKpo- 

pvaTiav. Ta Toaama yovv opwpeva tth^o) kch ttigtiv 

45To7g TuXri^ig daTra^optvotg Koi pi) (piXocoE,ov(Ti pr)cl vtto 

ira^tjv dp\opbVOig p^Ta Xoyov tp(l)Opr}(jai cvvuTai. 

54. Of dl TTctpadi^ovTiig Tit pv^OTToirj^iVTci VTTO tCjv 

liow the myths TTOii^Tcijv ovc^piav d~oceii,iv (jy^povai ToXg Ik- 
ofthe heatheu ^ v , •> / •> 

originated. pav^avovcTi vioig, Koi lttI aTTCiTr) koi a—ayioyy 

TOV dv^ptJirdov yivovg uprja^ai dTroceiKvvp^v kqt ivip- 

Qyeiav twv ^avXwv ^aipoviov. 'Ajcouaai'Tt^ yap ^lu tujv 

7rpo(l)r]T(x)v KripvGGopivov irapayivridopn'ov tov Xpiaro}', 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 51 

Koi KoXaG^r](yniutv()vg dui irvpog Tovg df7f/3tfc twv dv^p(i)- 
TTwy, 7rpo£j3aXXoyro TToXXovg \2y(y rival y evojutvovg vlovg 
Tio Auj vojbiLt!,ovTeg ^vvijaea^aL kvepyrjaaL reparoXoyiav 
ijyijaaa^ai Tovg dv^pwirovg to. wepl tov Xpiarov koi ofioia lo 
rote i^TTo Tijjv 7roir]Twv \^\^u.ai. Km rauro §' l\i\^i] koi 
Iv "EXAj]fjiv /cat Iv t^vtai ttciglv, ottov fiaXXov Ittiikovov 
Twv 7rporl)riT(i}V TTKjTev^ria^a^aL tov Xpiarov TrpOKrjpvaGov- 
Tujv. "Oti ^s Km aKOvovTsg to. cici twv TTjOOc^rjrtLiy Xeyo- 
jU£i/a ovK ivoovv aKpi^ijjg, dXX wg 7r\av(x) fjievoi Ifiifi^aavroi^ 
ra Trepl tov iifitTipov XpiaTov, biaaa(^{]GOH^v. M.(s)VGr\g 
ovv 6 7rpo(j)i]Tr}g, cjg irpoicprifi^v, TrpecFpvTepog y)v ttuvtijjv 
(7vyypa(p((jjv, (cat dC avTov, log Trpos/LirjvvcraiLi^v, iTpoi(pr]- 
T^v^t] ovTwg' Oufc iKXdipu ap\wv l^^lov^a /cat riyoufxevog 
tic Twv prjpCJv cwTOVf twc av £X3'>7 o) cnroKeiTaL ' kcu avTog20 
£(Trat TrpodSoKia l^vujv, ^£(7jU£uwy Trpbg o//7rfXoy tov ttCjXov 
avTOv, ttXvvujv Tr)v (TToXrjv avTOv tv aijuaTL ora^uXr/c. 
TovTwv ouv TUJV 7rpo(l)r}TiKU)v Xoycov ciKOvaavT^g ot oa//iO- 
veg Aiovvarov julv Itpaaav ytyovivai v'lov tov Aiog, ^vpeTrjv 
^l yevta^ai ct/iTrcXoif irapidwKav, kcu ovov Iv Tolg fiVGTr]- 25 
piotg avTOv avaypd^ovai, icai ^ia(j7rapay(y^vTa avTov dvE- 
Xy]Xv^ivai dg ovpavbv £^/Sa^ay. Kai iTreibrj ^la Trig Mioij- 
cr£wc 7rpO(^r]Tuag ov pr]T(ijg Earjjuan^fro, u re viog tov ^eov 
b' TrapayevrjcTOfievog laTi, kcu. u byovfxivog IttI ttwXov stti 
yrig fxevH rj ng ovpavbv aveXevaeTaif jcai ro tov ttwXovso 
bvofxa KCU bvov ttwXov Ka\ 'ittttov ar]naLVHV IcvvaTO, [xrj 
fTTttrrajUEVOt UTa bvov ttojXov ciywv fVrat cru/^jSoXov Trig 
irapovtjiag avTOv UTe 'Ittttov 6 irpoKripvcjGOfiavocy Ka\ vlbg 
^Eov IcTTiv, (jjg TT poi(pr]fm> , T] av^pujirov, Tbv BeXXapocficjv- 
TYjv KOL avTbv £^ tTTTTOU UriyacTOV, av^pb)7T0v It, av^pwiTUJV 55 



52 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

yEvofiEvov, uc ovpavov hpacjav avEAr]Av^ivai. Ore cl 
i]KOvaav ^la tov aXAoi> irpocp^TOV 'Haaiov X^Xytv, on cia 
irap^ivov r£\S-/;(Tfrat kol ^l iavTOv avtXiva^Tai dg tov 
ovpavov, TOV Ilf-pGia \i\^rivaL Trpof/BaXXovro. Kai ote 

40tyv(ji)(Tav uprjiuLhvov, wc TTjOoXt-Af/crcu h Toig it poy ^y pafifxi- 
vaic 7rpo<pr}Tuaig 'lG\ypog wg yiyag ^pafiiTiv oSov, tov 
'UpaKXia l(7\vpov kol lK7repivo(yT{}(7avTa ti)v Traaav yt]v 
icjjaaav. "Orf ^£ TraXtv t/iia^ov TTpOfptiTtv^iVTci ^ipairevGUv 
avTov TTctGav voaov kcu v^Kpohg aveyepuv, tov 'AffKXjjTTfoy 

45 7rapi]V£yKav. 

55, W\X iw^afxov owS' tirl Tivog tiov Xiyofiivtov viCov 

TOV Aiog TO (jTavpuj^TivaL lfdip]GuvTO ' ov yap 
The Cross. ^ ^ , ^ n \ - ^ ^ S«M 

tvoiLTO avTOLCf avppoAiKis)g, wg 7rpoctd)iAo)Tai, 

tCjv ug TOVTO upriiulviov ttcivtwv XfXeyjU^vwv. OiTZp, log 

5 7rpoH7r£V 6 'jrpo(p{]Tj}g, to jutyiGTov avfAJdoXov Trig laxvog 

KOI cip\T^g avTov VTrap^^^^i, tog Ka) Ik tCjv vtt o\piv ttitttov- 

Ttov deiKVVTai ' KaTavoijauTe yap TravTU tu tv toj kog^l^, 

d uvEv TOV G^iifiaTog tovtov ^lOiKHTai i] KOivu)viav l\£iv 

^vvaTai. QaXaaaa fxlv yap ov T^/weTai, rjv jlu) tovto to 

lOTpoTTaLOv, o Ka\u-aL iGTiov, tv r/J vri^L uCoov /mvy ' yT] C£ 

oi/fc apovTat avev avTov ' GKairavug cl Tifv Ipyaaiav ov 

TTOiovvTUL ov^l ^avavGOvpyoX ofioiojg, u fxri cia twv to 

GXTjjua tovto t\6vTU)V lpya\u(x)v. To 0£ av^pioTTUOv 

G\r]fia owo£i't «XXo> tCjv ItXoywv ^wwv ^ia(f)Cpzi, i) tm 

IbOp^OV Tf tivai Kal tICTaGlV \HpCjV ^t\HV Kai tv TO) TTpOGWTTlt) 

UTTO TOV lutTioTTiov TtTttfJitvov TOV Xfyo^fvov pv^wTrjpa (pi- 
puVf 01 OV 7] Tt avaiTvoi] tGTi TLo C,^l)^>^ Kai ovCtv aAAo cti- 
KvvGiv rj TO G\rjfjia tov GTavpov. Km cm tov irpocpiiTOv o£ 
iXi^^r] ovTijjg ' Tivtviiia Tcpo irpoGwirov ijfxwv XpiGTog 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 53 

Kvptog. Kai Til Trap vjuiv c)f crUyt//3oXa ti)v tov a^iifxaTOQ 20 
TOVTOv ^vvaiuLv ^>/XoT, TO TU)v jdij^iWiov Ka\ TU)v rpo- 
iraiwv, CL (jl)v al re Trpoocoi vj^iCjv 7ravTa\ov yivovrai, t^jq 
upxrjg KaX ^vva/jiiiog to. arjiuua Iv tovtoiq ^eiKVVVTEC, £' ^cd 
fii) voovvTeg tovto TrpaTTtTs. Kai tCjv Trap vf/iv airo^vr]- 

(TKOVTljJV aVTOKpttTOplOV TCig dtCOVUg Im TOVTIO TCO (JXVI^CIT125 

avaTi^eTE, KOL ^eovg ^la ypafXfJiaTUJV lirovofxaZiT^. Kat ^la 
A070U ovv Kol G\{]fxar(ig tov ^aivofiivov, otrr/ ^vvajuig, 
TTpOTpsxpaju^voi vfxag aviiv^vvoi oidajuiBv Xonrov ovTsg, kuv 
vfj.E7g ciTTiGTi'jT^ ' TO jop ■{]fxiTkpov jijove KOL TreirtpavTai. 
56. Ou/c i]pKbG^}](jav ?>e 01 (pavXoi ^ai/Lioveg irpo Tiig 

The demons ^«»^fpW(7£WC TOV XpicjTOV UTTHv TOvg X^X^ivTCtg 

siill at work. r ^ -a-v / 'aa'-> ^v, 

viovg Til) iliL yeyovivai, oAA tirudi}, ^avepw- 

^^VTog avTov kol jwojuivov Iv av^pd)TT0ig /ecu o-ojg ^ta 

TU)V TTpOCpYjTWV TTpOEKeKfjpVKTO IfXa^OV, Kul Iv TTaVTl JtVEL 5 

TTiGTivofjiBvov KoX TTpoaSoKw^Eyov eyvwaciv, TraXiv, wg 
7rpoe^r]\(jL)(jajLiev, 7rpoe(3(iWovTO aWovg, '2tijucova julv kol 
Mavav^pov ciTTo ^afiapdag, ot KfAi juayiKug ^vvajusig Troii}- 
aavT^g iroWovg ^^rjiraTijaav kol tTi dTraTWjutvovg e)(ov(n. 
Kai yap irap^ vjluv, wg ir poi(pT(]fiuf , Iv rij ^aGiXi^i ^Pojjuyio 
fTTt KXauSiou Kaiaapog ynjojuevog 6 '^iijuivv Kai tijv hpav 
(TvyK\i]T0v Ka\ tov crifxov 'Pwjuaicov ei.g togovto fcarfTrX?}- 
^QTO, wg ^aog vof-ua^rivaL KaX dvcpiavTi, wg Tovg aXXovg 
Trap vfxXv TijLiwp.tvovg ^Eovg, Ti/XYj^rivai. "03"£y r/;v t£ 
hpav GvyKXrjTOv kol tov crifiov tov v/xiTspov GVV£7Tiyvw-i6 
/Liovag TavTrjg 7j/iwv Trjg d^iwG^wg Trapa\aj3e7v aiTOVfJLZv, 
*lv u Tig urj ToXg dir Ikuvov ^tBdyfiaGi KaTe^ofi^vog, TaXrj- 
3"f C jUaS'wv TTfv wXdvrjv rpvytlv dwr^^y. Kai tov dvdpidvTa, 
el (dovX^G^s, Ka^aipijGttTQ, 



54 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

57. Ov yap fxij jivia^QL r)/y iKTrvpuxriv Iwl KoXaau tu)v 

The demons ii<T£[^u)V ol rpuvXoi ^atjUOVEQ iTHCjaL cvvavTaiy 

instigate ^ ■> -> a ^ n 

persecution, oij-jrip TpoiTOv ovbl Aa^tTv tov Xpi(jTuv irapa- 

yevoju^vov 'i(j\v(Tav irpa^ai, ct\X Ikhvo juovov, Tovg aXo- 

5yo)g (diovvrag koX ipira^wg Iv t^Eat (pavXoig T^^papjJLivovq 

KoX (l)iXo^ot,ovvTaQ livaipuv vjuuq koX fjUCTtiv, cvvavrai ttoi- 

iicrai, ovg ov fjiovov oi) piaovfjiw, a\X, wq cuKWrai, tXf- 

ovvreg jUETa^ia^ai TCHGai ^ovXofXi^a. Ov yap ^f^otKa/iey 

^avarov, rnv ttcivtwq airo^avuv l}fio\oyovp.ivov, koi ju»]- 

lO^fvoc aXXou KULvov aXX' ?) twv uvtCjv Iv rijci tij cioiKi](jei 

OVTLOV, ibv el julv KOpOQ TOVQ IUETa(7\(JVTaQ KUV tVlQVTOV 

e\ei/iva au logl k(u a-iza^HQ Ka\ avev^etiQfTOig i]p.eTipoLg 
^i^ayjuaai 7rpo<ji^uv ^h. El 8' aTTKJTOVdi fniclv uvai 
fUTOL ^avarovj oXX' ug avaia^rjcjiav ^wpu-V rovg aTTO^vij- 
15 (TKOVTug uTro(l)aivovTai, ttu^wv tCjv Ivrav'^a koi \pH{x}V 
r^juag pvojLievoL ^vipyerovaiVy kavrovg Zl <l>av\ovg jccu picj- 
av^p(i)7rovg Ka\ ^tXooo^ouc ^sikvvovcjiv * ov yap wg cittoX- 
\at,ovTeg ijiuag avaipovaiv, aXX' tog awodTipovvTug ^torjg 
Ka\ i]coviig (povcuovcri. 

58. Kai MapKLUJva ^e tov citto YIovtov, wg tt poi(lir\p.n' , 
Maicion put irpoepaWovTO ol ^avAoL taifxoveg, og apvuG^ai 

forward by 
the demons, p^v TOV TroLrjrrfv T<1)V ovpaviwv Ktti yr]LV(i)v airav- 

Twv ^aov Kal TOV 7rpoKr]pv\ytvTa ^la tCjv TTpocprjTMV Xjoi- 

5 GTov vibv avTOV Ka\ vvv ^i^aaKH, aXXov ^f Tiva KaTayyiX- 

Xel Trapa tov ^r]fuovpyov tCov iravTwv ^wv Kal opoiwg 

fVfpov vlov ' Of TToXXoX TTtia^evTEgy wg povoj TaXri^ri iiri- 

GTapivio, r}po)V KUTayeXioaiv cnr6diiE,iv pr]depi.av TTspi wv 

Xiyovaiv e^ovTeg, aXX' aXoytog wg vtto Xvkov apveg gvv- 

10 rjp7raGiJ.ivoi [5opa tCov a^tiov ZoyfiuTwv Kcd ^aipovwv 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 55 

yivovTai. Ov yap aXXo n aywvl^ovTaL ot Acyo^avoi Sai- 
/lOVEc, i) airuyeiv tovq av^pwirovg airo tov TTonjaavrog ^eov 
KOL TOV TTpijJToyovov avTOV XpKJTOv ' KOI Tovg julv Tijg yrjg 
jui) tiTraipstT^aL ^vvo/divovg rolq yrfivoic kcil ^(EipoTronjTOig 
7rpo<Ti]\o)(jav KOI 7rpoai]KovaL, tovq ^l livi ^ewpiav ^utov 15 
opfitovTag vTTEKKpovovTeg, rjv pi) Xoyiapov a(x)(l>pova koI Ka- 
^apov Kcd aira^ri ftiov l^\(i)(7iVf dfj acrt-jSamv Ipl^aWovaiv. 

59. "Iva c£ KOL irapa tCov {]fieTtpwv ^t^acTKaXwv (Xeyo- 

What Plato f^^^ ^^ "^^^ Aoyou TOV ^la Twv irpofjjrjTiov) Xa- 

owes to Moses, rj/ ^^^^'' -"> \ ■> ^ ti\ 

povTa TOV llAdTwva pa^riTe to ^itt^iv, vAriv 

apopcpov ovaav CTpi'^avTct tov ^tov Kocrpov 7rou]crai, ukov- 

aaTe tojv avToXe^d uprjptvtJv Sm Miova^wg, tov Trpoce^i]- 5 

Xwpivov irpwTOV irpot^iiTov /cat Trp^crl^vT^pov twv Iv "£X- 

Xr]m CTvyypac^kiiiVf ^t ov prjvvov to -rrpofprjTiKOv irvwpa, 

TTiuQ T))v a.p)(r}v KOL Ik Tivwv iSi^piovpyriaev 6 ^eog tov 

Koapov, h(f)T) ovTioQ * 'El/ cip\y l—oirirrtv 6 ^eog tov ovpa- 

vov Kcil Ti)v y^v. 11 ^l yri jjy dopuToq koI aKaTaaKivaaTog, 10 

KoX aKOTog tTravii) Trjg a/3uor(7ou * kol TTvevpa ■S'cou £7rf0c/O£- 

To tTTiivw tCjv vdaTWV. Kat tlirev ^^6g ' TiVTq^rjTOj (pu)r. 

Kal tyiv^TO ovTcog. "Qote Xoyco ^eov Ik twv viroKupivuiv 

Kid irpodriXio^^vTuw Sm Mwvatwg yeyEvria^ca tov ttclvtci 

Koapov, KOL UXuTiov KOL 01 TUVTO. XiyovTsg KOL I'lpug ipa-lb 

3"o/i£v, KOL vpeig Treitr^i'tvaL ^vvaa^E. Kai to KaXovp^vov 

"EjOf/3oc Tvapa ToXg TTOirjraig dprja^aL irpoTspov v—b M<x)v~ 

aiojg o'lcapev. 

60. Kai TO tv Tio Trapa HXcitwvl Tipauo (l>vaioXoyov- 

Plato and l^^^'OV TTEpX TOV vlov TOV ^£0V, OTE Xiy^L ' 'E;\;t- 

the Cross. > \ •> ~ / ^ n/r •• •' A ,0 ^ 

aaev avTov ev tlo iravTi, irapa iVJajucrtwc Aapwy 
opoiwg uirev. 'Ev yap Talg MixiVGiiog ypacpaig avayi- 



Ob JUSTIN MARTYR. 

bypaiTTai, wg kqt Ikuvo tov Kaipov ore t^f)X3'ov otto Al- 
yvTTTOv oi ^IcTpmiXXrai koL yeyovacriv iv rry Ipiifii^, airiivTr]- 
(TQV avToig lo[36Xa S^rj^o^a, t^i^vai te koI cKTTriceg koi o^fwy 
Tray -ytyoc, o i^avarou tov Xaov ' koX kut tTriirvniav koX 
ivtpyiiav Tijv wapa tov ^eov yevojuivr^v Xaf^uv tov Mwii- 

10 aia ^^oXicoy koX TronjcraL tvttov OTavpov, kol tovtov aTrirrai 
IttX Ty ayia (jKrivrj koX htthv tlo Xaio ' 'Eav 7rpo<j^Xi7rr\T& 

Ttj) TVTTLi) TOVTti) KOI 7rL(JTtVY)T£ Iv aVTi^), GW^IJGEG^E. Kal 

yEvop.ivov TOVTOV Tovg plv o^Eig uiro^avuv aviypaxpSf tov 
0£ Xaov iK^vyuv tov ^avaTOv ovtij)q irapi^wKEv. '^A ava- 

l^yvovg YlXuTiiiv kol fxr) aKpifdwc tTriaTajuevog jui^^e voiicag 
tvttov uvaL GTavpov, aXXa ^laajua voijaag, ti)v fxiTo. tov 
TrpwTOV ^iov ^vva/iiiv KE^iaa^ai Iv tm ttovtI utts. Km to 
U7THV avTov TpiTOVy iTTEi^rfy ojg TTpouTTOfXEVj liravtsj TWV 
v^aTWV avtyvio vtto M.(j)v<jiwg Eiprifxivov ETri(l)ipEa^ai to 

20 row ^eov irvivfia. A^vTepav fxlv yap ywpav rto irapa ^eov 
Aoytj), ov KE^iiiG^ai Iv Titj Traim £^t/, ^iciogi, tyjv ^t TpiTriv 

TO) XE-\^ivTL lliKpipEG^ai T(^J vdaTL TTVEVfiaTl, UTTWV ' Ttt ^6 

TpiTQ Trept TOV TpiTOv. Kol (vg EKTTvptvGiv yevi]GEG^aL ^la 

MoJVGtWg TTpOEpflVVGe TO 7rpO(l>r]TLKOV TTVEVpa, aKOVGaTE. 

25"E0)7 ^£ ovTiog ' Karaj3//(Tfrat ael^ioov irvp koi KaTa(j)ay£- 

TGl fxixpL Tljg ajdvGGOV KUTli). Ov TCL UVTO. OVV VfJLUg CtX- 

Xoig oo^a^OjU£y, aXX ol TravT^g Tci i^/UETEpa fiijuov/uvoL Xi- 
yovGi. riojo' ijpXv OVV tGTi Tavra ukovgui kol pa^Eiv wapa 
TU)v ov^E Tovg ^(^apaKTiripag tCJv gtoi^^hlov iTTiGTafxivwv, 
so X^uoTwv fxlv Kal (iapjdapwv to (p^iyjua, goc^wv ^l koi ttl- 
GTwv TOV vovv ovTwv, KuX TTr/jOwv Kttl \i]pu)v TivCov Tag 
oipEig ' wg Gvvuvai ov Goc^ia av^pcjiTEia TavTa ysyovivai, 
aXXa ^vvapu ^eov XiyEG^ai, 



THE FIRST APOLOGY 57 

61. '^Oy TpoTTOv ^£ Kol ave^ijKajuev iavTovg tm 3"£w kul- 

Christian voTroir]^ivTtr ^la Tov XpidTOV, l^r^yrjaofie^a, 

baptism « v- A'^^/p r 

oTTOjg fii] TOVTO TrapaAiirovTeg cot,(vjuev irovrip^v- 

uv TL Iv rrj i^rjyijcret. "Ogol av tt^kj^wcti kuX TridTEVojoiv 

aXrj^r] ravra to. v(f rifjiijjv ^idaaKoiu^va kol Xeyo/iEva uvai, 5 

KOI [5ioi)v ovTCjg ^vvaG^ai virirrxyiovTai, EV)(^e(T^ai re /cat 

alraiv vii](TTevovTig irapa tov ^iov TtJv iTpor]fiapTr]fjiivii)v 

a(l>^Giv SidaaKOVTai, rjpiov (JWEv^Ofxiviov Kcd crvvvrjdTtv- 

6vT(jt}v avT(Hg. "EiretTa ayovrai vcp^ i]fiu)v tv^a v^dfp lariy 

KOL TpoTTOV avayevviidewg, ov kol Vjii^7g avroi uveysvinj^ri-io 

H^v, avayevvwvrai ' £7r' ovofiarog yap tov rraTpog twv 

oXojv KoX cEdTTOTOv ^Eov KOI TOV GtoTijpog 7//.(wy 'irjaou 

XpiGTov KOL irvevfjiaTog ayiov to ^v tio vSaTi tote XovTpov 

TTOLOvvTai. Koi yap o XpiaTog eiirev ' ^Av fxi) avayEvvrj- 

^TlTE, ov fxy) alaiX^r]TE slg tijv [daaiXdav tCov ovpavCov. 15 

' Otl o£ KCLi acvvaTov elg Tag juriTpag tCjv tekovgljv Tovg 

cnra^ y^vo jLiivovg ifif^Tivai, (pavspov Traaiv ectti. Ka\ dia 

Hoa'iov TOV irpocprjTOVf wg TT/oosypo^o/xti', upY\Tai, Tiva 

Tpoirov (pEv^ovTai Tag lifiapTiag oi ajuapTijGavTeg KaX juiETa- 

voovvTsg. ^EXi\^rj be ovTiog ' Aoucracr^f, Ka^apoX yivea^e, 20 

iKp^X^TE Tag TTOvnpiag airo twv \pv\bjv vfxujv, jua-vtrc koXov 

TTQiHV, KpivaTE opt^avM KHi ciKanliaaTZ y{]pav, koi ^fure icai 

SfaXs^^^w/xfy, Xiyu Kvpiog. Kai uiv waiv ai cijuapTiai 

vfiCjv wg ^oiviKOvv, (I>(T£( ipiov XtvKavio, KaX lav (Jbaiv wg 

KOKKivov, wg \i6va XevKavw. 'Eai» ^l fxrj ctcraKroiicrrjrt juov, 25 

pay^aipa vfxag KaTiceTai ' to yap oTOjua Kvpiov £AaAj7cr£ 

Tavra. Kat Aoyov ^t £4^ tovto irapa twv cittogtoXwv 

Efia^ojuev TOVTOv. ^ETreidrj Trjv TTpWTriv yiveariv rifxwv 

ayvoovvTug fcar' avayKr}v yeyevvrjiue^a Ic, vypag cnropag 



58 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

30 Kara fxi^iv ti'iv twv yoviwv irpoQ uWi]\ovq kcu. Iv t^^ai 
tpavXoic KciL Trovr)paiq avaTpo(l)Cuc yeyovafuv, uttwq fii) 
uvayKYjc TLKva jiu^Ee tiyvoiag fidvwfJLiiV, aWa irpoaiptir^iog 
Kcd i:7ri(7Tiiiur]i'f d(l)iaiwg re ajuapriwv virlp tov 7rporip.apTOfXi:V 
TV\(i)fiev, bv TLo vcari iTTOvojuu^eTcu to) iXojutvio dvayivvr]- 

85 ^Tivai KoX jueTcivoiiaavTL Im tolq ii/uapTriiutvoig to tov ira- 
rpog Twv o\ojv kol cecnroTov ^eov ovojuct, avTo tovto 
ILiovov bTTiXiyovTog tov tov Xovaojinvov ayovTog tir) to 
XovTpov. "Ovo/ia yap tlo dpp{]TLo S'fM ovcbig ly^i uiTtiv, h 
^i Tig ToXjuijaEibv Hi'aL Xty^iv, juifxriv^ r/yy dcrioTOv juaviav. 

40 KaXarat ^l tovto to XovTpov (jjajTirrfiogj wg (pujTi^ofxivwv 
r?)y didvoiav tCjv TavTu fxav'^avovTijJV. Kai lir ovof-UiTog 
^£ ^Ir](TOv \piaTOV tov (TTUvpw^ivTog tirX Uovtiov UiXcitov 
KoX 67r' ovojuaTog TTvevfiaTog ciyiov, o cia twv 7rpo(pr]TU)v 
7rpoEKi]pv^e TO. KUTo. TOV 'Irjaovv iravTa, 6 (p(i)TiZofUvog 

i^XovsTai. 

62. Kot TO XovTpov di] TOVTO ciKOvacivTeg ol daiiuoveg 

Baptism imi- Sici TOV 7rpo(piiTOV K!^Kr]pvyfxivov hnjpyrjaav /cat 
tared by the , , , , ,,,,,,., 

demons. pavTiL,eiv iavTOvg Tovg ng tu ispa avTwv aiTL- 

[^aivovTcig koX Trpoaibvai avTo7g juiXXovTog, Xoi[5ag kol 

QKViaag cnroT^XovvTag' TbXeov ^l koX XoviG^ai ctTTiovTcig 

iTp\v IX^Hv liTi TO. Upa, tv^a 'i^pvvTai, ivepy overt. Kat yap 

TO v7roXv£(7^aL iTril^aivovTctg ToXg Upolg kcu. rrpoaiovTag 

avTotg TOvg ^py]CTKEvovTag KiX^vea^aL vtto tcov UpUT^vov 

Tiov iK tCjv GVjuf^dvTtov M(i)V(7u Tio iipripivLo TrporpiiTy 

10 fia^ovTig Oi ^cufjiovQg ijnijurjaavTO. Kor' bKbivo yap tov 

Kaipov oT£ Mii)V(Trig iK^Xbva^ri KaTeX^wv e\g A'iyv~TOv 

it,ayayi:Xv tov ^kh Xaoy twv ^l<jpar]XiTo>Vf TTOij^iaivovTog 

avTOv iv Tij dppa(3iKij yy TTjOo^aTa tov Trpog fj.r]Tp6g 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 59 

^eiov Iv l^Ut TTvpoQ Ik jSarou TrpoawfitX^a^v avTc[t 6 rijuiTE- 
pog XpidTOQ KOi direv ' 'Y-oXvaat to. vTrociifAaTct aov 15 
Kill '!Tpo(Jt\^<j)v (iKOvaov. 'O ^l vTroXvfjajuwog Kcd irpoa- 
{y^hjv a/c//ivO£ KaTtk^HV iAQ A'tyviTTOV Kid l^aywyCiv rhv 
Ikh \cwv tCjv 'lo-jOarjXtrwy, kcCi ^vvapiv lay^vpav fXa/Sf 
Trapa rov XaXijcravTOQ avri^ Iv iota rrvpog XpiaroiJ, koI 
kciteX^wv i:t,iiyay£ rhv Xaov TTonjaaQ ju^yaXa Kcii ^cwinacria, 20 
a d [5ov\2(y^£ jun^uv, Ik tmv GvyypapfAarojv iKiivov ctKpi- 

63. lovccuoL ^£ TTavTiig Koi vvv ^id'aaKOvai rov uvwvo- 
God's nppear- f^^^^^T^^ ^tuv AcXaArjkti'ai ToJ Mwiiaa * o3'^v ro 
TTpocpr^TiKuv TTViVjua cia HcraLOV Tov TTpojuEiiirivv- 
jutvov TTjOO^Z/rou i:\iy)(Ov avrovcy wc; Trpoeypcfipa/aeVf eittev' 
"Eyino (5ovg tov KTrjaa/uLEVOV koX oyoc rijv (jiciTvu^v tov 5 
Kvpiov avTOv, 'lapaiiX Ei jua ovk tyvco kciI 6 Xaog ps ov 
(TVvrjKc. Kai 'Ir;crouc ^^ ^ XpiGTog, on ovk tyvtoaav 'lou- 
^moi, Ti iraTrip ku\ tl viog, opoiwg tXEyx(vv uvroiig Ka\ 
cwTog eIttev' Ovdt^g EyvM tov irarEpa e\ pi) 6 vlog, ov^h 
TOV vlov El pr] 6 iraryp kch olg av airoKaXv^pr) 6 vlog. O lo 
Xoyog c£ TOV ^eov ecttiv 6 vlog avTOv, wg TTpoE(f)r}pEv. 
Kai ayyEXog Be (caXarai kuI uiroaToXog' civrog yap airay- 
yEXXEi orra ^eX yv(i)u^if}vai, kcu (nTOGrlXXtrcu pijvvaiov oaa 
ctyyEXXETai, wg kch avrog o Kvpiog ripCov elitev' 'O Ipov 
aK0V(i)v, ciKOVEi TOV aTTOfTTEiXavTog pE. Kcii EK tCov ro{» 15 
Mojuo-ewc ^^ dvyypappciTWV cpavEpov tovto yEvfiaETai. 
AeXektqi ce ev avTolg ovriog' Koi EXaXr](JE M.uwgeI ay- 
yEXog ^Eov EV (jyXoyX TTvpog ek Tr]g parou ku) eIttev ' 'Eyw 
EtpL o L0)>, ^Eog Appaapy -^Eog iaaaK, -z^Eog laKtvp, o i^Eog 
Tiov TvaTEpiov GOV. KuteX^e e] g A'tyviTTOV Ka). E^ayayE20 



60 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

Tov Xaov /lov. Ta S' £7ro/^fva £s Ikuvivv povAofiivoi jua- 
^uv ^vva(j^e ' ov yap dwarov Iv tovtoiq avaypaif^ai 
•uavTu. AAA ttc «7rodftsty yiyovaniv oics oi Aoyoi, on 
vtog S'cou Kcd aTTOcTToXof; 'Ir/crouc o XpKTTog lari, irpoTEpov 

25A070C wi/, /cat £i» Idia irvpog ttotI (^avug, ttotI ^l kclI Iv 
HKOVL a<ju)fxa.T(i)v ' vvv ^£ Sm ^eXyfJiaTOQ ^eov virlp tov 
tiv^pioTrdou ytvovg av^ptJirog yevojuevog vir^puve Kai Tca- 
^Hv oaa avTOV lvi]pyr](jav 01 caijuoveg ^laT^^ijvai vtto tCjv 
avoiiTivv 'louoa/ojy. O^lrivig t^ovrtg priTwg i\pr\}iivov Iv 

30 Tolg M.u.WGib)g avvTayjuaai ' Kai tXaXr/crf y ayye\og rov 
^tov Tio Mwuca iv irvpl (pXoyog iv j3arw kol uttev ' 'Eyw 
tifiL o wv, o 'JQog Appaafi Kai o ^wg laauK Ktu o -jwg 

'laKtt>]3, TOV TOJV oXdJV TTaThpa KOL ^\]fXl0Vpy6v TOV TCWTa 

HTTovTa \iyovGLV uvai. *0'^ev kcu. to 7rpo(j)riTiK6v Trvwjua 
55i\iy\ov avTOvg aTTfv * 'Icrpa»)X ^i fxe ovk tyvw, kul d Xaog 
jU£ ov Gvvr]K£. Kai iraXiv 6 Iqaovg, wg i^r}\ti)aaiuLSv, Trap* 
avTolg ojv uirev ' OvcsAg tyvuj tov naTtpa tl pi) 6 viog, 
Gi;o£ TOV viov il pri 6 iraTvip Kai olg av 6 viog airoKaXviprj. 
'louSaToi ovv -nyriaapevoi ad tov iraTipa twv oXwv XiXa- 
40 XrjKevai tco Mwiicra, tov XaX{}(TavTog avTM ovTog viov tov 
•S'fou, og Kai ayyeXog kcu inrocjToXog KhKXriTaif ^iKaiu)g 
iXiy\ovTai Ka\ dia tov Trpo^rjrzicou irvevpaTog icat ^C avTOv 
TOV XpitjTOv wg OVTE TOV TTaT^pa ours rov viov ^iyvwcrav. 
01 yap TOV VIOV iraTepa (pacFKOVTeg tivai iXiy\ovTai pyTt 
45 TOV iraTipa iiriaTapivoL ju/y3"* on i(TT\v viog Tto iraTpX tCov 
oXwv yivwaKOVTig ' og Xoyog kcu TrpioTOTOKog wv tov 
^Eov Kat ^Eog virap^Ei. Kai irpoTEpov Sm Tr\g tov irvpog 
popf^jig Kai EiKovog aawpuTOV tio Mwucra Kai To7g iTepoig 
TTpo^ilTaig l^uvt] ' vvv S' iv \p6voig Trig vpeTtpag ap\rig, 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 61 

wc TrpodTTOfiiv, ^la Trap^ivov ayS"jOW7roc jivofiivog Kara 50 
rriv Tov irarpoQ (dovXriv virip (JOJTrjpiag tCjv TriaTavovTiov 
avTU) Koi k^ov^£vr]^t]vaL /cat Tra^eiv vTrifieivev, 'Iva airo^a- 
V(i)v KoX avaaraQ viKriaij tov ^avarov. To o£ elpr^iaivov Ik 
JOUTOV Tio Miovaei ' 'Eyw tlfxi 6 lov, 6 ^i:bg ^Appaaju kol 6 
^eog 'Icraafc kol 6 ^wg 'la/cwjS kol o ^ebg tCjv Trartpwv 55 
GOVy (TYijuavTiKuv TOV KoX ttiTO^avovTag eKEivovg juiveiv kol 
uvai avTOv tov XpidTOv av^pwirovg * koX yap irpCiTOi twv 
TravTwv av^pu)Trii)v Ikuvol Trepi ^eov Z,i]Tr](jiv i]G\oX{\'^r\- 
aaVf ^A^paajx juilv waTrip wv tov 'IcraaK:, 'lo-aa/c dl tov 
*IaK:a»/3, wg koi Mwvai^g avLypw^^, 60 

64. Kai TO aveyupeiv dl to ii^cjXov Trig X^yofxivr^g 

other traves- Koprjc £7ri rate TU)V vdaTUJV TTtiyaig Iv^pyriGai 
ties of Scripture ^ ^ , ^ , , , v 

by the demous. 701;^ ccufiovag, XiyovTag ^vyaTtpa avTijv 
alvai TOV Aiog, fxifxriaafxivovg to ^ui Mwiicrtwc dprjiutvov, 
iK TLJV irpo^iprjiuiivujv vorjaai ^uvacr^e. "E^rj yap o 5 
MisJvarig, wg Trpoeypaxpafisv * 'Ev ctpxy ^7T0ir}aev b ^tog 
TOV ovpavov Koi tyiv yriv, 'H ot yri r]v ctopaTog kol ciKaTa- 
rjK^vaaTog, K.ai Trv^vfxa 3'£0U iTTEcjjspsTO tTravu) twv vdaTUttv. 
Jug fiifir\<jiv ovv tov \e)(^evTog £7rt0£po^i£vou rw vdaTi 
TTvevfxaTog 3"£0u Tifv Kopr]v ^vyaTtpa tov Aiog t^odav. 10 
Kai Triv ^A^rjvuv ^e bfiouog Trovripevojui^voi ^vyuTipa tov 
Aiog ^ifjtaaav ou/c otto jut^fwc, a\X tTreicij ivvor]^ivTa tov 
^Eov ^la Xoyov tov koctjuov TroirifTat tyvo)(TaVf wg Tyv 
7rp<i)Tr]v tvvoiav s^acrav ti)v ^A^r]vav ' birep ysXoioTaTov 
i]yovfis^a Hvai, Trig Ivvoiag dKova Trapacpepeiv 3')]A£<t5yi5 
p.op(^r]v. Kai bjuoiwg Tovg aWovg \syojuivovg vlovg tov 
Aiog at TTpa^sig iXiy^ovcnv. 

65. 'H/xug ^i fjiS:Ta to ovrwg Xovaai tov in^Truafxivov Ka\ 



62 JUSTIN MARTYE. 

Adraiuistration ovyKaTaTi^sifxivov IttX Tovg Xsyofiivovc; uceX- 

of the 
sacraments. (jjovg liyofjin', tv^a avvY}jlUivoi uai, kolvciq 

tuYoc TTOtr^auiuivoi VTclp te tavriov kol tov ^wrtcr^tyroc 

5Kai aWwv 7ravTa)(ov iravTwv evTovojg, oirwg /cara^tw.S'wjUEv 
TO. itXr]^i'i jua^uvTEg Koi cl tpyiov ayaS'oi TroXirfurm Koi 
(pvXaKig TU)v IvTeraXfxivojv fupe^f/yat, ottwc "^^1^ alwviov 
aiiJTripiav abj^tj/uiiv. ^AXXiiXovg (piXijjuaTL acr7ra^o/i£^a 
TravaaiuievoL rCov tv\wv, ' Eir^iTa irfiOG^ipETai tm Trpot- 

10 GTTwrt Twv aocX^wy aprog koX Trorijpiov vcarog kcu Kpa/ua- 
Tog, Kol ovTog Xajoujv alvov koi Su^av to) Trarpl tCjv IjiXiiJV 
^m TOV vvojiiaTog tov viov koX tov TrveviuaTog tov ayiov 
avairipTTu koi tv^apiGTiav vnlp tov KaTr)^iu)a^aL tovtiov 
Trap avTOv Im ttoXv iroiUTai' ov awTtXiaavTog Tag iv\ag 

I5»cai Ti]v ev-)(api<jTiav irag 6 iraptjjv Xciog i:7rev(l)Y]fjLH Atywv 
^Afi{]v. To St aix)]v T}j £/3joa/3f (ptjvrj to yivoiTO Gr)jj.aiv£i. 
Ev)(^apiaTi](javTog ^l tov TrpoiaTioTog koi i7T^v<pr]jj.i\GavTog 
iravTog tov Xaov ol KaXov/u^voi Trap* yjfuv ^lukovol ^idoaaiv 
iKaaTio Tb)v TTapovTwv ju^TctXopnv otto tov ev)(^npiaTr]^iv- 

20 roc upTOv Koi o'lvov Kai v^aTog kol Tolg ov irapovGiv awo- 

(pipOVGl. 

66. Km i) Tporjii) avTY] KoXarof Trap' rijuiv ev^apiGTia, ijg 

rpj^g ouScvi aXXo) ptTaG\uv lt,6v Igtlv, i) roj ttigtev- 

ovTi aAri-^rj uvai Ta cscicayptva vcp 7]pii)v kol 

XovGai-iivio TO virlp arJ)^G£it)g apapTiCjv Ka\ {ig avayivvrjGiv 

bXovTpov KOI ovTcog (^lovvTi tjg b XpiGTog Trapicwtav. Ov 

yap wg koivov ixpTOv ov^e koivov TTopa Tavra Xapj^avojUEv, 

aXX' oi^ TpoTTOv ^la Xoyou 3'cou GapKOTTOirj^ug ^IrjGOvg 

XpiGTog b GioTi)p i]p{ov Kal GapKU Ka\ aipa uirep GWTrjpiag 

rjinCjv tG\iiV, ovTix>g ku). tyjv ci ivxiig Xoyov tov Trap' avTov 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 63 

eu)(apiaTri^tL(7av TjOO^//y, ts ^C cufia kuX aapiceQ fcara /itra- 10 
(5o\i]V Tpi(povTaL tijllwv, Ikuvov tov aapKOiTOirj^tvTog Irjcrou 
icai aapKa Kui aijua IbLCax^rj/A^v u.vaL. Pl yap cittogtoXol 
iv roTc y^vofJiivoiQ vir avrtJv airoyivrifAovivixacnv, a KaXuTat 
tvayyiXiaj ovtcjJQ 7rapi^a)Kav IvTLTaX^ai avrolq ' tov 'Irj- 
(jovv Xa[56vTa apTOv ev\apiaT{iGavTa HTrttv' Tovto TTOitLTels 
tig Ti]v avajuvr^aiv fiov, tovto Igtl to aCjjxa juov ' kui to 
TTOTiipiov ojuoiwQ Xaf^ovTa KoX ti)\api(jTii<TavTa httuv ' 
Tovto tcTTt to aijutt pov * Kcd povoig avToXg p^To^ovvai. 
"OrrfjO fcat iv Tolg tov M.i^pa pv(jT7]pioig irapi^wKav yivs- 
a^ai pipr](jap£V0L ol Trovrjpol caipovag ' otl yap apTog Ka\ 20 
Trorfjptov v^aTog Ti^tTai Iv Talg tov pvovpivov T^^TaXg 
psT liriXoyijJV tivCjv, rj IniaTarT^s fj pa^uv cvvaa^s. 

67. 'llpug ^£ pETO. TavTa Xoiirov an tovtwv aXXiiXovg 

First day of "va/^</xvr'}ar'<^o/^f i^ * i^ct^ 01 t)(OVTeg Tolg XsiTTopi- 

the week. - •> - v/ '\"\/A 

voig Traaiv tTriKOvpovpev, Kai (Tvveap^v aAAiiAOLg 

au. 'Etti TTciai te olg Trpoac^^popii'^a ivXoyovpev tov ttozij- 

Tr)V TU)V TTCLVTljJV ^lO. TOV vloV UVTOV ll^dOV XpidTOV KQl ^ICl 5 

TTvevpaTog tov aylov. Kai ry tov i]Xiov Xeyoptvr) rip^pa 

irdvTWV KaTCL TroXsig rj aypovg pevovTiov liri to avTO avvi- 

XivcjLg yivsTai, KaX to. inropvrjpovevpaTa tljv airoaToXwv 

r} TO. Gvyy pappaTu tiov 7rpo(priTU)V avayivwcTKeTai pi\pig 

iyywpij. Elra iravaapivov tov avayiviLcjKOVTog 6 irpoe-io 

GTijjg cia Xoyov Ti]V vov^eaiav /cat TrpoKXrjGiv Trjg tCjv Ka- 

Xwv TOVTwv pipijcrewg TroidTai. "ETTf^ra aviaTape^a kolvt) 

TTCLVTeg KOI iv)(ag TTtpTTopev. Kaf, log Trpo^cpripsv, Travcra- 

piviiiv i]pCjv Trig iv)(rig apTog iTpoG<pip^TaL Koi o7vog KaX 

vccopf Kai 6 TrpoecTTiog Ev^ag bpoUog kcu SiV)(^api(jTiagy oar} 15 

cvvapig avTM, avair^pTTEL KaX 6 Xaog IwtvrjjripH Xtyiov to 

E 2 



64 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

^ivTUJV f/cctcrrti) yiv^Tai KaX TOig ov irapovai dia twv ^iqko- 

Vtt)V TTt/XTTfrat. 01 IVTTOpOVVTiQ ^£ K-Ol (5ov\6/XiVOL KaTO, 

20 7rpoaip£(Ttv tKaGTog ti)v kavTOv o j3ov\^Tai cicwoi, Kai to 
(TvWey 6 fxivov Trapa Tto irpoiaTWTL airoTi^eTai, koX avTog 
liriKOvpH 6p(l>avoig r£ Koi \i]paig, kol nng dia v6(70v rj St 
aWr]v aiTiav \uiTQfxivoig, Koi Tolg Iv ^t^Gfiolg ovai, kol 
Toig Traptiridrijuoig ovgi t^ivoigy kol cnrXtJg iraai Tolg tv 

25Xpua overt Kr]defxwv yiverat. Tijv ^e tov rjXiov iifiipav 
KOivrj iravT^g ttiv avveX^vaiv TTOtou/xe^a, iTrcici) wpwrri 
i(TT\v rifxipa, Iv y 6 ^tog to GKOTog kol tyjv vXr]v Tptxpag 
KOtTjUOV twoirjGE, Koi ^lr](TOvg XpiGTog o rjiutTEpog awTrip ry 
amy Vfiepa Ik viKpCJv civIgty} * ry yap irpo T^g KpoviK^g 

30 laTcwpLOGav avTov Ka\ Ty fi^ra t))v KpoviKiiv, rjTig 1(tt).v 

rjXiov yfifpa, ^avtig ToXg airoGToXoig avTOv Km jua3"rjraTc 

t^i^a^e TavTu uTTip ilg lirlaKexpiv koi vplv av^btoKa/uev. 

68. Kai H jU£y Sokh vfilv Xoyov koi aXr^^dag i\i(T^ai, 

TijuijaaTE avTQ, d Se Xripog vfxiv So/ca, wg Xrjpto- 

Conclusion. , , v v r •. 

cu)v irpayiuaTiov KaTaeppovijaaTe, kgl jllij log tear 

tx^pwv Kara tljv /xrjStP adiKOVVTijov ^avaTOv opiZ^TS. 

5 IlpoXiyofjiev yap vjuXv, utl ovk. £K^£v£fa3'£ ttiv laofxivr]v 

TOV S"£Ou Kpiaiv, lav IwifxivriTE Ty adiKia ' Kat v/itig Ittl- 

fto{]GOpeV ' 'O ^iXoV TiO ^U{)9 TOVTO y£VL(7^(jJ. Kat ££ 

tTTLGToXrig ^£ TOV fiEyi<jTOV KOL tirKJyaviidTaTOv Kaidapog 
^A^piavov TOV iraTpog vfibjv e^ovTig cnraiTuv viuag Ka^a 
10 11 £fW(TajU£v KeXevcrai Tag Kpiaeig yEvt(j^ai,ovK tic tov K^Kpi- 
G^at TOVTO VTTO ^A^piavov fiaXXov ij^iivcrap^v, aXX Ik tov 
iiriaTaa^ai ^Uaia a^iovv ti)v irpoa^Mvrjcnv Kat i^iiyrjaiv 
TTETronjfXt^a, 'YTrtraSajUfv Sf koi Trjg iiTLGToXrig ^Acpiavov 



THE FIKST APOLOGY. 65 

TO avriypa^oi', 'Iva Koi Kara tovto aXri^euHV rtjiag yvw- 
pi^r}T£. Kai i(jTi TO avTiypatpov tovto ' 15 

Hadrianus Minucio Fun- Mlvovkiii) ^ovv^qvm, 

dano. 
Accepi litteras ad me 'E7rf(T7oX?)v IhKafAtjv ypa- 

scriptas a decessore tiio (peiGuv julol diro Ssprjytou 

Serenio Graniano clarissi- Fpaviavov XajuirpoTaTov dv^o 

mo viro : et non placet dpog, ovTiva av ^a^i^w, 

mihi relationem silentio Oi> doKu ovv fxoi to irpay 

praeterire, ne et innoxii jLia dt^fiTi^Tov KaTaXnruv, 

perturbentur et calumni- 'Iva pn ts 01 av^pojiroi 

atoribus latroclnandi tri- TapaTTwvTai koi toXq ctu-ss 

biiatur occasio. Itaque si KocpavTaig xopr}yia KaKovp- 

evidenter provinciales huic yiag irapaax^^y' "Av ovv 

petitioni suae adesse valent aa^ajg elg TavTtjv nyv 

adversum Christianos, iit d^iioaiv ol lTrap\i(JJTaL dv~ 

pro tribunal! eos in aliquo vo)VTai ^iiaxypiZ^a^ai fcaraso 

arguant, hoc eis exequi twv XpiaTiavwv, wg koi 

nonprohibeo: precibus au- irpo j5i]paTog dTroKpiv^a^ai, 

tem in hoc solis et adcla- fTrl tovto povov TpairivGiv, 

mationibus uti, eis non dXX ovk d^itoaeaiv ov^s 

permitto. Etenim multo povaig ftoalg. UoXXto yap 35 

aequius est, si quis volet juaXXov TrpoatjKev, tl Tig 

accusare, te cognoscere de KaTriyopuv (5ovXoito, tovto 

objectis. Si quis igitur (te ^layiviLcrKeiv, Et Tig 

accusat et probat adver- ovv KaTr]yopu kol ^^iKwal 

sum leges quicquam agere tl irapd Tovg vopovg irpaT- 40 

memoratos homines, pro TovTag, ovTwg ^lopiZe kutu 



66 JUSTIN MARTYK. 

merito peccatorum ctiam rt'iv Zvvafiiv rov «^a/)r//- 

• supplicia statues. lUudme- luarog. Q^g fid tov 'Hpa- 

liercle magnopere curabis, KXia, ti tic avKOfpavjiaQ 

45 ut si quis calumniae gratia X"i°^^ tovto Trporuvoi, ^i~ 

qiienquam horum postula- aXajujdavs virlfy rrjQ ^eivo- 

verit reum, in hunc pro sua rrjror, kcu (ppovTi^e uitwq 

nequitia suppliciis saeviori- ay tJcStKi/a-cmc. 
bus vindices. 



TOT ATTOT I0Y:^TIN0T 

AnOAOriA AEYTEPA YHEP XPI2TIANQN 
nPOS THN PQMAION SYPKAHTON. 



1. Kat Ta x^tg re koI irpojrjv tv tTj ttoXel vjuwv ysvo/ieva 

tirl OvpQiKOv, to 'Fiouaioi, kcil to. 7ravTa\ov 
Introduction. '^ 



t/Vo' 



ojJLOiLjQ VTTO Tujv i^jovfx^vwv aAojioc TTpaTTOjueva 
iu,r]vayKa(ji jne vir^p i]fiijjv, ojuoiOTra^wv ovtojv kui dd^\(pu)v, 
Kav dyvorira kol jur) ^iXi^re did rrjv do^av rcjjv vojuit^o/iivtvv 5 
d^itjfjictTwVf Ti)v Twvce Tijjv Xoywy avvTo^iv Troiiiaaa^ai. 
I\avTa\ov ydp, oq av ato(PpoviZ,r\Tca viro irarpog i) yurovocj 
1] T^KVov 1] cpiAov 1] aoeA<pov 77 avbpoq 77 yvvaiKog jcar tA- 
Xeixpiv, xwptc Twv TTSKj^ivrwv Tovg d^lKOvg kol a/coXaorouc 
Iv alcjvuo TTVpX Ko\a(j^{](j£(T^aif tovq S' IvapirovQ kuX ojuol-io 
(jjQ Xpttrrw (duoaavTag Iv dira^Eiq (Tvyy evi) <j e a^ai tco ^eoj 
(\iyofXEv dl tCjv yzvofxivwv XpiaTiavMv), diA to Suor^fra- 
^eTOv KaX (piXijCovov kol dvcjKivrjTov irpoQ to KaXov oppi- 
aai, KOi OL ^avXoL caiinovEg, i\ypaivovT£g rjjuiv koX tovq 
TOLOVTOvg diKaaTctg t)(0VT£g vTro\upiovg kol XaTpsvovTag, 15 
tjg ovv apxovTag daifxoviwvTag, (povBVEiv rjfxag irapacrKSva- 
^ovmv, "Ottwc ^£ '^cti V ctiTia tov TravTog y^vofiivov lin 
Ovpl^iKOV rpavEpd vjulv yivriTai, Ta Trairpaynxiva dTrayyeXu). 
2. Vvvi] Tig (jvvE^iov dvdpl dKoXaaTaivovTi^ aKoXaaTai- 



68 JUSTIN MAKTYR. 

vov(Ta Kcd avTi^i irpOTEpov. 'Ettu o£ ra tov 
Urbicus. ^ ^n ^n , „ , , - v x 

Xpi(jTOv ofoayjuara tyvto, t<jio(j)povi(7^r} kcu tov 

av^pa ofioiWQ GW(^povHv Trd^eiv lirupaTO, ra ^L^ayfiaTa 

5 Itva^ipovfja, tiiv te fxiXXovcrav TOig ov G(v(j)pov(jjg kol fxira 

\6yov op^ov [5iov(jiv E(j£CT^at Iv aiwviti) irvpX KoXacriv dw- 

ayyiWovaa. 'O §£ raig avTotg daEXyEiaig liTLjxivwv d\- 

\oTpiav ^id T(jjv TTpd^EOJV £7TOiaro ti)v yaperiiv. 'Acr^jStc 

ydp i)yovnivr} to Xoiirov i] yvvi] ovyKaTaKXivta^ai dvdpi, 

10 Trapd TOV Trig (pvaetog vofxov kol irapd to ciKaiov wopovg 

■i]dovr)g Ik iravTog TTEipojpivii) TTOiua^ai, Trig GvZvyiag 

"XwpKT^rivai ^jSouX/^^"}?. Kat Ittei e^e^vgiottuto vtto tijJV 

aVTYig, ETl TTpOCTfiivElV GVfxjdovXEVOVTWV, Wg Eig EXirida jU£- 

Tuf^oXrig ri^ovTog ttote tov dvdpog, (dia^ofXEvri EavTriv ette- 

i5jU£V£v. 'E7rfiS?7 ^£ ^ TavTrig dvrjp Elg Triv WXE^dvdpEiav 

TTopEu^E^g yaXETTMTEpa irpaTTEiv cnrriyyEX^rif vTTdjg fiij 

Koiviovog Twv ddiKtifjidTtjJV kol aGE^riiidTOJv yEvrjTai, fjLE- 

vovaa Iv rr/ GV^vyiq. koX ofxodiaiTOc koi bfiOKOiTog yivofxivri, 

TO XEyojUEvov Trap* vpiv pEirovdiov Soucra £;>(wpicr3')7. 'O dl 

20 KaXog Kciya^og TavTrig avrip, diov avTov xalpEiv, otl a 

irdXai juETo. tCov VTrripETdv koi tCov fJiiG^ocpoptov EV\Epu)g 

EirpaTTE, fiE^aig \aipovGa kol KaKia Tracrr/, tovtljv julev twv 

Trpd^EijJV TTETravTO KoX avTov TO. avTci Travaaa^ai Trparrovra 

e[5ovXeto, jurj (dovXopivov ctTraXXayEiaiig KaTriyopiav tte- 

257roh]Tai, Xiywv avTriv XpiGTiaviiv eIvqi. Kai i) plv (di- 

[5Xidl(JV GOL TM aVTOKpCLTOpi aVO^E^ljJKE, TTpOTEpOV GVy\(i)- 

pri^iivaL avTy dioiKtiGaG^aL to. EavTrig d^iovGa, iTTEiTa airo- 

XoyiiGaG^ai TTEpl tou KaTYiyopiifxaTog fiETo. r))y twv rrpay- 

fiuTwv avTrig dioiKriGiv. Kat GVVE\wpriGag tovto. 'O tl 

dOTavTrig ttote aviip, wphg ekeivtiv plv pi) dvvdpEvog tqvvv 



THE SECOND APOLOGY. 69 

tTL \'cyHV, TTpoQ IlroAE/iaToy Tiva, ov O'vpldtKOg iKoXaGaro, 
^i^aarKciXov tKUvrjQ twv XpiaTiavwv fxa^rijxaTwv "yivofx^vov, 
IrpuTTtTO ^la Tovde tov TjOottou. 'Eicarovrap^ov eig ^eajua 
ifijdaXovTa TOV IlroXfjUaTov, ^i\ov avTc^ virapyovra, tTrtiGZ 
Xa[5i(j^aL TOV IlroXfjuat'ou Koi avepWTricraL avTO tovto juo-35 
vov H XpiGTiavog fori. Kai tov IlroXfjuaTov, (piXaXij^t], 
aXX ovK airaTrjXov ov^l ipevdoXoyov ti)v yviojur}v ovtq, 
bfXoXoy{]aavTa iavTov uvai XpiaTiavov Iv deajuo^g y^via^aL 
o ^KaTovTap^og TreiroirjKS, koX Ittl ttoXvv \p6vov Iv rto ^ftr- 
/LHjjTYjpico tKoXadaTO. TeX^VTOLOV Se ore lirl Ovpj^iKOv^o 
7]\^r} 6 av^pioTTOgf ofioiwg avTO tovto fxovov tsrjracr^rj u 
th) Xpi(jTiav6g. Kai iraXiv to. KaXa iavTi^ avv^iriaTafi^vog 
^la TYiv dirb tov XpiGTOV ^i^axijv to didacrKaXiov Ti}g 3"fi- 
ag dpETrig wfioXoyrjaev ' 6 yap dpvovfXivog otlovv rj KaTE~ 
yvii)KU)g tov TrpdyjuaTog 'iE,apvog yiveTai rj eavTov dvd^iov 45 
iTnaTOLfiniog koi dXXoTpiov tov ivpayfxaTOg ttjv ofxoXoyiav 
(j)^vy£i, wv ov^lv TrpodEGTi T(Ji) dXr]^ivto XpiGTiavio. Kai 
TOV 0vpf5iK0v KiX^vcravTog avTov a7ra\^ii}vai AovKiog Tig, 
Kttt avTog wv XpiaTiavog, optJy t/}v dXoywg ovTwg y^vo- 
fiivrjv Kpiaiv irpog tov OvpjjiKOv icpi] ' Tig i) aiTia ; Tou tov 50 

jULIITE IUIOI\OV JUIITE TTOpVOV finTE ClvdpOipOVOV fJlljTi XuJTTOCVTlJV 

fir]T& apiraya fxiiTS cnrXiog d^iKr^fxd tl Trpd^avTa lXiyx<')fxe- 
vov, ovofiaTog ^£ XpKJTiavov Trpocjwvvfxiav ofioXoyovvTa 
TOV av^puiTTOV TOVTOV ^KoXucjcj ; Ov irpiiTOVTa fvaf/Ba 
avTOKpaTOpL ov^e (piXodorpto Kaidapog nai^X ovdl T7j upabs 
GvyKXijTLt) KpivEig, u) OvppiKE. Kol og ov^lv dXXo diro- 
Kpivdfjievog kol irpog tov Aovkiov tcpr}' AoKug juoi Kot 
Gv iivai TOiovTog. Kai tov Aovkiov (^i]uavTog MaXiora, 
TraXiv Kat avTOv dirax^nvai iKiX^va^v. 'O ^l koi x^P^^ 



70 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

GO d^^vai w/uioXoyeifTrovrjpuJv 3f(77rorwy rwv tolovt(jJv ciTrrjX- 
\d\^ai yivwGKWv Kcd irpog tov TraTipa Koi [5aaiXia tujv 
ovpavijjv TTopev^a^ai. Kai ctAXoc ^£ rpiTog tVfX^wv ko- 
\aG^}]vai Trpoa^Tifiii^}]. 

3. Kayw ovv TrpoadoKio vtto tivocj tCjv ix)vofxaap.iv(i)v 

Jnstin and ^TJ^'iSowXtUvfil/Of KcCl ^vXu) ifXlTajllvai, 7] KUV VTTO 

KpiaKevTog tov (juAoiporpou kul (piAOKOfXTTOv. 
Oh yap ^<Xo(TO0oy eiTTHV u^iov tov avcpu, oq y^ TTEpl 

5 ijfiwv a jLii) liriGTaraL ^rijuocria KaTafxapTVpUj wq a^iujv koi 
uGii^wv X.pLaTiavwv ovtwv, irpog X^piv kol i]covi)v tCjv 
ttoXXljv rwv TTETrXavrjjuivoJV Tavra irpnrrwv. E'/re yap p.i} 
iVTV^ujv roig tov Hpiarov ^i^ayjuaai KuraTpi^u ii/ulCjv, 
TTajuirovrjpog Igtl /cat t^fwrwv ttoAu ■)(tip(jjv, ot (pvXaTTOVTQL 

10 TToXXuKic; ir^pX wv ovk liTLdTavTaL ^laXtyea^ai kqX xpevco- 
juapTvpaiv ' i) d Ivtv\(1)V fii) avvriKe to Iv avToXq f^i^yaXtlov, 
rj Gvvaig irpog to fii] viroTTTEv^rivaL tolovtoq TavTa ttoih, 
TToXv iLiaXXov ayevv})g Kai irafiirovT^pog, ihiwTiKrjg /cat aXo- 
-you 3o^^7C koi 0o/3gv tXaTTwy wv. Kat yap Trpo^tvTa /is 

15 icai tp(i)T{]aavTa avrbv lpwTi](jug Tivag TOiavTag /cat jua^uv 
/cat lXiyt,aL otl aXi/S'w^ ju-qclv liTLGTaTai, el^tvai v/Liag (Sov- 
Xo/uiai. Kat otl aXrj^ri Xtyw, u firj avr]vi\^riGav vjuiv at 
KOtvwviaL Twv Xoytuv, tTOifiog /cat t^' vfxCjv KOivojvdv tCov 

lpWTl]GiWV TToXtV * paGlXlKOV C UV KOL TOVTO tpyOV UK]. 

20 Ei hi /cot iyvwG^Yiaav vjilv al lpwTr]Gug fiov /cat al Ikuvov 
airoKpiGEig, ^avepov vjXiv Igtlv otl ovclv tCjv i^jU^Tipiov 
liriGTaTaL, rj d Kai liriGTaTaL, Zlo. Tovg UKOvovTag ^£ oi> 
ToXjua Xbytziv ojioiiog ^wKpuTei, wg Trpoi<^r\v, ov (juXoaorpog, 
aXXa (piX6^ot,og avrip ^tUvvTai, og ys uri^e to Sw/CjOart/coi^ 

25 at,iipaGT0v ov Ttpa' 'AXX' ovtl ye wpo Tijg aXrj^eiag tljuiy}- 



THE SECOND APOLOGY. 71 

riog avijp. ^Acvvarov ^l KwiKuj, u^uKpopov to Tt\og 

Trpo^sfiivco, TO aya^ov uotvai ttXiiv ucia(j)opiag. 

4. ^'Oirwg 0£ jut} Tig iiiry ' IlavTeg ovv iavToifg ^ovav- 

Why Christians aavTsg 7Top^v£(T^a ii^n irapa tov ^^ov koi ymlv 
do not kill ^ ^ ^ / , ^ , .v , 

themselves. TTpajjuaTa fxi] 7rapi)(tT£, IpCj, '^C rjv aiTiav 

tovto ov TrpciTTOiiEv KOL 2t' i]v £^£7a^o/i£vot CKpojSwg bfJiO- 

XoyOVIHtV. OVK UKU TOV KOCTfJLOV TTtTTOtlJKCVat TOV ^eOV 5 

ceci^dyjue^a, aW i) ^ict to av^pwir^ov yivog ' ^aipuv re 
ToXg Til TrpoaovTa avTio inifAOVjuivoig Trpo((pr]iuev, airapi- 
CFKEd^ai o£ To7g TO. cjyavXa aairaZyOfxivoig i) Aoyw i) tpyw» 
El ovv iravT^g tavTOvg (povtvaofJiZVy tov fii) y£vvr)^rivai 
TLva Kcd iia^i\Tzv^)]vaL dg to. ^hu ^i^ayf^aTafi) kol /hi) tivaiio 
TO av^poJTreiov yivog, oaov ifp* v/luv, qItiol laofXE^a, Ivav- 
Tiov ry TOV ^tov (5ov\ij kol civtoX TroiovvTeg, lav tovto 
7rpa^wf.iev. 'Es£ro^O;U£voi ^f oiiK apvovjue^a ^la to gvve- 
TTiGTaG^ai tavTo7g fxrjclv (j)av\ov, acjizfiig ^£ riyov/unwi jut] 
/caret TravTa a\r]^evEiv, o Kcd <pi\ov Toj 3"£o1 yivojaKOj^i^v, 15 
vfxag ^£ Kcd Tr\g ac'iKOv TrpoXijipewg cnraXXa^m vvv cnriiV- 
dovT^g. 

. kjL 0£ TiVa UTTfA^Ot KClL 7] tVVOia aVTY], OTL £1 -J^OV 

Why men fire iou.o\oyov/Lm> BoYi^ov, oiiK uv, wg \iyoahv, 
in trouble. 
The evil spirits, y-^^ ddiKWV iKpaTOVjue^a Kol iTiiH))povjJL^^a, 

KOL TOVTO ^laXvcrio. 'O ^£0c TOV TTuvTa KoajLiov TTonjaag 

KOL Ta kiriysia av^pojiroig v7T0Tcit,ag koX tu ovpdvia gtoi- 5 

^fta ilg avt,r](nv KapTrtJv Kcd wpwv /LieTaf^oXdg KoajufjcTag 

KoX ^uov TOVTO I g I'O^ov Tdt,ag, a Kcd avTci ^i dv^pwirovg 

^aivBTai TTfTTon^Kwc, ti)v julv tCov dv^ptvirujv kol tojv vtto 

Toy ovpavov Trpovoiav ayyiXoig, o'vg livX TOVTOig £rasf, 

TrapiSitJK^v. 01 o ayyfXot, 7rojO«j3avrfc,' Tfjvde ti)v ra^<y, 10 



72 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

yvvaiKwv jui^iaiv ?'jrr//3'rjcrav koI Trai^ag IriKvivcFav, ot 
alaiv Of \iy6fXiiV0L dai/ULOveg, Kai TrpoaiTi Xolttov to av- 
^ptuTT^iov ytvoc; tavTo7g t^ovXuxjav ra filv ^la fxayiKiov 
ypacpCjv, TO. ^l ^la 0o/3wp koi TijutjpLCJv (i)V liritp^pov, ra 

15 ^f ^la ^i^a^iQ ^vfXiiTWV koL ^vfxiajuciTOJV kcil gttov^Cjv, wv 
ivdeng ycyoyacrt jusra to ttu^sgiv iTri^vfxiiov ^ov\ii)^rivai, 
Kal HQ av^pwirovg ^ovovg, ttoXI/xouc, iU0L-)(Biac, aKoXamag 
KOI TTciaav Kaaiav l(Tiri:ipav. O^ev Koi TroiYiraX /cm juv3'0- 
Xoyot, ayvoovvTEg Tovg ayyiXovg KaX Tovg l^ avrcjv y^v- 

^ovr]^ivTag daifxovag ravra irpa^ai dg app^vag koX ^riX^iag 
Kcu TToXeig Koi i^vrif iiTrep GwiypaipaVj dg avrov tov ^wv 
KoX TOvg wg citt' avrov (nropa yevofxtvovg viovg koX tCov 
Xi^ivTiov Ikuvov adiXcpMV koi TtKViJV ojiioiojg twv u-k 
Ikhvijjv Woau^Cwog Kcd liXovrwvog avrjviyKav. 'Ovo- 

25jitan yap iKaarov, oirep EKaarog iavrt^ tCjv ayy^Xwv Kal 
Tolg riKvoig t^^TO, irpocrrjycjpwcFav. 

6. "Ovofxa ^e tco ttclvtwv Trarpl ^ltov, ay£vv{]T(i) ovti, 

Names of God ^^'^ tVr/y * (o yap av Kal ovofxarl ri irpoaayo- 

and of Christ. r O' >' ^Cs.' ^v 

pEvrjrai, TrpEcrpvTepov ex^^ t^>v ■^ejuevov to ovo- 

I fia. To Se 7raTi]p Kal ^eog Kal KTiaTtjg Kal Kvpiog Kal ^£- 

JBcrTTorr^c' ovk ovojuaTa Icrriv, aXX Ik twv evTrouiov Kal tCov 

tpywv irpoapijaeig. 'O ^f vlog eKeivov, 6 /nuvog Xeyojuievog 

Kvpiwg vlog, 6 Xoyog irpo tujv TroirjfxaTWv Kal crvvwv Kal 

yEvvu)fxevog, ors tijv dpxn^ ^f^ avrov rravra tKTKre Kal Iko- 

(Tfirjcre, Xpiarog fJilv Kara to Kal \plGai Kal KoajurifTaL ra 

lOTTVLvra ^L avrov rov ^eov Xiy^rai, ovojia Kal avro 7TEpd\ov 

ayv(i)(7T0V ar]fiaaiav, ov rpoirov Kal to ^eog rrpocrayopevfia 

ouK ovofia lariv, aXXa TTpayfxarog ^vcrt^rjyijrov i/ucpvrog 

ry <I)V(JEL tCjv av^pwirwv Zo^a. 'Irjcrouc ^f Km dv^pu)7rov 



THE SECOND APOLOGY. 73 

Koi (Tonripoc ovofxa Koi Gr^juaaLav E^^t. Kai yap kqX av- 
^piOTTog, o)g 7rpoi(pr]iuieVy jiyove Kara rr)v tov ^eov icai ira- 15 
Tpog (5ov\r)v cnroKvii^eig virlp twv TriaTevovTwv av^pix)- 

TTtJV KOX £771 KaTa\v(JH TMV ^aifJLOVLOV, U) g KOL VVV iK TWV 

vtt' oxpLV yLVOfxiviov jua^ai; ^vvaa^^. ^aifiovioXiiTrrovg yap 
TToWovg Kara iravra tov ico(T/xop jcat Iv ry vfHTipa TToAft 
TToAXoi tCjv rj/xsrtpwv av^ptoirivv tCjv XpiaTiavwv, £7rOjO-20 
Ki^ovTeg Kara tov SvofiaTog IrfGov XpioTOV tov aTavpui- 
^ivTog IttX UovTiov UiXaTOv, vtto twv aXXtJV TravTtJV 

tTTOpKKTTOJV KaX tTTnCTTtOV KOI (jiap^lQK^VTWV JULl) la^^VTUg lu- 

aavTO Kai trt vvv ItovTaif KaTapyovvTEg /cat tKciivKOVTsg 
Tovg KaTt\ovTag Tovg av^pwrrovg caifiovag. 25 

7. "03'£y Ka\ lirifiivei 6 ^fo^ Ti)v avy^vGiv izai KaToXvGiv 

"eived for the "^^^ TTaVTOg KOCTfJLOV fJLl] TTOirjdai, IVa KUL OL (pUV- 

pake of Chris- \"> ^<^/ v>'c ' 

tians. Aof ayysAoi Kai cai/ioveg kul av-^pwiroi fnf]KETL 

(haiy 3m TO GTripfxa twv XpicjTiavtJv, 6 yivwaK^L Iv Ty <^u- 

GH OTl aiTKJV iGTlV. 'ETTfil £1 fXlj TOVTO 1]V, OVK UV OV^l 5 

vfMV TavTa tTL TroLt7v Kai IvepyuG^at vtto twv ^avXojv 
^aijuuvwv dvvaTov 7]V, aXXa to irvp to Ty]g KpiGEwg KaTaX- 
^ov avi^rjv iravTa ^UKpivev, wg koi irpoTepov 6 Kara/cXu- 
Gfiog jurjSfva Xnrwv aXX' rj tov fiovov gvv Tolg l^ioig Trap* 
TjfxTv KaXovfxevov Nwe, Trap* vfilv ^e AsvKaXiiova, £^ ov ira-io 
Xiv Of TOGOVTOL yeyovaGiv, wv ol filv (pavXoi, ol ^l gttov- 
^aHoi. OvTOJ yap rifitig tyjv iKirvpwGLV (pajuev y^viiGEG^ai, 
tiXX ou^j <^C OL ^TWiKOif jcara tov Tiig ug aXXrjXa ttiivtijjv 
jJLETa^oXiig X070V, o aiG\iGTOV icpuvr], 'AXX' ov^l Ka^^ 
u.fxapjjLivr]v irpaTTUv TOvg av^pwirovg ?] TraG)(^Eiv to. ytvo-ls 
fjisva, aXXa Kara filv ttiv irpoaipeGiv £Kacrroy KaTop^ovv i) 
ufxapTCLvuv, KOI Kara tyiv twv «^oi»Xtt»v daifxovwv ivipyeiav 



74 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

Toug (TTTOVdaiovcj, oiov '2t(i)Kpa.Tr}v Koi rovg ojuoiovg, ofw- 
K£G^ai Kcd iv 0£cr//oTc U-vai, "^apdavairaXov cl koX ^Ettikov- 

20 pov K(a Tovg ojuoiovg iv u(l)^ovia koi ^ut,y cokuv ev^uiimo- 
vuv. "^O /i>/ voijaavreg ol 'SiTio'iKoi Ka^^ Ufiapfiivriq livay- 
Ki]v TTuvra yivEG^aL a7re(p{)vavT0. 'AAA' ort avTat,ov(nov 
TO re tCjv ayyiXiov jivog kqX tCjv av^ptuTTtov tiiv ap)(i^iv 
iiroirjaev 6 ^tog, ciKaiwg VTrtp wv tiv TrXrjjUju^XijcTwcjt rrjv 

i5TLjiii)piav Iv alwviii) irvpi KOjtxiaovrai. Vevvr]Tov 0£ rravTug 
rjSs i) (pvtTig, KUKiag koX aperrig dsKTiKOV u.vai' ov yup civ 
r]v tiraiveTov ov^lv oi/rwv, u ouk rjv Itt^ af^K^KW^pa Tpima^ai 
Kai Svvafjiiv ^X^* Atf/cyuoucTf 8f tovto kcu ol TravraxoO 
Kara \6yov tov op^ov vo/xo^iTijaavTeg koi (piXodOfjjijCFavTeg 

50 av^p(i)7roL iK TOV vTTayopBViiv Tit^e /ulv TrpciTTeiVyTwvce c£ 
a7ri\£(7^ai. Kcu ol SronfCOJ cpiXoaoipoi Iv tu) TTfjOi rj^iov 
Aoyo^i TO. avTci TifiCocn KapTEpCjg, wg cr]\ova^ai Iv T(o ttepI 
up^Cw KOI ittjojjuaTWv Aoyo) ouk: fi/oooT^y avTOvg. E'/r£ 
yap Ka^ Ufiapn'cvriv (p^uovat tci yivofieva Ttpog av^piviriov 

35 yivEd^ai, i) ju^^^lv uvai ^eov irapa rpETro/ifya koi aAAoiOu- 
jLiEva KOL civaXvofXEva ug to. avTci atf, rj (j)^apTU}V /iioviov 
^avi]GOVTaL KciToXr^^iv l(j\r)KivaL kcu avTov tov ^eov cm rf 

TlOV fJlEpWV KOi ^la TOV oXoV EV TTCKDJ KUKICI yLVO/HtVOVf 1] 

juriclv elvai KciKiav jurjS' dpETfjv, oirep kol Trapu Trciaav au)- 
40 (jypova Hvvoiav Km Aoyoy Kai vovv Igtl. 

8. Ka( roue ttTTo tCov ^tioi'kmv ^l coy/zarwr, tTTEidi) Kciv 
The world TOV i^^tKOV Aoyov KOij/unoL y^yovaaiv, wg kol Iv 

hates the bear- ^ 

ers of the seed, tictiv OL 7roir]TaL cia to tfX^VTOv TTavri yivH dv 

^pWTTljJV GTTipfia TOV Ao-yOU, HEfllCTll]G^ CU KOI TTSCpOVEVrj^at 

5 oiSa/icv • 'HpaKAftroy jliev, wg TrpolcpriinEV, kol Movawviov 
cl tv Tolg Ka^' 7j/xac Kai a'AAouc oido/^ev. Qig yap Icn^juci" 



THE SECOND APOLOGY. 75 

vafXBVf TTctvTag tovq Kav ottwociittots icaTo. \oyov (Hiovv 
GTrovda^ovrag koX KCtKiav (p^vy^iv juiatla^ai del lvripjr}<jav 
01 dai/uLOveg. Oudlv ^h ^avfxaGTOV, d tovq ov Kara (nrep- 
fiaTiKov \6yov /J.^poc;, dWa Kara rr/v tov rravTOQ Xoyov, o lo 
itTTi XpiGTOv, yv(j)(Jiv Koi ^^lopiav ttoXu jULciXXov fiLaeid^ai 
OL dainovEg iXty^ojuevoL tvEpyovaiv' oi ti)v dt,iav koXgcfiv 
KOL TLfHi)piav KOfxidOVTaL Iv auov'iM TTvpX lyKXeicF^ivreg. Et 
yap VTTO Twv dv^pwiruw rjorj ^la tov ovojuaroc 'I»]orou Xpi- 
(jTov {]TTii)VTai, ctdayjua Igti rf/c /cai fjuXXovatjc; avrolg Koi 15 
Totc; Xarps-vovaiv avToXq Icrofibvi^g iv irvpi alwviM KoXaaetjg. 
OvTUjg yap Kal ol irpofpTirai TTcivrag 7rpoeK{ipvL,av yn>)\(n~ 
a^aif KaX 'It]<JOvg 6 ijjUiTtpog ^iddaKaXog t^i2a^5. 

9. "Iva ^£ pi) Tig tiTry to Xeyopsvov utto tujv vopi^opt- 

■^meiU a^iie- ^^^ (f) iXo (JO cpwv, OTi KOpTTOl KuX (J)6j3t]Tpd i(7TL 

CeSSitV of God's v\ ' r ,•> r - tr \ 'Y ' '' 

existence. ^« Afyo^fva v<^ i]pu)V, OTI KoAaC,ovTaL iv aiwvio) 
TTvpl 04 ddiKOi, Kal dia ^o^ov d\X ov ^la to kgXov uvai 
Kal dp£o>Tov Ivaphwg (diovv Tovg dv^pwirovg aL,LOvpiv, 5 
fdpa\ve7r(jijg irpog tovto diroKpivovpai, oti, d pi) tovto tcr- 
Tiv, ourf tcjTi ^Log, i) d ecTTiv, ov piXci avTto twv dv^ptoirinJVf 
Kal ovdiv Igtlv dpBTrj ouo£ KaKia, Kai, wg 7rpoi(pi]pev, ddi- 
KU)g Tipojpovaiv ol vopo^iTai TOvg irapapaivovTag to. ^la- 
T^Tayptva KaXa. 'AX/V Iitu ouk d?)iK0i Ikuvol Kal 6 avTOJVio 
iraTiip TCI avTci avTU) irpaTTUV ^la tov Xoyov cidd(7Kii)v, ol 
TOVTOig avvTi^ipevoL ovk a^iKOi. ^Eav ^i Tig TOvg ciacjjo- 
povg vopovg tujv dv^pwiriov 7rpoj5dXr)Tai, X^ytov otl irap 
olg plv dv^ptoTTOig tcics KaXd, to. Si al(T\pa vevopiaTai, 
Trap* ciXXoig Si to. Trap* iKUVoig alcrxpa KaXu, Kal Tti KaXa 15 
al(7xpd vopiLieTai, dKOVbTU) kol twv dg tovto Xeyopivcov. 
Kal vopovg SiaTd^a(j^aL ry lavTWV KUKia bpoiovg Tovg 



76 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

TTOvnpovQ ayytXovg eTTtcrrc/jUC^'a, oTc \aipovGiv ot vfioioi 
yevo/LievoL av^ptoiroiy kol opS"oc A070C nap^X^Mv ov Trdaaq 
20 So^ac ov^l TTuvra ^oyfJiaTa koXcl aTroc^iKVVGiv, aAAa to. 
fjilv (pavXa, TO. ^l aya^d ' ware jULOt kol Trpofj tovq toiov- 
Tovg TOL avTCL KoX TO. o/xoia upi}aiTai, kox \i\^i]a^Tai ^id 
ttXhovwv kdv Xpda y. Tavifv dl lirl -ro irpoK^i/xtvov 
dvipxoixai, 

10. MeyaXwjTSpa fxlv ovv irdaiqg dv^ptjJTrdov didaGKa^ 
Comparison of Xiag (baiveTtti Ta rjixlrepa ^id to XoytKoy to 

Christ with cs , « 

Socrates. oXov Tov ^avivTU cl rijudg XpidTov ysyovivai, 
KoX aCJfia /cat Xoyov kcu \pv)(i}v. "Oan yap KoXiog dd 
6 ecp^iy^avTO kol £vpov ol (piXoGO^ijaavT^g i) vo/io^eTiiaav- 
rsg, Kara Xoyov fitpog zvpiauog kol ^siopiag tcTTi Trovrj^tvTa 
avTo7g. ^Eirnd)) ca oi> Travra rd tov Xoyou lyvwpiaav, og 
Igti Xptarogf koX Ivavria tavTolg TToXXaKig uttov. Kcu 
Of TTpoyty E vt] juivoL tov XpKTTOv Kara to dv^p(jJ7rivov ^Xoy lo 

10 irsipa^ivTsg Td irpdyjuaTa ^^ojpridaL Koi IXty^aij wg acTEjStTc 
Koi ir^pitpyoL ug ^(/caorr/pta r/Y^»]o-av. 'O TrdvTwv ^l av- 
TLJV EVTOviJtJTi^pog TTpog TOVTO yevojUBvog '^MKpaTTjg Ta avrd 
rifiiv IviKXii^t}' /cat yap a^acrav avTov Kaivd ^ai/novia ua- 
(pipeiv, Ka\ oug 7) iroXig vojjli'^h ^eovg juii] -nyna^ai avTov. 

15 'O 0£ caijuiovag julv Tovg (jyavXovg Ka\ Tovg wpd^avTag a 
e.(pa(Tav 01 izoirjTai, iKJdaXwv Trig iroXiTeiag Kat ^'Ojuripov kol 
Tovg'dXXovg TroirjTdg, TrapaiTua^ai Tovg dv^pojirovg l^i- 
cac,i, TTpog ^eov ci, tov dyvwaTOv avTolg, ^id Xoyou ^t]Ti)- 
(Jitjg liriyvwaiv TrpovTpi-iTETO uttwv ' Tov ^£ TraTipa jcat 

20 crffxiovpyov iravTivv ov^^ evpuv padiov ou3"' evpovTa ilg 
navTag inrtiv da^aX^g. *^A 6 rfjuiTepog Xpiardg ^id Ttjg 
tavTOv cvvdp.s(i)g tirpa^e. '^WKpuTH fulv yap ovdeig eTreia^ti 



THE SECOND APOLOGY. 77 

UTTfjO TOVTOV TOV iiOyfiaTOg UTTO^VIICPKEIV, XpidTlO Se, To!) kol 

VTTO Soncparouc ciTra fnipovg yvwa^ivTi (Xoyog yap riv kol 
i(TTiv 6 iv TTavA toVf fcat ^id twv TrpocprjTiov TrpoEiirwv ra 25 
jutXXovra yivtcT^aL kol di iavrov ofxoiOTra^ovg yevojuivov 
KOI CLcu^avTog Tavra), ov (piXoaorpoi ov^l (/itXoAoyoi fiuvov 
t7rziG^r}(jaVf aAAci kol \EipoTi)(yaL KaX iravTeXt^g IBimtqi Kai 
co^rjg KaX 0o^3ou Ka\ ^avarov Kara^povZ/cravrf^ * tWEi^i) 
dvva/iig Igtl tov appijTOv irarpog kol ou^i av^pwirdov so 
\6yov KaradK^vri. 

11. OvK av §fc ov^e i(pov£v6/ne^a ov^e ^vvaTtLrepoL rijuCJu 

How Christians W^"^ Ot T£ a^iKOL av^pOJTTOi KaX daljUOVEg, tl fii] 

regard death. / v / ' r\. / v fv 

TTavTOjg TravTL yevvwiuivto ai/^jpwTrw Kai -Ja- 

vtiv wtpdXeTO ' o^Ev KaX to o^Xrj/ua aTrodidovTig ev\a- 

picrrovjuev, Kahoi ye kol to !B!,evo(pu)VT£iov Ikuvo vvv 5 

irpog r£ KpicTKevTa KaX Tovg ofxoiivg avTU) a(j)paivovTag 

KaXhv KaX iVKaipov £t7r£Ty riyovfx^^a. Toy 'Hjoa/cXca lirX 

Tpio^ov Tiva lt(j)r] o ^fvo^wy jSa^/^ovra evpuv tijv re 'AjO£- 

Ti'iv KttX TYiv KaKiav, Iv yvvaLKwv iuop(j)a1g ^aivofiivag, KaX 

Trjv julv KaKiav, appa la^riTL Kat bptoTOireTroirifuvM KaXio 

av^ovvTL Ik tCjv toiovtwv irpoadyTno, ^eXktikijv re sv^vg 

irpog Tag 6\peig oucray, htthv Trpo^ tov HpaKXia on, rjv 

avTij eirriTai, rj^oiuevov ts KaX K£KO(Tfxr}jnivov tco Xa/uTrpoTaTii) 

KaX ojuoiM Til) TT^pX avTtjv Kocrfiio ^laiTiicreiv aeX 7roii]<JH. 

KaX Tiiv 'AjO£T7/y ey av\iur]po) fuv tio Trpoawirij^ kcll rp irtpi-i^ 

ftoXy ovaav httuv * 'AXX' rjv t/ioi tteI^ij, ov koctjuio ouSe 

KaXXei rtj) piovTi kol (p^upofievoj ^avTov KOdjUijcraLg, aXXa 

rote ai^ioig KaX KaXoTg Koa/ioig. Kai 7ray3"' oynyouy TTf- 

Treiafie^a (jievyovTa Tti coKovvTa KaXa, to. ^l voiui^6p.Eva 

GKXr)pa KaX aXoya fXETEp\ofXEVov evCaijuoviav eK^i\s<j^ai.20 



f 



78 JUSTIN MARTYR. 

H jup KOKia, TrpoftXrjjua lai/r/jc tu)V Trpa^ewv ra irpoauvTa 
Tij ctpiTy Kcil 6vT(j)g ovra koXu 3m fjiifj.{]<jeujg ^^apTwv 
TTcpiftaWoiircvr] {afp^apTOv yap ov^lv i\Ei ov^l Tronlcrcu 
^vvarai), ^ovXaywyu Tovg ^ajiaiirtTHq rCov av^pwTTwv, Tci 
25 TrpofTOvra avTy 0auAa rij apEvfj TTEpi^Haa, 01 cf vivorj- 
Kureg to. Trpoaovra tio ovtl koXcl koX acp^aproi Ttj upeTy ' 

b Koi TTSpl \pi(TTiaVWV KUL TWV CtTTt) TOV a^XoV K ul TCOV 

av^pii)7ru)v Twv TOiavra 7TpaL,avTwv, O7ro7a i<paaav ol 
7roir)Ta\ irepX twv I'O/it^OjUtvwv ^eojv, viroXalduv ^u iravra 
30 vovvi)(r\, Ik tov kcu tov ^^vktov KaTa(l)p(jvuv rj/uag ^avarov 
Xoywjuov iXicovTa. 

12. Kal yap avTog syw, ToXg T[\dTU)vog xaiptov ^iddyiJLa- 

'^7?aus proved by ^" ^'^ ^fa/BaXXo/xeVouc ctKOVMV XpLGTiavovg, 

their contempt of '■"^v'l'/Q ^cv' v' 

death. optov 0£ acpojOovg irpog •^avaTOv /cat iravra 

ret aXXa vojui^ojueva 0o/3fjoa, Iv^voovv advvarov iivai iv 

5 KOKiq. Koi (l)iXr}dovia v-dp\HV avrovg. Tig yap (jjiXiicovog 

t) aKpaTrjg koi av^pwirivujv aapKuw (5opdv ciya^ov i]yov- 

fxevog dvvaiT av ^dvarov ocTTra^ecr^'ai, uTTwg rCov avrov 

dya^u)v (TTEpri^ijy dXX oi;k t/c iravTog Zv^ f^^^ diX t?)v lv- 

^d^e [5iOTi)v KOL Xnv^dvtiv rovg dpyovTag lireipciTOj ov^ 

10 oTi ye iavTuv KaTiiyyeX)<E ^ovEV^ri<j6pevov ', "H3»/ kol tovto 
lvi]pyr]Gav ol r^ayXoL ^ai/uLOV^g bia tivljv Trovriptjv dv^pro- 
TTwv 7rpa)(privai. ^ovivovng yap avToi Tivag tirl gvko- 
ipavTia Tij Elg i)iudg /coi ilg [^aaavovg aXjcucav olKtrag tCov 
7'jyLtmpwv rj TTal^ag i) yvvaia, koi cl alKKjpwv (popeptJv 

i6V^avayKdZovGi KaTeiiTEiv ravra rd fiv^oXoyovjueva, a avTol 
(pavspCjg TrpdrTOVcnv ' tov iiTudrj ouocy wpoasGTiv vptv, ov 
^povTi^oiiiVf ^tov TOV dyivvr]TOv Ka\ ctppi-jTOV juapTvpa 
i)(0VT£g Tbjv T£ XoyiGpwv Koi tCov 7rpd^i.wv. Tivog yap 



THE SECOND APOLOGY. 79 

^a/3iv ou^i KoX Tavra drffioaia wfxoXoyovfXBV iiya^a koI 
(^LkoGO^iav ^Eiav avTci aTredeiKVVfiiiV, ^adKovrtg Kpovovio 
fjilv fxvaTi]pia TeXeiv tv to> avcpo(j)OVEiv, koI tv rw aijuaTog 
eiUTTLirXacy^ai, wg XijETai, to, 'laa tm Trap v/uiv TifidyptivM 
d^(i)\to, (o ov inovov a\(jy(i)v Z,ojwv aljuaTa TrpoapalvsTE, 
oXXa Ktti av^pijJTrua, Sm rou irap vfxiv linGi)fioTaTOv koL 
Evyev£<jTaTOV avdpog ti)v 7rp6(T\y(Ttv tov twv ^ovEV^ivTwv 25 
uifxarog ttoiovjuevoi, Aiog St jcat rtov aWiov ^eiov /ufyUrjrai 
y I vojUEVOL Iv Tco av^pofdaraiv /cm yvvai^lv aceiog jLLLyvva^at, 
^EiriKOvpov filv KQi TO. Tujv TTOiYiTCJV Gvyy pa ju/naTa airoXo- 
yiav (pipovreg ; 'E7rffS») St ravra ret /bLa^i^fxara /cm rovg 
TavTa 7rpaE,avTag Kal pifiovfiivovg <pevyuv 7r£i3"o/i£y, wg kol so 
vvv Sm Tujvds tCjv Xoywy 7}y(i)vi(jjLie^a, TroiKiXujg ttoXejuov- 
fXB^a ' aXX ov (f)povTi^oiJ.EV, ettel ^eov rwv Trcivrayv ETTOTTTtjv 
^ikaiov OL^afXEV. E'/3'f icai vvv rig ev rpayiKij (^wvy cive- 
(56ri(jEV ETTL TL jST/^tt viprjXov avaf^ag * AIoeg^yjte, al^ia^rjTE 
a (pavEpwg TrpciTTETE Elg avaiTiovg avacpEpovTEg, /cat ra 35 
TTpomjVTa /cat EavTolg /ecu rote vfiETEpoig ^Eotg 7rfptj3aA- 

XoVTEg TOVTOig ' (JDV oif^EV OVO Eirl TTOGOV IXETOVaia EdTl. 

Metu^eg^e, Gcocppovia^rjTE, 

13. Kal yap tyw jua^wv TTEpiftXr^ina irovrjpov Elg diro- 

The Word has crrjOO«/)))y rwv aXXwv dv^pwTTWV TTEpiTE^EifXEVOV 
been iu all ^ ^ ^ ^ <> / 

meu. y-jj-Q T(i)v (pavXwv caijuovwv Tolg HpiGTiavwv 

^Eioig di^dyfiacTi, /cat \pEv^oXoyovfjiEv d) v ravra /cot tov tte- 

pL(5Xi]fj.aTog KaTEyiXaaa /cm Trig irapd ToXg iroXXolg ^oE^rjg. 5 

XpitjTiavog EvpE^ijvat /cat Ev^ofXEVog /cat irafxfxaywg aycjvi- 

t^ofiEvog o/LioXoytv ov\ ort dXXoTpid e<jtl ra UXdTwvog 

StSay/zara tov XpiaTov, ctXX' oti ovk e<jti Travrr} ofioia, 

tocniEp oii^E Ta twv dXXioVf ^TWiKiJov te /cat TTOirirtJV /cat 

F 



80 JUSTIN MARTYll. 

10 (jvyy pa(pi(x)v. "EKaarog yap tiq aVo fiipovg tov (nrepfia- 
TiKOV ^tiou \6yov TO avyyEvlg bpwv KoAdjc i:(p^iyE,aTO ' ol 
^l TctvavTia avToic Iv Kvpiun^poig ilpriKOT^g ouk linaT^ifiriv 
Ti)v tiTT T lo r o V Kol yvw(jiv T))v dviXeyKTOV (j)aivovTat 
ea\riKivai. "Oaa ovv irapa Tvaai KoXwg uprjrai, rj/udiv twv 

15 XpiGTiavivv i(7Ti ' TOV yop UTTO dyivvrjTOv kol dppijTov 
^£0v \6yov fiETa tov ^eov irpoaKWOUfjiiv kql ayaTTW/itr, 
fTTCiS?) Koi di i]fxag av^pwirog 'yf'yoyty, oirwg kol twv ttq- 
^(A)v TWV 7]iutTipix)v GV}i}ii:TO\og y^vofJLEvog Koi \a(nv ttoiI]- 
Gr\Tai. Oi yap avyypacpug ivdvTtg ^id T7ig Ivovarjg l/n^v- 

20 TOV TOV \6yov GTTopag dfxvcpwg IcvvavTO opav Td ovTa. 
"Erf/>oy yap Igti aTrepfia Tivog kgi fxifirjfxa KUTa cvva/uitv 
^o^lv Kal tTspov avTO ov Kard xapiv r>)y air tKelvov ri 
fXiTOVCTia KOI /uLiinriGig yivETUi. 

14. Kai vfxag ovv d^iovju^v viroypdipavTag to vjuiiv ^okovv 

Justin prays that TTpo^tivai tovt\ TO [5l[5\l^lOV, OTTlvg Kat To7g 
this appeal be ^ ^ „ v. <> , 

published. ciXXoig Td i]fJiiTipa yvwa'^ri /cat cvvwvTai Trig 

ipevdodo^lag fcat dyvoiag twv KaXwv air aWay rival, o\ irapa 
5Triv ^avTwv alriav virev^vvoi Taig Tijuwpiaig yivovTai ^ug 
TO yvw(T^tjvai Tolg dv^pwiroig TavTal^, ^id to Iv Ty ^vaa 
Tr~f TWV dv^pwTTwv Hvai TO yvwpi(TTiKov Ka\ov kg) al(T\pov, 
Kai ^id TO iifiwv, ovg oi;k ^TTicTTavTai romura oiroXa X^'you- 
aiv aiG\pd KaTa'^r](l)iZ,o^ivovg, Koi ^id to xaipeiv TOiavTa 
10 TTpd^aai ^£o7.g koi cVi vvv diraiTOvcn wapd av^pwirwv Ta 
ofxoLa, wg Ik tov /cm i]fxiv, wg TOiavTa rrpaTTOVcri, ^dvaTOV 
rj ^^ajLid i) dXXo ti tolovtov TrpOGTifx d v iavTOvg KaTaKpiveiv, 
wg fi)) ^tea^ai ciWwv ciKadTwv. 

15. Kai TOV tv Tw Ijuw t^vH dasjdovg Kal irXdvov "^ijuw- 
viavov ti^dynQTog KaTi({)p6vr}(ja. 'Eay ^£ vjuug tovto irpo- 



THE SECOND APOLOGY. 81 

ypa-djr]Ti,i]iXHq tolq iraai (bavspov av TTomaatiuev. 
Conclusion. ' -^ , ^ 

*iva d cvvaivTO fXiTa^tovrai ' tovtov js fxovov 

X^'pf^^ TOva^E Toug Xoyovg GvveTa'^aiuev. Ovic tort ^£ rjfxtjv 5 

Tu cibay/bLaTa Kara Kpicriv G(o(ppova (xl(T\pu, aWa Tracrijc 

plv 0(Ao(7O0mc ttv^pwirdov viriprepa ' d ch fXY], Kav Sw- 

TocdoiQ Kol *^i\aivi^doiQ KOI ^ A py^^cTpar zioiQ Koi 'E/rt- 

Kovpdoig Koi Totg aXXoig roig rotovTOig 7roir]TiKoig ^iday/ua- 

criv ov)(^ ofioiUy (ug lvTvy\aviLv iraai, Kui \iyojjiivoig /cat yc-io 

ypajafiivoig, avyKtXiopr^rai. Kai Travaoju^^a Xoiwov, otjov 

tip' i^fXlv vv TTpa^avreg jcoi TrpocT^Trcv^afjitvoL rTjg aXrj^dag 

KaTa^i(i)^rivaL Tovg iTiivTr) TTcivrag av^pijjirovg. Etrj ovv KOt 

vfiag a^iwg ^vaift^iag koL <j!>/Xo(70^mc ra BiKaia vTTip iav 

Tiov Kptvat. 15 



AIOrNHTON. 



1. ^ETTUdrj opioj KparicTTe Aioyvrjre, i/7rfp£(T7rouSaKora crs 

Introduction, ri^jv ^toatB^iav tCjv Xpi(TTiavu)v aa^uv Ktii 

The questions 

ofDioguetus. -j^avy aa(pCoc; Koi IttijueXmq irvv^avofisvov wefit 
avriov, rivi r£ S'fto imroi'^oTiQ »cai ttwc ^prjcTKivovTsg av- 
TuVjTOv TE Koajuov vTTEpopuxjL TTuvTeg Kctl ^avciTOv Kara- 5 
^povoiKTif Koi ovTe Tovc vojui^ojuivovc VTTO tCjv EAXj/ywv 
^i.ovQ\oyi^ovTai ovte Ti)v^lovcai(jt)v ceiaicaijuoviav (pvXacr- 
aov(Ti, Kot Tiva n)v (piXo<jTopyiav 'i\(wm Trpog a\\i]Xovg, 

Koi Tl ^1] TTOTE KUIVOV TOVTO jivOQ l) iTTlTll^EVfia ELdtlX^EV 

ilg Tov |3(ov vvv KOI ov irpoTEpoVf ciiro^i^oibLaL re tTiq Trpo-io 
^vfiiag at Tavrrjg, kol Trapa tov ^eov, tov kol to Xiyuv koi 
TO QKOVELV i]fXLV \opr\yovvTOQ, alTov/mai ^o^ijvm ejuoX fxlv 
eiTTElv ovTcog wg fxaXicrTa av ciKOvaavTo. as [^eXtiuj yevi- 
(T^at, (TOt be ovTwg ciKovcrai wc jU)) Xvirri^rivai tov eIttovtu. 

2. "Ay£ ci) Ka^apag (reavTov airo TravTUiv twv irpoKaTE- 

The heathen "^ovThiv GOV Trjv ciavoiav XoyiafxCjv, Kcu Tr\v 
world: the van- ^ 
ity of its idols. aTTaroicrav erf Gvvi]^ELav aTTOGKEvaadnEvog , Kiii 

yevofxevog uxjirep l^ ^PXVQ Kaivog av^pujirog, wg av koX 

Xoyov Kaivovy Ka^airsp kol avTog wjuoXoyrjaagf aKpoaTtjg 5 

iGojuievog, V^e ju?) /uovov Tolg ocp^aXfiolg aXXa kol Ty (^po- 

v{](jEi Tivog viro(jT(t(TEiog rj Tivog tiEovg Tvy)(^avov(Tiv ovg 



84 EPISTLE TO DIOGXETUS. 

IpuTE Kai vofiiZiT^ ^Qoug. Ov\ 6 fJiiv rig Ai^og 1(tt)v 
ojuoiog To> TTaTOVfiivto, o S' 1(JtI xO'^koc ov Kpd(T(Twv tCjv 

10 Etc Tt'jV y^py](TlV 'I)J11V K£\aX»v£UyU£yWl» CTKEUWV, 6 0£ ^v\oV 

1)^7] KOi a^arjTTog, 6 ^l apjvpog XPV^^v av^pwTTOV rou 0u- 
Xa^ovTog 'Iva pt) KXawy, 6 ^l Gi^r]pog vwb lov ^ie<p^appi- 
vog, 6 ^f oarpaKOV ovdlv rou Kar^aKivaapivov irpog r»}v 
ciTtpoTUTT^v vTTripeaiav iVTrpeiTtGrepov ; Ou <p^apTT]g vXrjg 

i5TavTa iravTa ; Ou;(^ utto Gidfipov kol irvpog KE\a\KEvpufa ; 
Oi/x o jU£y avToJv Xi^oE,6og, o ^e ^aXKEuCj o ^£ upyvpoKO- 
TTog, o ^£ KEpap^vg tirXacrEv ; Ou 7rp(y ?] rcug Tt\vaig rov- 
ru)v ilg Ti)v pop(l)ijv tovtljv EKTVTrtJ^rivai i]v iKaarov avrojv 
tKucTTM, wg m jcai vvv, pETapEpop^iopivoV, Ou tu vvv 

20 £k: TTi\g avTiig vXrjg ovra (jkevy} jevoit Ilv, e\ rv\OL tijjv au- 
T(l)v TE\virCov, opoia roiovTOig ] Ov ravra waXiv ra vvv v(f 
vpwv TTpoaKvvovpEva cvvaiT av vtto av^pMTTOJV (jkevy] 
vpoia jEVEG^ai Toig Xonro7g ; Ou Kw^a Travra ; Ou TV(j)Xa ; 
OvK a\pv\a 5 OuK avaia^r^ra ', Oujc aKivrjTa ; Ou TravTa trrj- 

25Tr6pEva ; Ou TTCLvra (p^EipopEva ; Tavra ^Eovg KaXarf, rou- 
TOig ^ovXzvETE, TOVTOig TrpoaKVVE^TE * teXeov c avTolg eE,o- 
poiovcT^E. Ala T0V70 plgeIte XpicFTiavovg oTL rovTOvg ou;^ 
rjyovvTaL ^Eovg. 'YpE7g yap, ol vvv vopi^ovTeg /cat olopE- 
voi, ov TToXv ttXeov avTwv KaTa(PpovE7TE', Ov TToXv paXXov 

30 avTOvg "y^XEva^ETS koi vj^piZETE, Tovg plv Xi^ivovg /cat 
ocyrpaKivovg (riBovTEg acpvXciKTOvgf TOvg o£ apyvpovg Ka\ 
\pv(70vg lyKXaiovTEg raXg vv^i, koI ralg ripEpaig c^vXaKag 
TTapaKa'^LGT avTEg,^lva prj KXaTTtJaiv ] Aig of c()ke7te Tipa7g 
'7rpo(T(j)LpEiv, eI pEv a](T^avovTai, koXci^ete uaXXov avrovg ' 

35 ft ^E avai(T^riTOV(Jiv, EXEy\ovTEg alpaTL Jcai Kviaaig avrovg 
^pr}(TKEVETE. Tou3"^ vptJv Tig VTTopEivaTit). TavTa ava- 



EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. 85 

a\t(T^h) TiQ iavTco ysvla^ai. 'AXXa av^pwirog filv ov^l 
UQ ravrriQ ti}Q KoXacrEWf^ tKUJV avt^^rai, aia^ricnv yap i:\iL 
Koi Xoyi(7fX')V ' o cl Xtvoc avt^craf, avafrr3'?jra yctp. Ou- 
Koui' rrjv a vaKj^rjaiav avrdiv iXiy^iTi. IIejOI filv ovv rou 40 
/J.}) cecovXCoa^ai Xpi(TTiavovg toiovtolq ^^oIq iroWa jjlIv 
a V Kol aWa eliruu by(oifiL ' d ^i rivi jlu) ^okoiyj Kav ravra 
iKava, TT^pidaov \]yovfjLaL kol to ttXeiw Xiy^iv. 

3. 'E^tjg ^l TTfjOt TOV fllj KCITU TO. CIVTCL ^lovdaiOlQ 3'£0Cr£- 

TheJevvs: their Qtiv avTOvg oiaai cr£ iiaXKyra TTO^ay ctKOvaai. 
superstitious 
sacrifices. lovbaloL Toivvv, tl /ntv aiTt\ovTaL ravrrjg Trig 

irpoup^fiiv^Q XaTpuaq koi ^^ajv tva tCov TvavTiov (Ttj^ea^aL 

cecTTTOTrjv ci^iovcn, cppovovcTtv' el ^l toIq irpouprifxivoiQ 5 

ojuoLOTpoTTwg r//y ^prjcric^iav irpoaayovaiv avTt^ rai/rrjv, 

ciajuapTavouaiv. ^A yap Tolg avairr^iiTOig Kai KwcpoXg 

Trpoa(p(povTzg 01 "EAX)JV£C a^poG\Jvr\g Stiyjua irapi^ovai, 

Tav^^ ovTOi Ka^aTTEp TTpocjciiOfJLivu) TM 3'£t.J XoyiZ^ofXEvoL ira- 

pi\uv fjujjpiav et/corwc ^aXAoy i)y<HVT av, ov 3'toa-f/3£<ay. 10 

O yap TTOiijaag tov ovpavov Ka\ tijv yriv ;cat rravTa Ta ^v 

avToXg, Km ttcktiv i]fuv ^(^nprjyiov wv Trpoac^ufxe^a, ovcevog 

uv avTog Trpoa^loiTO tovtujv wv Toig olojuivoig cicovai ira- 

p^X^'- Cf^^^^C' 0< 2^' 72 ^VGiag avTio cl alfxaTog koi Kvi<jr]g 

Ka\ oXoKavTWjiidTwv iiriTiXuv olo/nivoi, Ka\ TuvTaig Talgi^ 

Ti/uaTg avTov ytpaipuv, ov^tv /.tot ^okovcti ^lacpipeiv tCjv 

dg TO. Kijjfpa Ti)v avTi)v IvdeiKvviuLivwv (piXoTifiiaVy to. /ui) 

^vva/ueva Tijg Tijurjg fxiTaXafi^dv^iv, t 10 y £ cokhv Tiva 

Trapi\Hv Tw fxrj^Evug Trporr^Wfnvii). 

4. 'AXXa jurjv TO ye Trepi Tcig ^pijjaug avTwv ipocpo^tlg 
Their foolish /coi Ti)v TTepl TO. (Taj3/3aTa ^eiai^aiiLioviav kol 

rites, customs, , „ „ , . c, , x v _ 

aud ceremomes, tjji; ri]g TrtpLTOjurig aAaCyOreiav Kai TijV T)jg 



86 EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. 

VY](jTuaQ Koi vovfiYiviag eipufvuav, KaTayiXaara kol ouo£- 

5 voQ (i^ia Xoyou, o v vofii^ii) ae \pytieiv Trap' Ifiov jua^uv. 
To Tf yap tCjv vtto tov 3'fou KTia^ivTdJV e\g ^prjtjiv av^pix)- 
TTwv a fxlv ojg KaXwg KTiG^ivra TropaSf^so-S'a/, a 3' wg 
a\pr]aTa kolL TrepKraa irapairu.a^ai, irCJg ovic a^ifxiGTOv \ 
To ^£ Kara^pivdecr^ai ^eov, wg KwXvovTog Iv rij TtJv aaj3- 

ioj3«rwv Vju^pa KaXov ti ttoiuv, wojg ovk aasf^ig ; To ^l Ka\ 
Tijv ludaxTLv Trig (rapKog fxaprvpiov iKXoyTig aXa^^ovevea^ai, 
wg cia TOVTO it,aipiT(jjg i^yairrjiuivovg virb 3'fou, Trwg ov 
"XXevrjg aE,iov ; To 0£ Trapscp^vovTug avTOvg aarpoig kol 
(TEXiivrj TTiv TTapaTiipr^aiv tCjv firivCjv Kai rCov rjinsptov ttoi- 

15 a 0'3'at, /cat rag olKOvojuiag ^eov fcai rag tCov Kaipu>v aXXa- 
yag KaracLaipuv irpog Tag avTiov bpfxag, ag julv tig iopTa^, 
ag C£ ftc TTEi'^x], Tig av -^soaepeiag koi ovk a^poav- 
vrig TToXij wXtou 7]y{](jaiT0 §ay/xa ; Trig julv ovv KOivrjg 
HKai6rr}Tog Kat airanqg Kai Trig ^lovdaiiDV TroXvirpayfioav- 

20 vrjg Ka\ aXa^ovuag d) g op^Cjg cirrex^ovTaL Xpiariavoi, 

apKOvvTiog <te vofiiZfi) jUBfxa^riKivai ' to ^l Trig iBiag avTiov 

^toaaf^dag fivarijpiov fxrj TrpOGdoKrirrrjg ^vvaa^at Trapa 

av^pioirov jua^uv. 

5. XpiGTiavol yap ovrt y^ oure <^wvr) ovrt t^tcji ^laKe- 

The Christians: KpijUtVOl tCjv XoiTTWV UGIV av^p(i)7r(i)V. OvTE 
their customs 
aud condition, yap irov TToXffc l^tag KaroiKOvaiv ovra ^la- 

Ac/crw Tivt 7rapr)XXayiutvy \pC)VTaL ovre f3iov wapaarijULOv 

5 aaKovcfiv. Ov juqv tirivoiq, tivX fcai ^povr/St iroXvirpayno- 

vix)v av^pU)7T(x)v jua^Yijiia toiovt avroTg lariv ev prjiuivov, 

ouo£ coyjuarog av^pujirivov Trpotaraaiv, wair^p tvLpi. Ko- 

ToiKOvvTzg ^l TToXetc '^XXr\v[^ag ts Ka\ (3apf5apovg, wg 

etcaaTog f/cXr^pw^')/, ko t To7g ly^iopioig t^tGiv aKoXov'^ovv- 



EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. 87 

Tfc t'l' TS i(T^i}Ti KOI ^lairy kol tm Xonritt (3Uo, ^avjmGTi)vio 
KOI ofioXoyoviJ.iv(i}g Trapa^o^ov iv^dnvvvrai ti}v Karaora- 
aiv TrJQ iavTtJv iroXiTtiag. Ylarpi^ac oIkovgiv iciag, ciXX' 
log irapoiKOL ' fx^TiyovtJi iravTUiv tog TroXtra/, kcll 7rai^3"' 
vTTOfi'cVovGLv wg ^IvoL ' TTcicTa ^ivi) Trarpig iariv avrtov, koX 
iraaa 7raTp)g ^ivtj. Tajuovmv wg iravreg Ka\ tekvojovov-i^ 
Giv, oXX' ov piTTTOvai TO. yBvvivjUiva ' rpciTTt^av KOivriv 
TrapaTi^evTaty uXX ov jcotrrjy. 'Ey GapKi Tvy)(^avov(7tv, 
aXX' ov Kara atipKa ^Cjaiv ' iin j^g ^laTpi^ovaiv, «XX' Iv 
ovpavio TToXiTevovTcii ' ird^ovrai rolg wpKyfiivoig vujuoig, 
KoX Tolg l^ioig l^ioig vikCjgi Tovg voiuovg. ^Ayairioai 770^-20 
Tag, Kai vno ttuvtwv ^kjokovtoi. ^Ayvoovvrai, koi kutq- 
KpivovTQi ' ^avarovvTai, koi ^tooiroiovvTai, llTto^ivovai, 
KOL TrXovTi^ovtji TToWovg' iravTiov vaTepovvrai, koi Iv 
iraai TTEpiaaevovaiv. ^ArijuiovvTai, Kiii Iv raXg aTifximg 
^o^a^ovrai' [5\a(7(f)r)iuovvTai, kol ^iKaiovvTai. Aoidopovv-'i5 
TGI, KOI avXoyovcTiv ' vjipil^ovrai, kqX Tijuioaiv. ^Aya^o- 
TTOtovvT^g wg kokoj KoXo^ovrat * icoXa^o/iEvot \mpov(jiv 
^g ^(jjoTTOiovpavoi. Ytto ^lovcaiiov wg aXXo^uXot ttoXe- 
fjLovvTai Koi virh 'EXX^/vwy ^lioKOvrai ' kcu tyiv aWiav Tijg 
i)(^pag eIttuv ol fUCTOvvTig ovk t^ovaiv. 30 

6. 'AttXwC ^' ilirtlV' OTTEp Igt)i> EV GLOjUari \pV)(f]fTOVT 

They are the uaiv iv Kocrpio Xpiariavoi. ' EaTraprai Kara 
soul of the ^ „'^_, 

world. TTavTiov Tiov Tov GtopaTog jusAUJV 1) "^vxh ' Kat 

Xpi(TTiavo\ Kara Tag tov koctjuov ToXtig. OIkh jutv Iv tio 

G(ji)fJiaTL ipv\{], oufc £<Tr< St £k: tov awjuaTog ' Ka\ XpiaTiavol 5 

iv Koapoj oIkov(jiv, ovk iiai dl lie tov kocj/hov. ^AopaTog 

7] ipvxn iv opaTot (ppovpuTai tm awpaTi ' KaX XpiaTiavol 

yivixXTKOVTat jUtv ovTsg Iv tu) KOd/LUo, ciopaTog o£ avTwv ?/ 

F2 



88 EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. 

^Eocftpeia fJLiv^L. MiGH Ti)v ipv)(iiv i) traps Kai iroXe/JiH 

lOjurjoty a^iKOv/mtvYj, ^ioti tuIq i)^ovaig KioXv^Tai \fjria^ai ' 

fJLiau. Koi Xpiariavoui; o koctjuoc jurjc^v aciKOviu^voc, otl tciXc 

i)^ovaXg uvTiraaaovTai. 'H '^pv\rj Ti}v fxiaovaav uyairo 

aupKa KOL TO. fAtXt] ' KOL Xpi(TTiavoL TOV(j fjLiaovvTaq aya- 

TTtJcFiv. ^EjKiKXiifTTai filv 7] "^pv^ii TO) aijjfiaTi, Gvvi\ei ^£ 

15 avri) TO (jLj/ma' kol XpiGTiavoX Kari^ovrai lulv wcj Iv tppov- 

pu Tui Kocrfjuo, avToi ce (Tvvi)((:wai tov Kocrfiov. ^ A^avarog 

V 4'^X^I £1' ^vr]Tio <JKrivwp.aTL KaroiKti ' koX Xpicrriavoi ira- 

poiKovaiv iv (p^aproig, ttjv Iv ovpavolg cKp^apaiav 7rpo(Tce- 

\6fxevoi. KaKOvpyovjUivri gltioiq kol ttotoXq i) 4'^xri /3fX- 

20 Tiovrai' Koi XpiaTiavol KoXa^o/uevoi ku^^ i^/utpav TrXeova- 

i^ovai fxaXXov. Etc Toiavrrjv avTovg tci^lv t'^^TO 6 ^fo^, 

rjv ov ^siiUTov avTfHQ TTapaiTr](Ta(T^ai. 

7. Ov yap iTTiytiov, wg Ifpr^v, ^vpr]jua tovt uvrotg ttq/de- 

Thcir religion do^Yjj ovdi ^vr]T))v tTTivoiav ^uXaacTffy ovriog 

not of man, _^ ^ , ^ , 

but of God. a^iovfTiv tiriiuekiog, ovcl av^pwirivbjv oIkovo- 
fiiav iuv(TTt}pi(t)v 7re7ri<TTevi'Tai. 'AAA' avTog aXrj^iog o 
6 7ravTOKpaT(jt)p kol TravTOKTiarrjQ kcu aoparog 3'soc, avrog 
air ovpaviov tijv aX//3'f(av Kai tov Xoyov tov ayiov kol 
awfpivoifjTOv (tv^p(i)7rotg ^vi^pvae Kcd lyKaTiGTiipi^z Tulg 
Kap^iaig aiiTOJv' ov, Ka^ciiTEp av Tig hkugh^v av^puiirog, 
VTTrjptTtjv Tiva Tripxpag i] ayytXoy ?/ ap\ovTa ?/ Ttva tCjv 

10 SffTTOvrwy to. liriyua ?'/ Tiva tCov TTi^TncsThVjxivwv Tag tv Ob- 
pavolg ^L0iKy](Jug, aXX' avTov tov Tt\viTr]v Ka\ cr]jj.LOvpyov 
TtJv oX(i)v, 0) roue ovpavovg £»cr(crfv, lo ttjv ^aXacraav Iciotg 
opoig iviKXiKTBV, ov Tti juvcTTiipLa TTiGTwg iravTa (^vXaaaei 
TO. oTOiY^To, Trap* ov to. piTpa tiov Ttjg r]jiipag cpofxtjjv hXi]- 

15 </)£ (pvXaaanv i)Xiog, lo 7rii^ap\H (TfX>yi'»? ^v vvktI (^atvEiv 



EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. 89 

KtAtuovri, t|) TT^L^apXH TCI cKTTpa Tio tT/c (T£\i)vr]fj iiKoXov- 

^ovvTa ^pofxh), o) iravTa ciaTtTaKTai kol ^uopiaTai kqi vtto- 

TtraKrai, ovpavol kcu tci tv ovpavolq, yT/ kol tu Iv tT) yfi, 

^aXaacra kol to. tv Ty ^aXacTCTrj, TTvp, aiip, a^^VGaog, ru Iv 

vipeaifTo. tv j3a3"£a<, ra tv tco ju^tq^v. Tovtov irpog aii- 20 

TOVQ UTricrTEiXuv. 'Apa y^, wg av^pwirix^v av Tig \oyi- 

GaiTOy lin TvpavvioL kol 0o/bo> icot K:ara7rX//s£/ ; Ovjuevouv' 

aAX' Iv tirieiKeia k(iI TrpavTi]Ti. 'Q,g jSacnX^vg Tr^pirwv 

viov [dciGiXici t~(:H\p^v, ojg •3'toy iirc-pip^v, dyg wpog av^pu)- 

TTOvg tiTifi'^Ev, wg ato^wv £7r£/^/^cr, wg —d^wv, ov j3<as<>iU£-25 

vog ' ftia yap ov Trpoa^ari t(o vfw. "ETrtjt/^fy ojg KaXiov, 

ov cLit)K<vv ' tir^p'ipiv wg aya—iov, ov Kpivii)v. Ucp^SL yap 

avTOv KpivovTa' jcot Tig ctvTOv tijv irapouaiav uTroorZ/at- 

Tai ', . . . [O u Y '^/o{*c] "irapal^aWojuivovg ^rjpioig, 'Iva 

apviiadJVTCiL Tov Kvpioi', Ktd pij viKiOfiivovg '^ ^^X opagzo 

o(Tb) irXuov^g KoXa^oiTot, togovtm TrXeova^ovrac aWovg ; 

TavTa av^piOTTOV ov cokh to. ipya, tuvtci ^vvapig Ictti 

^eov ' TavTa Trig irapovaiag avTOV btiyfiaTa. 

8. Tig yap oXiog uv^ptoTTtjJv riTTiGTaTO tl ttot IgtI ^sog. 

The wretched TTjOty aVTOV bX^HV '^ '^H TOvg Kwovg Ka\ XrjptL)- 

state of the ^ , , ^ , ' c>/ - ■> y , 

world before dttg iKeivatV AojOVg a7rOO£Yr7 TIjJV atlOTTlGTCOV 

the Son of ^ ^ ' '^' 

God came. 0tXo(TO<^tov ; tov 01 ptv Tiveg TTvp ^(fyaaav sivai 

TOV ^U)V (oU fuXXovai \b)p{]GUV aVTOl, TOVTO KaXovcTi 5 
^tOv\ OL 0£ VCtOp, 01 O oXXo TL TWV OTOt^t/wV T(OV ^KTKTUt- 

viov viro ^eov. KaiTOi yf, tl Tig tovt(i)v tCov Xoyii)v airo^iK- 
Tog iCJTi, cvvaiT liv fcai twv Xoittmv KTicrpaTtov tv tKacTTOv 
ojULOuvg ctTTO^an^Eo-waf -vcoy. 'AXXo TavTa plv TtpuTtia icat 
irXavr] twv yoyTwv taTiv. ^Av^pu)7r(i)v Sa ov^tig ovte H^tvio 
OVTE tyvwpiatv avTog ce tavTov t-idEic^tv. iL7rtcEit,s ct 



90 EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. 

^m TTiGTtwg, y jiioinj ^tov i^£:7v avyK^\wpr]Tai. 'O yap 
^fCTTTorrjc *^u\ ^Yifiiovpyoq tujv oAwy ^foc, o TTon\aaQ to. 
iravTa kqI kcitu Tcit,iv ciaKpivag, ov povov ^iXav^ pw7ro<; 

ib^yivQTO aWci kol puKpo^vpog. 'AAX' ovrog i}v plv ad 
rotovTOfj Km tort /cat 'iaraty \pr}fjT()g kol aya^og kuI dopyrj- 
Tog Kcti aXr^vj/c, Kot povog dya^og Irrriv ' twofjaag ^l pe- 
ya\r}v kul acppaaTOV ivvoiav dinicotvijjaaTO povu) rui Traici. 
'Ev oaoj plv ovv KaTH\sv tv pvcrrripuo kol citrfipei tjiv ao- 

2O0?/y avTOv (3ovXi)v, dpeXnv r]p(jjv Koi drppovTitrrdv I^okel' 

iTTfi dl dTTEKciXvips ^lo. Tov dyaTTr}Tov iraidog kol Ic^avipujat 

TCI l^ dp\7ig {]TOipaapiva, ttoi'S"' apa 7rap^(7\iv vplv, Kal 

p2Ta(7\nv Tujv evupyECFUov aiirov Kcti Icuv Kcii voriaai a Tig 

av TTtJTTOTE 7rpofT€OOfvrf(Tf V rjptiiv y 

9. ndvT ovv i]dr) Trap iavTio avv Tut nai^l oIkovo prjKivg, 

Rensons why pi:\pi plv OVV TOV Trpoa^EV \povov tiaaev r]pag 
He came so^^ 
late. ^^)(^ IpovAop^^a dTUKTOig <popa7g rp^psa^aij 7/So- 

va7g Ka\ iTTi^vpiaig aTrayopwovg, ov TrdvTwg i:^r}^6pEvog 

5 ToXg dpapTtipacriv -fjpwv, aXX' dv£)(opevog, ov^l ti^ tots Ttjg 

d^iKtag Kaipu) (jvvbvcokwv, dWa tov vvv Tiig ^iKaioavvrjg 

^rjpiovpywv, "va tv raj Tore \p6vo) i\Ey)(^avT£g Ik tljv (St- 

(ov £py(ji)v dvd^iOL ^torig vvv vtto Trig tov ^hov ^pricjTOTrjTog 

dE,uo^(JtJptv, KOI TO Kn^' tavTX)vg (pavepwaavTEg d^vvaTOv 

\o hcteX^hv tig TTJv (5aGi\eiav tov ^sov tij ^vvdpu tov ^eov 

^vvaTo} yevri^iijpsv. 'Etth Sf TTEirXijpwTO plv i) ijptTtpa 

d^iKia, Kai TiXdwg 7ri(l)avEpiiJT0 on o pia^bg avrrig KoXaaig 

Ka\ ^dvaTog irpoae^OKaTOj rjX^E ^l o Kaipog ov ^wg Trpoi^e- 

To XoiTTov (jyaveptjaai ttiv tavTOv ^(^pYjaTOTrjTa fcai cvvapiv (w 

15 Trig v7repf5aXXov(Tr]g (piXav^pwTTiag Ka\ dycnnjg tov ^eov), 

ovK ipiarjcrev rjpag ov^l diriiXjaTO ovde Epvtj(TiKdKr}(T£V, aXXa 



EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. 91 

tfiaKpo^i)fit](r^Vy r]V'c(j\ETO, avToc tu£ ijfitTtpag UjmapTiaQ 
avt^L^UTO, avTixj tov tStoy viuv ciTrtooro Xvrpov vnlp tjjlujv, 
Tov ayiov virlp ruiv avo/iiMV, tov ciKaKOv virlp twv KaKwv, 

TOV ClKaiOV WTTfjO TOJV dciK'jJVy TOV Ct^^OjOTOy Vnlp TWV 20 

(j)^apT(t)v, TOV d^avaTov VTilp tiJjv ^vr}Tiov. Ti yap aWo 
Tag djuapTiag i^juujv r}cvvi)^r} KaXvif^ai i) Ikuvov ^iKaioavvr] ; 
'Ey Tivi ciKai(i)^t}vai ^vvutov tovq dvofiovg Vjuac /cm oac- 
(5e7g rj Lv fxovo) tm vioj tov S'tou ; ^O Trig jXvKdag dvTaX- 
\ayr\g, w Trjg dvEE,ixyid(TTOv ^rjjuiovpyiag, w twv d7rpoado-25 

KlITWV £Vi:pyi:(TlWV ' tVO dvOJUlU julv TToWwV iV dlKaUO tl'l 

Kpvpij, ciKaiocTVvr} cl ^vog TroXAouc dvojuovg ^iKaiwarj. 

^EXty^ag ovv Iv fxlv t(^ rrpoa^ev \p6v(o to dcvvaTOv Tijg 

liju^TQpag (pvaewg elg to tv^^Tv t^wrjCf vvv ^i tov awTiipa 

^u^ag SvvaTOv gwc^hv Kat to. ddifvaTa, i^ djUfjiOT^pow f/3oii-30 

\i}^H TTKJTtvHV rifxag ry \pr\(JTOTriTi avTov, avTov nyua^at 

Tpocpia, iraTipa, ^iddaKaXov, avju[5ovXov, laTpov, vovv, 

(pwg, Tifiiiv, ^o^av, 1(t\vv, Z^oijv, irEp). Ivdua^wg Ka} Tpofpyg 

furi fAipijXvdv. 

10. Taurrjv icm ah tyjv ttigtiv lav TTO^ijGijg, kgt a Xdj5 o i g 

Conclusion, uv irpwTOV filv liriyvwaiv iraTpog. O yap ^tog 
Exhortation to ^ , , , , <> > t\ -. / r 

Dioguettis to roue av-^pwTTOvg 7jya7rr/(Tf, ot ovg tTroiija^ tov • 
become a ^ 

Christian. Koa/iov, olg VTTtTa^e TTCLVTa TO. Iv [r y yyj, oig 

Xo-yov t^wKSVf olg vovv, olg juovoig a[yw'\ irpog avTOV opav 5 

iTTtTpsxpeVf ovg Ik Trig l^iag UKOvog tTrXarrf, irpog ovg dwi- 

fTTEiXs TOV viov avTOv TOV /uovoysvri, olg ti)v tv ovpavw 

(daaiXeiav lirriyydXaTO Kai dwG^i Tolg dyairijaaaiv avTOv. 

^ETTiyvovg ^£ Tivog ottt TrXripw^iiaEa^ai \apag ; H TTwg 

dyairiiaetg tov ovTwg irpoayairyiaavTa at ; ^AyaTrfiaag ^l lo 

fxifxr]Trig \ayj avTOv T^ig \priaTOTriTog. Kat ^uy ^avixdayg 



92 EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. 

il cvvarui fAi^riTijg av^pwTioc; y^vLa^ai ^eov. Avvarai 
^cXovTor avTov. Ou yap to KaTacvva<mv^tv tiov ttAt}- 
(jiov ovcl TO ttXc'ov t\nv (3ov\ea^ai tCjv a(T^evs(TTipiov 

Isou^E TO irXovTtiv Kol f^ia^^a^cii Tovg VTro^t^aT^povQ iif^ai- 
fjLOvuv Igtlv, ovcl Iv TOVTOig cuvaTal Tig jLUjuijaaa^ai S'aoi', 
aXAa TCivTa tKTog Tr]g iKtivov jUijaA^LOTrjTOfj. 'AXX' octtiq 
TO Tov Tr\r](7iov uva^i)(f:Tai l^upog, og tv of Kpuaauw Igtiv 
iTEpov TOV tXaTTOVfievov evspyeTtiv t^eXEi, og a Trapa tov 

2o3'£ou Ao]3wy i\Ei, TUVTa Tolg tiri^EOjutvoig \npriywv ^tog 
yivETai Ttov XapjdavovTwv, ovTOg fxi}j.r\T{ig iaTi 3'£0u. Tore 
^Uiai) Tvy\avwv im ytjg otl ^tog tv ovpavolg ttoXltevetqi, 
TOTS fivcTTiipia ^eov XaXkXv ('tpE,y, tots Tovg KoXa^ojuivovg 
t7r\ Tto fj.)) r^tXtiv apviiaaG^cii ^eov kol ayair^iasig kcu ^lw- 

25fjiu(TEigf TOTE TT]g uTTaTYig TOV Koa/uov Kcd Ti]g 7rXav}]g kutu- 
yvixxjy, otqv to aXt^^tog tv ovpavco Z,r\v tiriyviog, otqv tov 
coKovvTog Ev^ade ^avuTov KaTa(ppovii(r7jg, otqv tov ovTijjg 
^avaTOv (jwpr^^iig, og (pvXcicraETaL Tolg KaTaKpL^ri(Jop.i:voig 
iig TO TTvp TO ahoviov, o TOvg Trapa^o^tvTag avTto fdxP^ 

Z^TiXovg KoXaaEL' tote Tovg virofiEvovTag VTrlp ciKctioavvrjg 
^avjuacTEig to wvp to 7r/)ocr[icafjO o v], koI /uaKapiaEigf otqv 
ekeXvo to TTvp ETTiyvojg. ... 



1^11. Ou sfVa ofxiXo) ov^E TrapaXoywg ^rjTU), aXXa otto- 

Addition by an- gtoXmv yEvojUEvog iua^r]Ti)g yivojuai ci^acTKa- 

other hand. ^ , „ v r\ / ■> c^z r 

I speak with an- AOC E^vCoV, TCI Trapaho^EVTU tlLlOJg VTrtipETW V 

thoiity. I know , >^ b /r 

whereof I affirm, yivoixivoig ciXri^Eiag jua^rjToig. Tig yap 6p- 

b^cog biC)n\^E\g kol Xoyw TrpoacpiXri g yEvri^E)g ovk etti- 

L>^te1 (Ta(l)wg fj.a^Elv to. Sat Xoyou ^Eix^EVTa (pavepwg jua- 



EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. 93 

^riralg, oTc iffyav^pujaev 6 Xojog (pavtitj, Trapprjau^ XaXwr, 

VTTO aTTioTiov jui) voovjUBVog, /ma^riToig ^e ^iqyovfx^vog, o'l 

TTKJToi Xoyia^tvreg vir' avrov tyvwcrav Trarpog fivcTTfipia ; 

Oi; xapiv ciTTiCTTeiAe Aoyop, 'iva KUdfiM (pain) ' oc, viru Aaouio 

ctTijuaa^tic, eta uito<jt6X(i)v Kr]pv)(yiif;, viro l^viov tTTicrTtu- 

^rj. OvTog 6 aw' apx^lCj o Kaivog (pavtig Kal rraXaiog 

tvpi^Hg Ku\ TTuvTOTa vtog Iv ayiwv Kap^iaig yavvtofjievog. 

OuTog 6 ail, o afifiapov viog Xoyi(7^iig, ^i oi) 7rXoi»r/^frat 

1] f/cfcArjcrm Ka\ xopig ctTrAou/ttrrj tv ayioig 7rArj3"u)/£ra<, 15 

7rapi\ovaa vovv, (pavEpovora fivaTiipia, ciayyiXXovaa Kai~ 

povg, xaipovaa c-n-t iriGTolg, iiricivjTovai diopovfitvrij oig 

opKia TriGTEwg ov ^pavtTai ov^l opia iraTtptov irapopi^i:- 

Tai. Eira (j)(')ftog vu/uov acirai jcm 7r/jO(^)jrwy X^'P^^' yivix)- 

<TK(:TaL Ka\ evayy^Xiwv Triarig 'idpvTai icat aTToaroAwi' 20 

TTapadoaig (^vXaaGtrai kui ^KKXrjGiag X^^P" CTKipra. '^Hy 

X^P^^ l^^l XvTTMV tiriyvioar) a Xoyog o/uXtl, di wv /BouAcraf, 

ore ^tXii. 'Ocra yap ^eXiijuaTi tov K^X^vovTog Xoyov tKi- 

Vii^rjjUiv £s£t7ray fiiiTa ttovov, £^ ayaTrrig rCov airoKaXvrp^iv- 

riov i]fxiv yivofia^a vfXiv koivojvoi. 25 

12. Oig IvTVX'^vreg icat uKOvaavreg juera airov^rig acrfcrS'E 

Read and heark- ocra TTopiYei o ^tog TOig ayaTTwaiv op^ojg, 
en, and you will ^ ' 

leum, qI y^i/ojuivoL TTapacBiaog rpiKpiig, iruyKapirov 

t,i)Xov, iv'^aXovv, avaniXavTEg Iv kavroig, iroiKiXoLg Kap- 

TToig KEKOGfxr]fxtvoi. 'Ey yap rovrto ru) ^Wjo/w ^vXov yvu)- 5 

crevog /cai ^vXov ^wT/c TTEcpvTevTai ' aXX' ov to Tijg yvojaeiog 

avaipti, aX/C 77 TrapuKOi) avaipn. Ov^l yap cKrrjjua to. 

yay pafJLjJLivay wg ^eog aw apx^lQ ^vXov yvwGEwg Kai ^vXov 

ii^wrig iv juiffii) Trapaciiaov t^urfixre, dia yvwaetog ^wr/i^ 

iTTiceiKvvg ' ij fjii) Ka^apiog XPV^^I^^^'Oi 01 aw' apxvg wXainjw 



94 EriSTLE TO DIOGNETUS. 

Tov o^^wc yeyvjULVijovTai. Ou^l yctp ^w?) liv^v yvujcrtwc;, 

iKUTEpOV TT^CpVTWTai. '^B.V ^VVajUlV 5:Vldu)V O UTTUGToXoc, 

t{\v te livEV aXtf^Eiag TrpodTciyjuaTOc; etc ^tt»>)v d<Jicovju(vr)v 
'[5yvu)aiv fXEiKpofJLEVOQ, \tyEL' 'H 'yvwo-fC (pV(Jio7,i) ^l dyuTrri 
oiKoSojuti. yap vojui^wv elbtvai ri aviv yvtoaetjg a\i]- 
3'ouc i^ciL fjLapTvpovfiivr]Q vtto tiiq ^wr/^ oi)K t-yvw * vtto tov 
6(j)i:(t)Q TrXavdraif ft)) ay airiicrac; to ^tjv ' 6 ^l jutTci 0o/3ou 
tTTLyvovg Ka\ Z(i)i)v tTrit^r^TCjv, tir tXiridt ^vTtvti, Kapirov 
20 irpocT^OKtov. "Htw gol Kap^ia yvCjGiq, t^wi) c£ Xoyoc dXi}- 
^{jQ, -^ajpovfiivog. Ov ^vXov (^ipujv kol Knpirov \_ai^p(vv 
Tpvy)i<jHQ eta ret irapa ^foJ Tro^ovjJLEva, wv ocpig ov)^ aiTTi- 
Tai' ovdl TrXctvr) Gvy\pii}TiZ^TaL Eua ov^l (jj^eipeTaifdXXa 
Trap^evoQ -LGTtvtTai ' Ka\ (JU)Tiipiov ^tiKVVTai, Ka\ aTTocrro- 
25X0L (TVveTiZovTai, Kot TO Kvpiov TTuaxa TTpoipxeTai, Kai 
Ki}po\ GVvdyovTai Kat juetci KO&pov dppoZovTai, fcoi ^i^ii- 
(TKWV dyiovg 6 X070C ivcppaivETui, ^t ov iraTrjp cot,dZ^Tai ' 
to 17 So^a £(c TOVQ altovag. 'A/w//v.] 



ANALYSES AND NOTES. 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. 



The date of the First Apology has always been a mat- 
ter of dispute. The extremes vary between 138 and 160, 
between the accession of Antoninus Pius and the last year 
of his reign. 

Semisch maintains that the absence of the designation 
of Caesar from the name of M. Aurelius in the address 
proves that the Apology was composed between 138 and 
139; that is, after the accession of Antoninus Pius and 
before the elevation of M. Aurelius to the rank of Caesar. 
But this argument falls away if we read with Ueberweg 
and others kuI KalaapL OuT/pto-at/iw in c. 1,2. 

On the other hand, recent critics, Ueberweg, Cavedo- 
ni, Bohringer, Yolkmar, and Keim, insist on a later date. 
Before 147 Marcionism had not spread so widely as is 
represented by Justin himself (cc. 26, 58), and the whole 
tone of Justin towards Marcion has the bitterness of per- 
sonal controversy ; and if the Apology was written at 
Kome, as Eusebius asserts, the date of Marcion's work 
at Rome, which did not begin to be felt before 142, 
must go far to determine the question. Too much stress 
must not 1)6 laid on Justin's statement that 150 years 
had passed since the birth of Christ, for Justin's chronol- 
ogy is not the most accurate ; but this date coincides 
most remarkably with the nine hundredth year of the 
city, 147 A.D., when M. Aurelius, on occasion of the ludi 
saecidares, was made tribune and joint regent. A fitter 
opportunity could hardly have been found for our Chris- 
tian philosoplier to present liis remonstrance in the name 



98 THE FIRST APOLOGY. 

of piety and pliilosophy against the shameless treatment 
to which the Christians were subjected. 

The argument drawn from the surname of Lucius Ye- 
rus is of little wx^ght either way. The title was merely 
official ; and in point of fact the boyhood of Verus, ac- 
cording to his biographer, was marked by unusual love 
of literature. 

ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST APOLOGY. 

(After Otto.) 
The First Apology may be divided into three parts. 

I. In the First Part Justin shows — 

1. That the Christians ought not to be condemned 
without a fair hearing. 

2. That they are innocent of all crime. 

II. In the Second Part he gives the arguments for tlie 
truth of the Christian religion. 

III. In the Third Part he describes the worship of the 
Christians. 

I. After the address (c. 1) Justin boldly demands jus- 
tice (c. 2), and claims for the Christians the privileges of 
all defendants (c. 3). It is unjust to condemn Chris- 
tians for the mere name's sake without hearing their case 
(c. 4) — an injustice which is to be traced to the instigation 
of the demons (c. 5). The Christians are no atheists ; 
they worship God the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit 
(c. 6). If some Christians have been convicted of crime, 
the innocent are not to be punished for the guilty (c. V). 
Nay, the innocence of the Christians is the more manifest 
in that they prefer death to falsehood (c. 8). Nor are 
the Christians to be blamed for their refusal to worship 
images — an absurd worship (c. 9) ; nor for believing that 
God does not need their irifts — God the creator of all 



ANALYSIS. 99 

things (c. 10). The state has iiotliing to fear from them. 
Christ's kingdom is not of this world (c. 11). No bet- 
ter subjects of the Empire than the Christians (c. 12)* 
To show the proper attitude of the question in its polit- 
ical bearings, Justin goes back to the refutation of the 
charges which he has already repelled, re-affirms that 
the Christians are not atheists, and emphasizes the puri- 
ty of their worship of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost 
(c. 13) ; the wonderful change in character and life since 
they forsook the service of demons (c. 14) ; and brings 
forward some of the great doctrines of Christ, which 
are scrupulously observed by the Christians — of chastity, 
of love to all, of charity to the poor (c. 15) ; of patience, 
of the avoidance of swearing (c. 16) ; of obedience to 
kings, of payment of tribute (c. 11). If such citizens as 
these are to be despised, the Martyr, rising to prophetic 
height, threatens the Emperors with judgment to come, 
which even the Gentiles believe, how much more the 
Christians, who also hope for the resurrection of the 
body (c. 18) — no more difficult thing for God than crea- 
tion itself (c. 19). Doctrines akin to this Gentiles have 
taught. Hence it is not just that the Christians alone 
should be persecuted (c. 20). In like manner there is no 
absurdity in what the Christians teach concerning the 
Son of God, his generation, incarnation, death, resurrection, 
and ascension, in view of the manifold extravagances of 
the poets concerning the sons of Zeus (cc. 21, 22). 

II. Justin undertakes to prove three things : 

1. That truth is taught by the Christians alone. 

2. That the Son of God was truly incarnate. 

3. That the fables of mythology were invented by 
demons to discredit the advent of Christ, and make that 
appear to be a fable likewise (c. 23). 



100 THE FIRST APOLOGY. 

1. Truth is taught by the Cliristians alone because they 
alone are not alloAved to say what others say. Others 
may worship what they will. IViey are persecuted by 
reason of the truth (c. 24). Next, because it is love of 
the truth alone that makes them worship the true God 
in the face of death (c. 25). Finally, because those wlio 
corrujot the truth of the Christian religion by errors do 
not suffer persecution. [Digression, Avhich in a more 
methodical writer would give rise to a suspicion of dis- 
location.] The mention of charges of gross immorality 
brought against the heretics suggests to Justin a new 
exemplification of the purity of the true Christian life. 
Christians are so far from committing crime that they do 
not deem it right even to expose infants (c. 27). Those 
who slander Christians are doing themselves grievous 
liurt, and will be sent into hell-fire with the devil and 
liis host (c. 28). The Christians do not engage in mar- 
riage except for the sake of begetting children ; and if 
they abstain from marriage, they preserve their chastity 
inviolate (c. 29). 

2. The Son of God was truly incarnate. This is 
proved by various prophecies (cc. 30-35), for the inter- 
pretation of which Justin gives certain rules (c. 36), 
with instances in which the Father speaks (c. 37), the 
Son (c. 38), the Holy Spirit (c. 38). To these he adds 
prophecies concerning the apostles (c. 40), the kingdom 
of Christ (c. 41), and remarks by the M'ay that in the 
prophetic writings the future is often represented as the 
past (c. 42). But fatalism is by no means the result of 
these predictions (c. 43) ; man's will is free (c. 44). Jus- 
tin then speaks of Christ's ascension as foretold by the 
prophets (c. 45), and maintains that those who went 
astray from the truth before the incarnation of Christ 
were responsible, as the seeds of the Logos were in all 



ANALYSIS. 101 

(c. 46). He then proceeds to the i^ropbecies of the siege 
of Jerusalem (c. 47), of Christ's power (c. 48), of the con- 
version of the Gentiles and the reprobation of the Jews 
(c. 49), of Christ's death and resurrection (c. 50), and in- 
effable generation (c. 51). From the fulfilment of these 
prophecies he concludes that those which have not been 
fulfilled must be considered as confirmed (c. 52), for all 
can see with their own eyes the fulfilment of the j^roph- 
ecies concerning the conversion of the Gentiles and the 
reprobation of the Jews (c. 53). 

3. The fables concerning the sons of Zeus have been 
invented by the inspiration of demons in order that the 
coming of the Son of God might seem to be a fable, and 
these fables have been spread abroad by poets as it were 
in imitation of divine prophets (c. 54). Nevertheless the 
demons did not suspect the mystery of the cross, the 
power and use of which are commended by various ob- 
jects of great importance (c. 55). With the same end in 
view, the demons put forward Simon, Menander, Marcion 
(c. 56) ; and fiiiling in much, they have succeeded in mak- 
ing the Christians hated by the Avicked. But what is 
death to the Christian ? (c. 57). The true objects of pity 
are not the Christians, but those who become the prey 
of the godless doctrines of the heretics and the evil spir- 
its, who inspire them. The only safeguard against this 
danger is a pure life (c. 58). Such truth as the heathen 
world has is derived truth. So Plato has borrowed from 
the books of Moses what he taught concerning the crea- 
tion of the world (c. 59), the chiasm of the Son, and the 
mystery of the third about the third (c. 60). 

III. Justin now sets forth how the Christians conse- 
crate themselves to .God in baptism (c. 61). To the imi- 
tation of this rite, so far as it was foreshadowed in the 



102 THE FIRST APOLOGY. 

prophetic books, are clue the sprinklings and washings 
of the Gentiles. Likewise they learned from what Christ 
said to Moses the putting off their shoes when they en- 
tered their temples (c. 52) — from what Christ said, for it 
was Christ that appeared to Moses, the Son, not the Fa- 
ther. But the Jews, who maintain that it w^as the Father, 
know neither Father nor Son (c. 03). To the cunning de- 
vice of the demons are further due the fables concerning 
Persephone and Athena (c. 64). Justin next sets forth 
how the first eucharist after baptism is celebrated (c. 65), 
what it means (c. 66), and the wdiole course of proceed- 
ing in the assemblies of the Christians (c. 67). 

In conclusion, he urges the Emperors to act with can- 
dor and justice, and subjoins a rescript of Hadrian in 
favor of the Christians (c. 68). 



NOTES. 



ABBREVIATIONS. = 
A=:First Apology. 
B=Second Apology. 

D. S.=:Douglass Series. 

E. ad D.=Epistula ad Diognetum. 

L. H.=Latin Hymns (Douglass Series). 



nPflTH : Both MSS. have devrepa. The citations in Eusebius 
prove that this was the first, and it has long been edited as such. 
It is often called Apologia Maior. IIPOTEPA would be more cor- 
rect than nPQTH. 

1. Address. 

1, Evo-cPci: Lat. Plo. The origin of this surname is much 
disputed. See Class. Diet. 

2. SePao-Tw : A translation of Augustus. Augustus was origin- 
ally a religious word, usually combined by Cicero with sanctus. 
"EelSatTTiP Eucre/SeZ is the more common order (Volkmar). — Kaio-o- 
pi : For Kaicapi, Kai Ovrjp. Sylburg, Ritter, Cavedoni, and Ueber- 
weg would read Kai Kaicrapi Ov. (See p. 97,) — OvTipio-crifjiw : M. 
Aurelius Antoninus, His name was at first M. Annius Verus. 
Hadrian called him playfully Verissimus. 

8. AovKico : L. Ceionius Commodus, afterwards the emperor L. 
Aurelius Verus. He was the son of Aelius Caesar, who had been 
adopted by Hadrian, but died before his adoptive father. When 
Hadrian thereupon adopted Antoninus Pius, he required him to 
adopt M. Annius Verus and L. Ceionius. — <})iXoo-64k5) : Surname 
common to the two princes. Eusebius, who cites this passage 
(H. E. 4, 12), reads (pi\o<x6<pov to balance Ev(7ej3ovg ; but there is no 

G 



104 NOTES. 

real difficulty in using the attribute of a lad, even if the Apology 
be put in 138-9 with Semisch, instead of after 147 with Volkmar. 

4. epoo-TT] : 'Epojc is passionate love (love of the sexes) ; hence 
tpaaHjg is coinplinientary when the object is noble. Comp. 6 
tp w g tFiq vTTspfiaXXovfTrjg Ka^apornrog, Orig. C. Celsum, 1 , 26. Justin 
liiiuself is called by Euseb. fl. E.4, 8 : yv^awg rijg dXij^ovg <pi\o<jo<p'L- 
ag ipaaTi'jg. — icpqi . . . cruy'^M''''? • >S'e/za^2^s 07'do ille sanctissi- 
mus, Quint. Declam. 329, p. 669. luj'a 7nagistratusque legunt san- 
ctumqiie senatum, [Verg.] Aen. 1, 426. Otto comp. Cic. Div. 1, 12, 
20; Hor. Od. 4, 5, 3 ; luv. 11,29. 

5. 'Pop-aiiov : This is not the only combination in which the 
gen. is preferred in Greek, the adjective in Latin. — twv Ik iravrbs 
Yc'vovs dvdpuTTOiv : ' Men of every race.' Christianity had spread 
very widely. See cc. 31. 40; also Ep. ad D. "6, and the classic 
passage in Tertull. Apol. 37 (p. 91 D. S.) : Hesterni sumus et vestra 
omnia implevlmus, etc. 

6. tinfjpea^ojieVwv: Aristot. Rhet. 2, 2 : tariv o eTnipeaaf-ibg ^iiro- 
CKT/xug Tcilg [3ov\))(re(nv, ovx iva ri auri^ dW "iva j-ii) tKeivq). Hence 
the translation of Matt. 5, 44 : v-n-ep rwv t7r)]peaK6vr(xJv vj.idg^ ' de- 
spitefully use you,' a passage which Justin evidently had in 
mind. Comp. Athenag. Supj^l. 2, 6 : vi-iCjv ijdi] tpyov d-o(7Ktvd(jaL 
r}jxu)V v6{.iqj Ti)v eTrr) peiav. Also 9, 36. 

7. IIpio-Kov: 'lovcTTTvog UpiaKov simply denotes the origin, 6 Upi- 
oKov would serve to distinguish, as tov {v'lov) BaKx^ov below. — 
4>\aovias Neas ttoXccos : The modern Nablus, near the ruins of the 
ancient Sichem. It was called Flavia in honor of Flavins Ves- 
pasianus (Vespasian). 

8. TTJs 2vpias naXaio-Tiv-ris : We should expect Hvplag T^g n«\ai- 
arivrig (comp, Herod. 3, 91), and this is the order in Eusebius. 
Chorographic genitive. — cIs avirwv &v : We owe tlie wp to Eusebi- 
us. 'Being one of them,' not 'who am one of them.' The par- 
ticiple without the article is seldom used as the identifying rel- 
ative, and usually shows a closer connection. — Trpoo-(j)wvT]o-tv : 'Ad- 
dress.' See c. 68, 12. 

9. 4'vT€v|tv : In this sense of ' petition ' (originally ' interview ') 
the word is very common in later Greek. — irciroiTifjiat : UouXa^ai 
with abstracts is used in the same sense as the corresponding 
verb. So tVrev^iv '7roiei(7B^at=tvTVYxdvea: Only this turn has the 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 2. 105 

advantage of number and article and other modifiers. See In- 
dex for examples. 

2. Justin Demands Justice. 

1. Kar d\t]6€iav = aX?;3'a3c. 

2. o-ripyeiv : So Plato, De Republ. 6,485 C : rtjv dXri^eiav (rrkp- 
yeiv. 1,Topy7] is natural affection, explained by Atlienag. Res. 12, 
49: oXicy TLVL (pvaiKyj Kal crropyy Kivovfievog. 'Srspyeiv and dyairdv 
are often used alike, whereas (piXeXv — according to Bugge and Cur- 
tius (Studien, 6, 426), fr. sva, suvs, 'own' — is more familiar, epciv 
more passionate. — (nraYopevci: Later writers are very fond of 
compounds of dyop^vuv in all the tenses. "IVay. ' dictate,' liter- 
ally ; then figuratively, c. 12, 31. 

3. irapaiTovjie'vovs : 'Asking to be excused from,' ' deprecating' 
(Plat. Protag. 358 A), then ' declining,' ' refusing,' as here. A 
common use from Polybius on, often in Plutarch. Comp. 2 Tim. 
2, 23 ; Athenag, Res. 16, 77. — iraXaiwv : Not TroXXuJv as Joannes 
Damascenus cites it. Much stress was laid by the opjionents of 
Christianity on its novelty. See E. ad D. 1. Comp, the answer 

of Clem. Alex. Protrept. 1,6: iraXaid y TrXdvtj^ Kaivbv dk }) dX/jSreia 
<paivETai. HaXaioQ (vetus) refers to dilation, dpxaloQ {anUquus) to 
origin. Donaldson (New Crat. p. 15) illustrates the difference 
happily by a slight change in a verse of Sophocles (Trach. 555) 
to describe a bone of the Deinotherion: ogtouv TraXaibv dpxaiov 
TTore SrijpoQ. Comp. Hebr. 8, 13. — e|aKoXov9€iv : There is possibly 
a touch of servility in the compound. But comp. c. 10, 16. 

4. av : 'Edv (i'jv, av) introduces a form of conditional propo- 
sition, which may be called the anticipatory condition. This 
is the common form, 1. Of the future condition; 2. Of the uni- 
versal condition (good for all time). Anticipation is not ex- 
pectation. Expectation looks forward. Anticipation treats the 
future as present. Though there is no necessary 'prospect of 
realization,' a misleading phrase, the anticipatory condition is 
used chiefly in practical matters, and is the. invariable form in 
laws (legal condition). — <|>av\ai : The regular antithesis of <pav- 
XoQ is aTTov^aXog^ e. g. in Athenagor. Res. 19, 92. — (itj €ir€o-9ai : The 
regular negative of the infinitive as such, that is, as a verbal 
noun, is /xr;. Here it is an object. 



106 NOTES. 

7, KcLv : Kai d, 'even if,' gives an extreme case; ei Kai, 'albe- 
it,' presents a proposition as a matter of indifference, but el kuI 
varies. Kdv=Kai idv is so common a formula that it is often used 
where dv is not wanted, and is often simply^/ca/. 

8. oTi XevecrGc : DejDends on ukovete. ' You hear that you are 
called.' As uKoveiv itself familiarly means ' hear one's self called,' 
' be called,' Stephanus proposed to drop on Xhyea^e and mend 
Justin's Greek — no superhuman task. 

10. €1 8e Kat virdpxcTe : Ei here is ' whether '=' whether or no,' 
as often ; /en/, ' actually,' ' really.' 'Yirapx^i-v^ originally of a ' basis,' 
' something to fall back on,' flides gradually after Demosthenes 
into a mere copulative verb. 

11. KoXoKcvo-ovres : The fut. part, with a verb of motion im- 
plies purpose. The purpose lies in the peculiar combination, 
for with other verbs iog must be used. 

12. oi/8e TTpbs xo-py-v 6}j,i\Ti<rovT€s : Comp. Plat. Gorg. 521 A : Trphq 
X^piv dfii\r](TOVTa . . . KoXuKevtrovra. — diraiT'qaovTCS : Notice the 
boldness in cltt-. 

13. aKpiPrj Kat elcTacrriKov X070V : Comp. Plat. Critias, 107 T> : rd 
Bv7]Td uKpiiSuig i^tTa^onev. 'E'^kracjiQ often of a judicial exam- 
ination. 

14. irpoo-cXTjXvSeijicv : We should expect the perfect, which 
Otto has in his last edition (I8T0), but occasionally the composer 
of a letter in Greek takes the point of view of the receiver, as in 
Latin. Grabe cites Athenag. Suppl. 2, and Thirlby, Theophil. ad 
Autolyc. 3, 4, as an imitation of this passage. — ttjv Kpio-iv 7ron]cra- 
<r3oi : c. 1, 9. — (jitj . . . KaTexo,u.eVovs : The negative here is regular, 
as the participle belongs to the infinitive. — ^rpoX^^^^/el Kal dvSpwiro- 
p€o-K€i<ji : UpoKi^-^iQ not in its philosophical sense, but=;' prejudice,' 
jpraesumptio^ Tertull. Apol. 49 (p. Ill D. S.). Comp. Kara Koiviiv 
Trp6\Ti\l>tv, Athenag. Suppl. 5, 17 ; combined with <piXovsiKia, Ori- 
gen, c. Cels. 1, 52. ' Av^ptoirapkaKEia^ not a classic word; comp. 
Eph. G, G ; Col. 3, 22. 

15. xpovia: The adjective where we should use the adverb. 

16. Ka9' ka.vTC}v=Ka^' vfiuiv avruiv. The reflexive of the third 
person is often used for the other two, especially in the plural, 
as we say, ' I hate self,' — irpos ovSevos : Updg is a favorite preposi- 
tion with persons, wider than vtto with the passive. See c. 4, 34. 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 3. 107 

17. ireio-co-Sat 8vvao-9ai : Verbs of "will and power (auxiliary 
verbs) seldom take the fut. inf., the use of which tense is chiefly 
confined to oratio obliqua relations. Occasional exceiDtions oc- 
cur. So notably in Thucydides, 1, 27 ; 3,28; 6,6.57. 

18. XeXoYio-ficOa : Verbs of reflection and calculation may take 
the construction of verbs of thinking, in which case they take 
the inf. as here, or of verbs of knowing, in which case they take 
on (ojg) with the ind., as in cc. 8, 1 ; 12, 41 ; 19, 14 ; or the parti- 
ciple, C. 40, 13. — l\cYx.b)jJL€9a : "E\€y%6e tori Trpo^OjOa cifiapriag elg 
TO fXE<jov (pepovcra, Clem. Alex. Paedag. 1, 9, 78. 

19. 8i€7vwo-(i€8a : The combination of yv with subj. and ind. is 
rare. Ei must be understood with the ind. as Idu with the subj. 
in the combination el w. ind. and subj, — diroKTctvai : The sentiment 
is found in Plato. Socrates says (Apol. 30 C) : tfik [xkv yap ovUv dv 
(3\a.\pEiev ovTe MsXrjrog ovre "AvvTog ' ovSe yap dv dvvaiTo. The lan- 
guage, with its efiective rhetorical position, is traditional. 'Efxk Se 
"AvvTog Kai MeXrjrog ccTroKreivai jxiv dvvavrai, (^Xcixpai de ov, Epictet. 
Enchir. 53, 3 ; Diss. 1, 29, 18 ; 2, 2, 15 ; 3, 3, 21. Comp. Max. Tyr. 
Diss. 18, 8 ; Origen, c. Cels. 8, 8. 

3. Eight to a Fair Trial. 

1. 86|ti : AoKEiv more commonly means 'seem' than 'think;' the 
more usual construction would be, ju/) aXoyog (pojv)) do^y tivI ravra. 

2. a|iov(jicv: Here in its proper sense. — Ka.rii\yopov\i.eva. avrwv: 
Verbs which take the gen. of the person and ace. of the thing 
retain the gen. when turned into the passive. KaT7]yopeiv not in- 
variably in a bad sense. See c. 4, 4. ahrCJv:=TCjv XpiaTiavCJv. 

3. exovra: Verbs of perception (knowing and showing) take 
oTi or ojg with the finite verb of intellectual perception (c. 2, 8), 
the participle of actual or intellectual perception. There are 
exceptions, but in view of the mass of examples the exceptions 
vanish. But in later Greek the line between verbs of percep- 
tion and verbs of conception (thinking) is often effaced. — diroSct- 
KvvwvTtti : The tendency in the decline of a language is towards 
a mechanical syntax, as, for instance, in American English ; 
hence often in later Greek neut. pi. with a plural verb. See cc. 
50, 10 ; 52, 7. In a classic writer the plural might be justified 
by the variety of the charges. 



108 NOTES. 

4. KoXd^€<r6ai : KoXaaig \l^vxm ^epaTreia tTri afiaprrtfiari yevofihif), 
[Plato] Dcff. 41G. The philosophical distinction between KoXamg, 
'chastisement,' and n^iopia, 'punishment,' the one reformatory, 
the other jnuiitive (Ar. Rhet. 1, 10, 17; Aul. Gell. 6, 14), is often 
practically neglected. See Ast on Plato, Protag. 324 B ; Clem. 
Alex. Paed. 1, 8, 70. K. and r. combined, c. 43, 4 ; B 8, 12.— irpcirov 
ka-riv : When the jDarticiple is used in the predicate, it regularly 
l)ccomes an adjective. So TrpsTrojv often. So fxiXov IcrTi, c. 44, 39; 
tKov t(TTi, c. GO, 2. But comp. c. 19, 5. — aWov 76 KoXd^eiv : So 
Beckmann for the untenable fiaWov de koXoZhv, which some edi- 
tors have tortured themselves to explain, others (Sylburg, Maran) 
have tried to emend, yet others (Thirlby, Otto) have thought it 
best to drop. ' We think it meet that we should be punished as 
it is proper to punish any other.' We expect the same measure 
to be meted to us as to other offenders. The omission of fiaXXov 
de KoXdc,eiv is ticklish in view of the parallel in Athenag. Suppl. 
2, 6 : KoXd^sa^uL ov TrapaiTOv/neSra dXXd kuI ijrig TriKpordrtj Kai dvrjXerjg 
TijiLopia inrkx^iv d^iovfiev, an evident exaggeration of our passage. 
In his last edition Otto has accepted the conjecture of Bellios, wg 
TTpkrvov iaTiv dXovrag (for Tovg d\6i'Tag) KoXdi^eiv. 

5. €1 . . . exoi : Ei with opt. in the protasis and the opt. and dv 
ill the ajiodosis is the ideal condition of the Greek language. It 
is one of the commonest and steadiest forms, equivalents being 
less freely employed for the opt. with dv. It is the condition of 
the fancy, and is chiefly used for illustration, or when an ele- 
ment of hope or fear (wish) comes in. In later Greek el with 
the opt. is not so sharply distinguished from Idv with the subj. 
as in the classic period, and occasional deviations are to be found 
in all stages. — €xoi= SvvaiTo. No over-subtle distinction is to be 
made, as is shown by Xen. Oec. 1, 2, where txoij.iev dv^dwaiixnB' dv. 

6. <})Ti|A'n^ • Kemember that to the Greeks ^fjfiT] was far more 
mysterious and potent than ' rumor' is to us. — Trovtipdv : Uovrjpug 
=6 vpacTTiKog rov kukov. II. is ' troublesome,' ' mischievous,' as (pav- 
Xog is ' worthless,' ' vile ;' used of persons or personified things. 
In Plato it is opposed to xprjcrrog, combined with dxprjcrrog, altrxpog. 

7. ka.vrov^ = vf^idg avrovg. See C. 2, 16. — ot oti KpicrcL ktc. : The 
negative of the causal relative in classic Gr. is regularly ov, but 
as the cause may be based on character, and thus conceived as 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 3. 109 

a condition (logical), the negative fxr) is occasionally found even 
in the best times with the causal relative, and becomes the rule 
at a later period. Here we have the classic usage, but comp. c. 
5, 9. — TO, irpdyfiaTa kTrdyeiv : 'ETrdyeiv is often used in the sense of 
bringing some evil on one, arj;v, Tr/j/xa, vocrovg, alriav, diK7]v kuI koXu- 
mv sTrdysiv (Origen,c. Cels. 4, 99). Ta Trpdyiiara^ ' this trouble ;' but 
I should not expect rd. Otto now takes tu Trpdyixara as 'this suit.' 

8. irpoKXTjo-iv : UpoKkrimQ^ provocatio^ demand of final adjust- 
ment. Otto now edits TrpocrKXT/o-iv, after Thirlby. — TavT-qv: For 
TovTo, by attraction of gender, 

9. TO . . . irape'xciv : The article simply adds to the inf. a de- 
monstrative force. So c. 12, 35. Apposition to TavTi]v. ' The 
good old rule that.' Observe that the articular infinitive often 
involves an imperative notion (obligation, necessity, and the 
like). So in titles of tracts : Trepi rov fxrj pg.di(og TriaTevsiv dia- 
(3oXy (Lucian). Comp. Lat. gerundive, e. g. de contemnenda 
morte. — i{j%vt\v = d^^vvav, 'straightening of accounts,' hence 'ac- 
count.' 

10. Piov Ktti XoYOU : A.6yov^=}ia^i]i.idTU)v. — a\T|TrTOV=ai^£7r(Xjj7rroj', 
for which it is perhaps mis written. — Trape'xeiv: The difference 
between Tzapkx^iv (c. 4, 25) and -n-apix^a^ai is not to be urged. 
Notice, however, that the active is used of agreeable or disagree- 
able actions; the middle of agreeable actions chiefly. 

12. TT]v \}fii4>ov Ti9€o-9ai=:i//J}^oi' (p'spHv. A familiar expression. 

13. OvT<«)s=protasis of a condit. sentence, e. g. ei . . . tiStoIvto. 

14. Tis: Plato. To us a curious affectation (Thirlby). But 
comp. Tit. 1, 12 (of Epimenides) : eItts tiq t^ avriLv 'ihog avTuJv irpo- 
(pr]rr]g ktL So Imit. Christ. 1, 13, 5: I7?ide quidam (z=:Ovidius) 
dixit: Principiis obsta. — -"Av iatj oi apxovrcs ktc. : The sentiment is 
a rough approximation to Plato, De Rep. 5, 473 D ; idv /.u) y oi 
(pi\6(TO(poi (3acn\EV(T(i}<TLV tv ralg ttoXegiv y oi jSaGiXug . . . ^iXoaotp^aix)- 
(7iv, ovK tan KttKiiJv TTiivXa ralg TroXecri. Comp. also [Plato] Ep. 7, 
826 B. The looseness of this quotation has been noticed in 
connection with Justin's manner of citing the Gospels. The ref- 
erence to the passage of Plato is peculiarly apt, as the sentence 
was a favoiite one with both the Antonines. The editors cite 
Aurel. Yict. Hist. Rom. Brev. p. 258, ed. Lugd. ; Capitol. Vit. M. 
Ant. 27. 



110 NOTES. 

15. <|)iXoo-o(f)TJo-w<ri : Tr, 'become pliilosopliers.' When the 
present denotes a state, the aorist, which is the tense of attain- 
ment, denotes an entrance upon that state (ingressive aorist). 
The upshot is an outset. So evcatfiovrjcrai, ' to become happy.' 

10. 'H|ieT€pov ep7ov : "Epyov common, but not necessary. 

17. \iaQr]\L6.TO)v=\6yov. — lirio-K€\|/iv : 'Inspection.' — fjL-qircos . . . 
6<J)\T]<rwp.€v : The MSS. have o-mxjg virip tCjv ayvoelv — avrutv aii- 
To7g 6(p\))<Tu)ixev. No end of conjectures might be cited. For 
oTTOjg some read ottw^ j«jj, more in accordance with Justin's usage 
than Thirlby's ^rj-n-wg (Otto). Avtwv is simply impossible ; it can- 
not be dependent on rvcpXojTTovTsg (Maran), as this would require 
oi Tv^\u)TTovTsg ; it cannot be the correlative of wv on account of 
its position. For avToig I read with Grabe avroi. Otto now reads 
owiog firi ahroi tavrolg. I doubt the correctness of the dative in 
the sense of alg w. ace. See Eur. Phoen. 7G3 : 7raTt)p S' eg avrbv 
a/xaSriav oipXicicdve i. Notice here that Justin never uses avrou 
and the rest, but always tavrov. For Justin's sense of responsi- 
bilit}'', comp. Dial. C. Tr. 58 : i]g xapirog Kal Travrag Koivojvovg djui- 
a^ioTL Kai d(pB6vu)g TrapaKaXw yivta^ai oiruyg /.tj) Kai tovtov x^piv Kpi- 
aiv o^Xriffb). 

18. vo|xitovTwv: 'Think fit,' just as o'lofiai =r o'loixai ^eiv. See 
Xen. Hell. 4, 7, 4 (with Breitenbach's note) ; 5, 1, 15. So iiysirai 
ipspeiv, ' thinks he must bear,' Dial. c. T. 35. 

19. irXTifjiiJicXwo-t : ' Trespass.' The notion of a false step lies 
in the 7rX?7/<jU£X6ia of the LXX. as well as in the ' trespass' of the 
A. V. Plato, Legg. 3, C91 A: 6 [xtv ovv lixfxsXCjg ijfxCjv^ 6 Sk TrXijfi- 
IxeXwg tv TOVTOtg Tracri Ku-'eTrat. — tv(J)\cSttovt€S : Not earlier than 
Polybius ; used chiefly in a metaphorical sense. Comp. Fr. aveu- 
gler and avevglement (difierent fr. cecite). — 6<})Xiio-<o|jl€v : Rare and 
chiefly late 1 aor. of 6(pXi(TKdv(i). 

20. aipei \670s : A common classical phrase : ratio evincit. 
Comp. the use of a'lpuv in the courts. 

21. 'AvaTToX^YTjTov : Atb c'lvaTToXoytjTog d, tL dv^pojTrs, Trcig 6 Kpi- 
vwv, Rom. 2, 1. — Xoiirov : ' For the rest,' often employed like the 
Lat. ceterum, a later usage, found everywhere in this stage, e. g. 
Athenag. Suppl. 3, 13 ; Theophil. ad Autolyc. 1, 10 ; Clem. Alex. 
Protrept. 2, 5 ; Ep. Eccl.Vicn. et Lugd. ap. Euseb. H. E. 5, 1, 33. 36. 

22. (nrdplci: Sc. to /o) tu diKaia Troirjaai. — irpos Pcov : 'Against 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 4. Ill 

God.' UpoQ on account of the aTroXoyeTcr^at in dvairoXoyriTov. ' In 
the sight of would be 7rp6g Sreov. 

4. Why Condeain a Name ? 

1. irpoa-c«)vvp,ia : I read with Grabe the nom. instead of the da- 
tive. So also Otto 710W. Athenag. (Suppl. 2, 8) has this pas- 
sage in view when he writes ovckv ck ovojxa k<p' iavrov kuI Sl avrov 
ov 7rovr]pbv ovte xpjjorov vo/xiZeTai. — avcv : ' Without,' is the strict 
negation of union, x<^p'C is rather ' apart from,' ' irrespective of,' 
but it seems impossible to make a sharp distinction. 

2. vTromiTTovo-wv : An Aristotelian word, frequently used by 
Clem. Alex. This line of argument is common after Justin. 

3. Iirci : Adversative, ' whereas,' ' and yet.' Just below the 
same conjunction is causal. — S<rov 7c : The MSS. have oaov re. 
This epitatic re is not in use with oaov in Attic prose. Sylburg 
replaced the familiar restrictive oaov y f .— KaTTjvopovjxeVov : ' Predi- 
cated,' 'applied.' Comp. 'category' and 'predicament.' See 
Athenag. Suppl. 5, 19, and especially 11, 47 : tI rb inroiceiixevov kuI 
ri rb KaTi]y p ov {.i^v ov^'' subject and predicate.' Also c. 7, 9. 

4. xp'n<'To'''aToi : The confusion between I and »; began early. 
See c. 29, 7; B 3, 3. Cliristus was often written Clirestus, Ckristi- 
anus, Chrestianus. See TertuU. AjdoI. 3 (p. 33, D. S.). The Chris- 
tian writers are far from averse to 2^(^'>'onomasia, and the play on 
XpL(TT6g and xpw^og was especially welcome. Comp. Theophil. 
ad Autol. 1,12: tyw [xev uf.ioXoyCj elvai Xpicrriavbg kcu ^opCJ rb 2reo<pi- 
Xeg bvojia tovto IXtti^ojv dvai avxp^^Tog to^ Be(^. Of the various 
words for 'good,' xpjjoroc emphasizes 'kindness,' donte (bonitas). 
The true etymology of Xpiarog is given, B 6, 9. — {nrapxojxtv : Quite 
colorless. See c. 1, 10. — tovto: Antici^Dates the infinitive, as 
often. 

5. "HYovjicOa : 'Hyacr^ai is diicere^ ' deem,' often of solid convic- 
tion as opposed to o'iw^ai, ojnnari, ' fancy,' ' ween.' Nojut'^eiv, 
' take,' has little color. — irdXiv : The periodology is not elegant. 

6. cl . . . €vpio-K6}i€0a : The logical condition (ind. or equivalent 
in both members) brings the condition to the test of fact. The 
case is either so or not so. With the unreal condition (et ind. — 
ind. with dv), the condition fails. With the ideal condition the 
test may never be applied, indeed, may not be applicable. The 

G2 



112 NOTES. 

anticipatory condition is preferred in most future relations to the 
logical (a' w. fut. ind.), from which it differs in tone and in exact- 
ness.— 8id T€ . . . Kai 8id : Normal position. 

7, TToXixeiav : lloXtrtm, 1. Conduct as citizens ; 2. Conduct gener- 
ally. In the latter sense very common in this class of literature. 

8. dSiKouvTcs : EvpiffKHv is a verb of perception ; hence the par- 
ticiple. See c. 3, 3. — dycaviaa-ai : The history of dyiov and its de- 
rivatives from the simple 'gathering' of Homer, through 'con- 
test' and 'struggle' to 'agony' is significant. 'Ayujviciv in the 
sense of ' being eager for the fray,' ' earnestly endeavoring,' takes 
the inf. (as Orig. c. Cels. 7, 10) ; in the sense of ' fearing' or ' appre- 
hending,' the subj., as here. 

?). Tovs H-Tj IXcYxoH-^'vov? • '^^^^ generic (conditional) participle 
with the article regularly takes the neg. fir], and this rule is ex- 
tended (more and more in later Greek) to individuals, who may 
be thus classified. The neg. ov is used, 1. Of actual cases consid- 
ered as such ; 2. "When ov forms a familiar and close union with 
the participle. This close union is sufficiently symbolized by the 
absence of accent. So ov dvvaT6v^=zdSvvaTov. — tt) SCkyj : Mera StKrjg 
or tv cIkij is the rule; ^ky, Plato, Critias, 112 E ; ry SiKy, Legg. 7, 
808 E. Personification, ' to justice,' 'at the hands of justice' 
would be more vivid. — 6<j>XiioTf]T€ : C. 3, 19. 

10. oiiK av . . . Ye'voiTo : The oj^t. with dv is the potential of the 
Greek language. It expresses the conviction of the speaker as 
a conviction. The future element is the ascertainment of the 
predicate. With the pres. opt. the action itself may be present 
or future ; with the aor. it is future. As the aor. is naturally as- 
sociated with the negative, the aor. opt. and aV with neg. is very 
common. The transl. with the negat. is often ' can,' with the 
positive 'must.' Remember that the English language has 
nothing to correspond to the Gr. future, and the English future 
is often as good a rendering of the opt. and dv as it is of the Gr. 
future. 

11. Tjv [ii] Ti : ' Unless something ;' ?> f.ii]Stv, ' if nothing.' 

12. Kai -ydp : Kai repeats with emphasis the predicative notion 
of the preceding sentence. ' And' (I may well say so) ' for.' But 
sometimes Kai belongs to a single word, as c. 62, 6 ; B 10, 13 ; 13, 1. 
— €<!>' vjiwv: 'Etti with gen. often of tribunals. So tVt cinaaTujv. 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 4. 113 

Others wish to read l^ vjxujv, i. e. the Pagans. Uavrag does not 
necessarily exclude the partitive : rd yap avayKoXa vTrdpxovrd 
lari TTcicri rCJv Iv ravTy ry ttoXei, Plato, Legg. 6, 774 C. 

13. irpiv eXcYx^Tlvt*'' = After positive sentences TrpiV commonly 
takes the inf. ; after neg. sentences, it has the construction of 
fwc, ' until,' when the meaning is that of sojq. This is the Attic 
rule, but there are exceptions, so that it is safer to say that, 

1. When -n-piv must be translated ' before,' it must have the inf. ; 

2, AVhen it may be translated ' until,' it inay take the finite con- 
structions of £wc, ' until.' Up'iv commonly takes the aor. on ac- 
count of the negative sense which lies in the comparative Tzpiv^zz 
Trp(o)-i(o)i',prius. In Attic prose Trpiv seldom has ?}. In Justin 
Trpiv f] is the more common with the inf. Observe that in this 
stage we often find Trpiv wdth subj. (o23t.) after positive clauses, 
contrary to Attic rule, e. g., Origen, c. Gels. 1, 42; 2, 42; 6, 68; 
7, 20.— €<(>' T|}iwv : ' In our case.' 

14. KaiTTcp . . . 6<f)ci\cT€ : Ka(Vf|0, with a finite verb in the sense 
of £t Kai or KaiToi^ is very rare in the classic time. See c. 7, 7. 

18. |i.Ti ctvai <j)iio-a3 : The neg. of the inf. after verbs of saying 
and thinking is regularly ov. Here the neg. may be explained 
by the conditional clause, but in this period the neg. [.u) is em- 
ployed anywhere with the inf. Even in the classic time, verbs 
of saying and thinking, which involve the will, take more or 
less frequently p), and regularly when averment is meant (so 
verbs of swearing always, as onvvvai). The later use of on p^ in 
oratio obliqua is a part of the same development. See c. 24, 1. 

19. ws |XTi8ev . . . e'xovTes : Regularly ovUv. 'Qq with the parti- 
ciple is a post-Homeric growth of the language, and forms a kind 
of oratio obliqua. That it is not felt as a conditional participle is 
shown, 1. By the neg. ov, except when the leading verb demands 
HT] ; 2. By the use of the fut. part., which is not regularly used as 
the protasis of an abridged conditional sentence. While the 
combination may often be translated ' as if,' yet ' thinking,' ' ex- 
pecting,' 'hoping,' are really more accurate, 'Qg with the part, 
may be compared with the subjunctive of partial obliquity (e.g. 
quod w. subj.) in Latin. In this stage ni] is often found without 
good reason, i. e. without a preceding imperative, inf., or the 
like. 



114 NOTES. 

20. Seov: Acc. abs., the regular absolute construction for the 
impersonal verb, oftenest in an adversative sense ' whereas.' See 
c. 27, 11 ; B 3, 20. 

22. ^Ov Tpoirov : This adverbial acc. is common enough in clas- 
sical Greek, very common in LXX. Justin uses it regularly in- 
stead of ovTwg . . . wc, so that it amounts to a trick. See Index. — 
•7rapaXaP6vT€9 . . . irapa tov 8i8aa-Kd\ov : HapaXafi^dvHv is often used 
of being taught. Plato, Theaet. 198 B: kuI KaXovfiiv ye Trapacicov- 
ra jxiv SiSdaKeiv, tt apa\aixj5 dv ovt a ok f-iavBdveiv. 1 Cor. 11, 
23: tyw yap TrapsXafSov dird tov Kvpiov o kul TrapsdoJKa vf-uv. — 
XpioTov : Matt. 10, 33. 

24. fiTj dpv€ 10-001 : 'Not to deny' (him).— rrapaKcXciJovTat: 'Act 
as exhorters,' encourage others to become Christians by their 
bold confession. Justin is speaking from his own exjDerience. 
See Introd. xi., and comp. Tertull. Apol. sub fin. : Ilia i2}sa obsti- 
natio^ quam exprobratis, magistra est. However, the absolute use of 
TrapaKtX. is not satisfactory, and Thirlby's suggestion, irapaKpowv- 
rai, is worth considering. 

25. KttKcos 5(SvT€s : We should expect ol k.Z. (Ashton). A fling 
at the Gnostics. See c. 26, 32 (Otto). — d<|)op}jLds : ' Starting-points,' 
' capital,' ' handles.' See c. 44, 27.— aWws : ' Idly,' ' thoughtless- 
ly,' ' rashly.' 

26. Kara\iy€iv : Not SO formal as Kurrjyopdv. Verbs compound- 
ed with the Kard of hostility take the gen. when the simple verb 
does not take a personal object. 

27. ovK . . . ov8e: The second negative subdivides the first, as 
often in old and idiomatic English. — [kiv—ixy'jv. — kui YcLp toi: On 
Kul ydp see 1. 12 ; toi (of disputed origin) alwaj^s appeals to the 
consciousness of the hearer. 

28. <rxTi|Aa : ' Attire,' ' garb.' Sx^/jua, habitus, ' position,' ' post- 
ure,' 'bearing,' with reference to the external effect; i~iop<p)), 
'mould,' 'form,' with reference to the enibodiment of an organic 
principle. Comp. Rom. 12, 2: /i?) (Tvax^jfiaTiKea^e t<^ aiCJvi 
TovT<i> «^^« nETa[j,op<pov(T^e Ty dvuKaivujau tov vooq vfiuiv with 2 
Cor. 11, 14: avTug 6 (jaTavag fxi.T aaxi] fxaTi^ETai dg dyyeXov tpu)- 
ToQ. Of course ftop0// may appear as cxrii^ia. So trx^lf^^ of sex. 
Dialog. c.T. 23 ; Constt. Apostt. 6, 11.— €mYpd4)ovTai: 'Assume' as 
a false name. Comp. Clem. Alex. Protrept. 2, 25 : tov ttoXXovq 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 5. 115 

sTTiy pa^o /xEvov \pEvS(ovvfiovg Beovg^ ai<nrep 6 Ik tijq Tropvrjg tovq 
TToWovQ e7riypd(p£rai TrarepaQ ayvo'iq. tou irpoQ dXtjSreiav Trarpog. 

31. Tuv iraXaiwv: Depends on oi co^cKravreg (Maran). 

32. dOeoTTiTa: Comp. Athenag. Suppl. 3, 12: rpia iTn^i)ixiZ,ov(nv 
r]fuv syKXrfiiaTa, dSre6rt]Ta, QvetTTEia SeiTrvaj Oidnrodeiovg fii^eig. Re- 
member that the Christians were called dSreoi. The popular cry 
was alps Tovg dBsovg. See the famous account of the martyrdom 
of Polycarp in Euseb. H. E. 4, 15, 18 (p. 113, D. S.). Julian's 
regular name for the Christian religion was d^soTtjg, e. g. Ep. 49, 
Of course the Christians retorted. Comp. Origen, c. Cels. 1, 1 : 
// d:^eog TToXvBeoTijg. — ao-cXYt] : 'AcreXyijg is a hard word to fix. 
Passow (Rost) observes that dffeXyrjg is not used of women until 
the time of Plutarch and Lucian. 'AakXyeLa, according to Greg- 
ory of Nazianz. Carm. 34, 57-8, is the opposite of coj^poirvvri. Cal- 
vin says (ad Gal. 5, 19) : Lascivia est tamquam instrv i.ntum; nam 
qui petulanter ac dissolute se gerunt^ illos Oraeci wcant d(jeXye1g. 

33. KaraYYeWovo-i : Kara implies long-windedness, 'trumpet.' 

34. cKeivcov: The philosophers. — irpbs viawv: See c. 2, 17. 

35. €v<})u)vws ippitovo-i : One of Justin's few telling phrases, cop- 
ied by Theophil. ad Autolyc. 3, 30. Comp. also 3,8: EV(p(ov6- 
TEpov ^dovai rag %a\e7rac Trpd^eig, and 15. — tovtovs : The gods. 
Depends on vjSpi^ovai. Xenophanes had said hundreds of years 
before : rravTa BeoXg dveSrrjKav "Ofiripog 2r' 'Raiodug re \ oatja Trap' dv- 
Bpu)7roi(nv ovelcea Kai \p6yog lariv. 

5. Christians no Atheists. 

1. Ti hr\ ovv av dy\ : An impatient question, as is shown by ^//. 
The mood of the question is the mood of the expected or antici- 
pated answer. With the opt. and dv the speaker answers him- 
self. Being in efi"ect a negative (c. 4, 10), translate it by 'can.' 
' What then can all this mean ?' — 'E<j)' t||xwv : ' In our case.' — viria-- 
XvovjieVcov: 'Although we promise,' i.e., 'declare,' Adversative 
relations are expressed by the participle. 

2. ix-qSev dSiKctv : The neg. pjcev because of the asseveration. 
See c. 4, 18. 

4. 8ai}iov<ov : On the demons as the instigators of persecutions 
see c. 44; B 1. 5. 8; Dialog, c. Tryph. 39; Tertull. Apol. 27.— 
}it] (|>povTi^ovT€s=oVrjj/ec M ^povri^ere. The causal participle, like 



IIG NOTES. 

the causal relative (c. 3, G), has regularly ov in classic Gr., but 
even there /ij} is found, because the cause may be considered as 
a characteristic. Comp. Lat. qui w. subj. and qui w. ind. In 
later Gr. /o; meets us at every turn. 

5. EipTicrcTai : This fut. perf. is often used of bold and final ut- 
terance, e. g. Eur. Ion, 7G0 ; Dem. 44, 4 ; Din. 1, 10. So also XtXs- 
^erai, Plat. De Rep. 5, 457 B ; very often in Origen, c. Gels. 1, 46. 
70 ; 2, 2G. 75 ; 3, 22 ; 4, 4. GO. 70, al. 

6. eiri<j)aveias 'nov(\<Ta.'^e.vo\.^^lTri(pavkvT^Q. See C. 1,9. 

8. ws KaxairXa^Tivai : "liore or wQ (neg. ^ij) gives the tendency 
or adaptation to a result (' so as'), which is often conveniently 
translated ' so that,' the proper rendering of wore (seldom ojq) 
•with the finite verb (neg. oh). — tovs oi: The article is little used 
in Attic prose as a substantive antecedent. Most of the examples 
are from Plato. Otto cites fr. Justin, D. c. T. 47 : ra ona., Cohort. 
2 : Tov ov. Add Clem. Alex. Protrept. 6, 70 : tovq oaoi^ Paedag. 
3, 8,41 : Twv o(ja, Origen, c. Cels. 1, 12 : tCov oo-oj, and elsewhere; 
Euseb. H. E. 4, IG, 17 : to v g oIq. 

0. (AT) liriordiievoi Saijiovas ctvai (jjaTjXovs : On fifj see 1. 4. 'Etti- 
GTaaBai as a verb of knowing takes the constructions men- 
tioned c. 3, 3, but later writers are prone to use the inf. with such 
verbs. Herodotus treats t. as a verb of thinking, and even in 
Attic it is not unfrequently found with ace. and inf. 'E. as exi- 
stimare in Athenag. Suppl. 1, 1. 

14. Ktti avTov: So now Otto after Thirlby for au-ol. 

15. evT^pYTio-av . . . aTTOKTcIvat : 'Caused the killing,' 'caused to 
be killed,' so-called active for passive inf. Otto has allowed 
liimself to print in the last ed. cnroKreiveaBai. Even Justin would 
liave preferred cnroBavtlp. 

16. ws aGcov : Sc. uvra. — Kaiva 8ai}Jidvia : See Xen. Mem. 1, 1 ; 
Plat. Apol. 24 B and BIO. 

17. e<|)' T|[i(Cv: As above, 1. 1. 

18. ev: Due to Otto.— tiTTo \6yov rik4y\Qr] xavra : See Introd. 

19. Pappdpois : Calmly historical ; ' non-Hellenic' Some of 
the other Fathers show much more feeling on the subject. So 
notably Justin's disciple Tatian, c. Gr. 1, 30. 35. 42. Comp. Ori- 
gen, c. Cels. 1, 2. 

22. |iT] 6p9«s Ocovs: The MSS. have opS-oi'f, which Otto (after 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. G. 117 

Maran) renders lonos ; Thirlby would have ^eovq^ which does 
not account for 6p. I have ventured to put op^Cjg Beovg (comp. 
6 dpSruJQ Kvl3epvi)Tr]Q, Plato). So Origen, c. Cels. 3, 2 : Sidax^svTEg 
Trdvrojv rwv Trapd To7g tBvecn vofiL^ofxsvojv Sreojv Karatppovdiv ojq ov 
Beiov dXXd Saifiovidjv (1 Cor. 10, 20). Hagen suggests ovtojq. 

23. dvoo-iotjs : "0(7ioc, in the absence of a satisfactory etymology, 
is hard to determine. See the commentators on Plato's Euthy- 
phron {ri Trepi 6<7ioy),where Jowett's 'piety' certainly seems nearer 
the mark than Grote's ' holiness.' "0<riov SrspdTrev/xa Beov • dpEOTiv 
S-e^/j, [Plat.] Deff. 414 A. ; to ogiov rd irpbg Beov diicaia Kal Trjv Trd- 
aav oiKovofiiav firjvvEi, Clem. Alex. Strom. 7, 12, 80. — iroSovo-iv: 116- 
Bog and 'Ifiepog are distinguished by Plato in a famous passage, 
Cratyl. 420 A. ; TroBog, longing for the absent good (deside7'ium) ; 
'(/.ispog^ impatient love. The distinction must have been a famil- 
iar one, for otherwise Skopas would not have made his group of 
Eros, Pothos, and Himeros. Gregory of Nazianz. defines TruBog as 
upe^ic, f'pojg as cvcKuBsicTog TroBog. On the brachylogy, see c. 23, 5. 

6. Our God is xot as your Gods. 

1, 'EvSe'vSe : Otto now reads "EvBev U, an unnecessary change. 
Why make Justin any less Attic ? "EvBev is regularly a relative. 
— Kttl a9€ot : K«i is often apparently superfluous for our idiom ' ac- 
tually.' — Kal 6;jio\oYou}jL6v : Kai at the head of a sentence is al- 
ways emphatic ; not so our English ' and.' 'And if it comes to 
that we do acknowledge.' 

2. fiewv ciecot : "ABeog takes the gen. as do other compounds of 
dv- (a privative). So dva7rif.ilicTov with KOKiag. 

4. dvcirijiiKTov T6 : Such a position and use of rs would be rare 
in classic prose. 

5. Ikcivov . . . o-Tpaxdv : Nobis semel constitutum est controversias 
theolcgicas in hoc ojyere non attingere (Thirlby). I desire to follow 
Thirlby's good example. The only natural translation of the 
text, as it stands, commits Justin to the worship of angels. I 
leave others to reconcile this with cc. 13 and Gl. Comp. also 
the very strong language of Origen, c. Cels. 1, 26 and 3, 77 : irpocr- 
Kvvsiv Kcd BavnuL^uv Kcd affSeiv xp/) fiuvov top ravra itf^TTOi^KOTa. 
Add 5, 6. On the other hand, to make rbv arpciTov depend on 
cidd^avra, ' who taught us and the host of angels,' is sadly 



118 NOTES. 

strained. If the passage is to be emended, I would suggest tov 
T(SJv dX\(i)v . . . crrparov apxt-f^Tparriyov. The mass of sim- 
ilar words might have led to the dropping of apxi<yTpaTr]yov. 
Christ is identified with the dpxL(yTpdrr]yog of Joshua 5, 14, in 
Dial. c. T. Gl, and, unless I am mistaken, Eusebius, a great ad- 
mirer of Justin, has this passage in his mind (H. E, 1, 3) when he 
calls Christ t6v Tijg kut ovpavbv XoyLKrjg kuI dSravuTOv (XTparidg 
dpxf^f^fpdiTrjyov. Asto Tutv dWojv dyyeXojv, every no vice knows 
that in Gr. dWog (6 dXXog) does not necessarily include as ' anoth- 
er,' 'the other' in English, and even if it did here, Christ is often 
called an angel. So c. 63, 41, and in the Dial. c. T. passim, e. g. 
59. 

7. irveGjjLd T€ TO 7rpo<|)TiTiKov : The copulatives inay be worth no- 
ticing. Father and Sou are closely connected by re . . . Kai, the 
Spirit coming in afterwards. Uv. to 7rp. is in the third attrib- 
utive position ; the first being rb 7rpo(pr]riKdv Trvtvfxa (crvvrofiia, Ar- 
istotle), the second, to Trvevixa TO Trpo^riTiKov {bjKog). The third is, 
or affects to be, easy, hence often in Herodotus and Lucian. 

8. TrpocTKvvoCjJLev : See C. IG, 20. 
10. irapaSiSovres : See C, 4, 23. 

7. The Life is the True Test. 

1, 'AX\a <|)T]cr€i . . . KaxaSiKa^cTc : The sense of this passage 
seems to be : ' But it will be said that some Christians have 
been convicted of being malefactors. "Well, that ought not 
to prevent you from examining them all. For in the case 
of others w^hen you condemn them, you condemn them upon 
examination of their conduct, and not on account of those 
previously convicted. Each man must be proved guilty. There 
must be no prejudice, no irpoX'n^ig.'' — Kai yap : Elliptical. See 
c. 4, 12. 

4. irp o e XcYxQevTas : So Perionius and others for TrpoX^x^kvTag^ 
' aforesaid,' which makes no satisfactory sense, whether referred 
to the Christians with Otto, or to the demons with TroUope. 
For ' aforesaid,' 7rpoEipi]fihovg would be more common. — KaraSiKd- 
Ure : With ace. Exceptional. See c. 3, 2. 

5. ov Tpoxov : See c. 4, 22. 

6. TO, avTois : AuTolg, ijms, instead of the reflexive avrolg, which 



THE FIKST APOLOGY. C. 8. 119 

Justin does not use for tavroUg (Otto). See c. 32, 8. — Ik iravros : 
' Generally,' B 13, 8. 

7, Kaiircp . . . ovTwv: The participle is tlie regular form of 
the adversative, which states an opposing fact, while the con- 
cessive grants an opposing notion. The neg. of the adversative 
is 01) (ovoe), of the concessive fit) (jiiics). The participle is often 
strengthened by kuI, KaiTrsp, ' even,' ' ever so,' 

9. eiriKaTT]7opov}icvov : Not in a bad sense, though it may be so 
used. 'ETTiKaTTiyopeLv, a common word in Sext. Empir. Indiffer- 
ent, Athenag. Suppl. 5, 19 ; good, 1. c. 23, 115 ; bad, 1, c. 31, 155 ; 
Tatian, ad Gr. 27. With the thought comp. Origen, c. Gels. 2, 27 : 
axTTrep ou ^i\o<TO<piag tyKXt]fjid tlaiv oi ao^idTai f/ oi 'ETriKOvpeioi rj oi 
HepnraTrjTLicoi f) OLTivkg ttot av waiv oi (piXoSo^ovvTEg, ovtioq oh tCjv 
dXrjB^ivCjv XpicTTiavujv 'tyK\r)fxa oi fieraxapdrrovTsg rd evayyeXia KTt. 

12. ws aSiKos : 'Qgzi^ut. 

13. <J>dvTriTai: Notice the rare 2 aor. middle. The tense match- 
es tXeyx^^ig=^^dv IXeyx^tJ. 

14. Ov» Yoip . . . a|iwo-o}i€v : A reference to the clause in Hadri- 
an's rescript, in which calumniators of Christians are threatened 
with punishment (Grabe). 

8. This Life is not Wobth a Lie. ' We Aspire while we 

Expire.' 

1. Aoyia-aa-Qc on: ' Count upon it (as a fact) that.' See c. 2, 
18. — virep vjjitov: OttO COmp. Plato, Apol. 30 D: ttoXXov ^boj syw 
VTrep efxavTov d7ro\oyEl(j2rai, . . . dXX' v 7rk p v ft uj v. — €<j)Tj}A6v=::t^/yfTa- 
fxev. Notice the form. Buttmann (Ausfiihrl. Gr. § 109, Anm. 3*) 
denies the existence of a special aor. in tj. Here it is, though 
late. Not in Veitch. — e<j)' t|jxiv : ' In our power,' a very common 
use of the preposition, especially in the Stoic school, in which rd 
t(p' rifilv, rd ovK Itp' ijfiXv, were catch-words, e. g. Epictet. Enchir. 1, 
1,2. 

3, \|/€v8o\o7o{)vT€s=fc7ri to) ipEvcoXoyeiv, ' on condition of lying.' — 
ToO olwviov : Tov of the ideal standard. Comp. Soj)h. Ai. 473 : 
aiaxpbv ydp dvdpa rov jiaKpov xp^'^ttt' /3(0V | Kaicolaiv oarig ixrjSkv 
l^aXXd(TG£Tai. 

4, nera Gcov : Kriiger, with his wonted Laconism, defines avv as 
colierence, [ierd as coexistence, and points to the narrowing effect of 



120 NOTES. 

cvv in composition with jutra; Kiiliner, on the other hand, seems to 
make n^ra the closer, avv the wider. More important than either 
view is the result of Tycho Mommsen's researches, ' that the use 
of Gvv with the dative is almost wholly restricted to the higher 
forms of poetry and Xenophon, who has a leaning to poetical 
and religious phraseology, while /ism is reserved for prose, and 
for such forms of poetry as approximate most closely to it.' No- 
tice the standing (religious) phrase, tjvv Beo^. Athenag. (Suppl. 
31, 157) refines on ixeto. Beov and avv Srec^. At all events heto. is 
much more common. So Isocrates does not use cvv at all (as 
Haupt observed long ago), and even in Xenophon's Memorabilia, 
according to Prof. Price's count, fxerd w. gen. occurs sixteen times, 
Gvv only nine times. 

6. ircircio-iievot Kai irio-revovTcs : Justin often combines the pas- 
sive of 7^ei^u} and iriartvio. Generally he uses them in their genet- 
ic order, ttkttevsiv being the result of Trua^iivai. But when he 
wishes to emphasize conviction as a living, working principle, 
he reverses the usual arrangement, as in c. 17, 14, which shows 
that he does not use them as synonyms. Belief is conceived by 
the Gr. now as knowledge (bn), now as thought, now as an in- 
tellectual perception, now as dependent on the will (neg. ////). 
So verbs causative of belief, such as ird^ix). Comp. Plat. Theaet. 
201 B : TO TTElaai ^' ovx'i So^dffai Xsyeig Troiifaai; 

8. ircio-avras : When action is to be produced, ttsiBsiv takes the 
inf. ; when belief, on (of objective knowledge), sometimes the inf. 
Here irdaavTaQ is a verb of showing. See c. 3, 3. — -n-ap' avrw : 
Tlapd with persons of characteristic locality, e. g. irapd t^j crpari]- 

y(^, ' at head-quarters,' Trapd n^ ^i^acr/caX<^, ' at school,' Trap avTtrj^ 
' with Him' ' in Heaven.' 

12. Ta8d}jLav8vv Kai Mivw : Plato, Gorg. 523 E. Justin almost 
always treats his old master tenderly. There is a perceptible 
difference of tone in the other Fathers, wdio adduce the same 
parallel, as Athenag. Suppl. 12, 50. 

13. Trap' avTovs : 'Before their bar.' 'ETrei^av dtp'tKOJvrai Trapd 
Tov diica<TTf]v, Plato, 1. c. 524 E. 

14. KcLv Tois auTots : Kdv for Kai, M'ith Davis. 

15. Yivojjte'vtov : Gen. absolute without a subject, not uncommon. 
Supply dvBpioTTwv, if need be : ' while men are living in the same 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 9. 121 

bodies with their souls, and are doomed to eternal punishment.' 
The passage is generally considered corrupt, but nothing satis- 
factory has been suggested by way of emendation. 

16, x^^iovTaeTTJ : Late for xtXier/}. See Plato, Phaedr. 249 A ; 
De Republ. 10, 615 A. 

17o El . . . <|)T]o-€i Tis: Harsher and rarer form of the fut. con- 
ditional, with the same tone as our English ' shall.' 

18. irpbs iqp.ds . . . cTcpov : The jDassage is commonly edited 
thus: El . . . (prjffei tiq Trpbg rjjxag, i'jde n) TrXdvi] larti^ dXXov Trpbg 
sTspoi', which is supposed to mean : ' If any one shall say to us 
that this is incredible or impossible, well, this is a common error, 
a mistake of one thing for another, a mere mistake in detail, 
eternity for a thousand years, or some such matter.' I have fol- 
lowed Thirlby and Davis, to whom even Otto has at last suc- 
cumbed, ' This error is our affair, and nobody's else.' Comp. 
Athenag. Suppl. 36, 170 : olg cnraTwixev eavTovg Xoyoig ddiicovfiev ov- 
deva, and Arnob. 2, 53: Sed stulte istucl credimus. Quid ad ws? 
Inept issime^fatiie. Uhi vobis nocemus vel quam wMs facimus aut 
i;irogamus iniuriam, etc. Otto adds TertuU. Apol. 38 (p. 92 D. 
S.) : nostra iniuria est, non vestra. 

19. K-e'xpis ov . . . eXeYxoH^e^o- : ' So long as we are not convict- 
ed of doing any actual wrong.' Temporal conjunctions, as such, 
take the subj. in fut. and generic relations. With the ind. (pres. 
perf and fut.) they assume a causal sense. But this is not to be 
insisted on in later writers. — (jtiiSev : Perh. {xrickva. See Athenag. 
1. c. — a8iKovvT€s : 'EXeyxoj"^'^" is a verb of showing (causative of 
perception). See c. 3, 3. 

9. Idol Worship is Idle Worship. 

2. vaots: Nao^ is here the cella ; hp6v (1. 20) is used in a wider 
sense. — rauTo : Sc. eUioXa. On the subject see Athenag. Suppl. 26. 

4. (XT) exovTtt : As fxr] is the regular negative with the articular 
participle, so when the partic. is predicative and the article omit- 
ted firi is often retained in later Gr., sometimes in classic. 

7. Ti yap 8ci elSoo-iv vjiiv Xe'Yeiv : A favorite rhetorical turn. 
MaKprjyopHv iv eiS oa lv ov (3ovX6fievog, Thuc. 2, 36 ; iTnaTajx'^voKyi 
ev ovK dv Tig Xeyot, Hdt. 7, 8, 2. See also c. 21, 20. 

8. a TTiv v\t]v SiaTiOeWi : 'What they do with, how they treat. 



122 NOTES. 

etc' "A is a cognate accusative (accus. of the inner object) 
dependent on diaTiB^sacri. Comp. Dial. c. T. 18 : rovg to. Toiavra 
diuTi^kvTag i'lixag ; Orig. C. Cels. 3, 5 : ttoXXu diaB'evreg o'l 
TTctXai AlyvTTTioi to 'EfipaUov yevoQ, and G,74 ; Plat. Legg. 5, 728 B : 
^pvxvv dTifioTaTu diaTi^eig. Also Ep. Eccl. V. ct L. ap. Euseb. 
ri. E. 5, 1, 37 (p. 133, D. S.). 

9. |€ovT€s . . . TTjiTTovTcs: Comp. Isa. 40, 18; 44, 9 sqq. ; Thc- 
opliil. ad Aiitol. 2, 2. 

15. oTi . . . eirio-Tao-ec : C. 5, 10.— ao-cXvcis : C 4, 32. 

18. *n T'qs efiPpovT-qo-ias : The gen. of emotion after an interjec- 
tion. See E. ad D. 9, 14. 24. 25. Notice the accent of w. 'En^pov- 
TTjTog of an attonitus, a stupid, staring ass, a familiar word : ibfi- 
(SpovTrjTe <Tv, Ar. Eccl. 793, 'You thundering fool;' ^)\iBiovg re 
Kai lfi(5povTr]Tovg, Plat. Alcib. II. 140 C ; Orig. c. Cels. 7, IG. 34 ; 8, 
15. 'EfifSpovTrjrria, Plut. Mor. 1119 B. — dvGpwirovs . . . Kiyea-Qai: 

'That debauched men should be said to form gods,' etc. Aeye- 
o-.9'ai for XsysaBs, Stephan. 

20. <})v\aKas : See E. ad D. 2, 2. 

21. |XTj (TvvopwvTas: The neg. is regular; er. is an integral part 
of the inf. sentence. See c. 2, 4. l,vvopa.v, used chiefly of intel- 
lectual j)erception. So Athenag. Kes. 15, 66. 

10. Propek Worship op God. 

1. ov.: Read with Nolte ovoL So Otto (1875).— Seco-eai : The 
open forms of this verb are often found in the MSS. and editions 
of Xenophon. So in later writers, e. g. B 14, 13 ; Constt. Apostt. 
1, 8. With the thought comp. Athenag. Suppl. 10. 

2. '7rap€i\T]<|)aji,ev: Thalemami. So also Otto, now, for -rrpoaHXi)- 
(pafxev. See c. 4, 23. Upo(TXai,ij3dvELv is rather 'to assume.' — irape- 
XovTtt : Intellectual perception. See c. 3, 3. 

3. Ikcivovs : Object of 7rpo(7^£%£o-^at, 'accept.' — Trpoo-Sc'xetrGat . . . 
8e8i8d7fji€0a : The regular construction would be on w. finite verb. 
Sec cc. 3, 3 ; 5, 10. 

4. Kai ir€Tr£ io- jxeOo Kai ttio-tctjojacv : See C 8, 6. 

7. T«3 |iif]86vi . . . KaXovp-e'vo) : See c. 4, 9. — 0€tw: See B 6, 1 : "Ovoi-ia 
ct r<p TrdvTMv Trarpi Betov, dyEvvr]T(i) ovrij ovk tcrriv. — K.ai iravTa 
KT6. : The rest of the chapter is very important for Justin's an- 
thropology, which seems to lack clearness and consistency. 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 10. 123 

8. TT|v apx^iv : Is often used with the negative, which loves 
strong exj^ression, 'not the beginning '1=' not at all.' It is found 
with the neg. c. 29, 2, Athenag. Res. 2, 13; positively, c. 28, 10, 
Dialog, c. Tr, cc. 27. 46. The meaning here is much dis23uted. 
'To begin with' seems to answer the conditions best. 

9. 81' dvOpwirovs : Comp. E. ad D. 10, Athenag. Suppl. 13, 3, and 
see Origen, c. Cels. 4, 24, in defence of this position against the 
mockery of Celsus. — ot . . . 8eit«o-i : ' If they show themselves 
Avorthy to (in the sight of) His counsel by means of works,' 
' commend themselves to His counsel as worthy.' — a|iovs : Abso- 
lute as in c. 52, 13. The gen. is readily supplied, if needful, fr. 
ri/e juer avrov avaaTpo(pi]Q. "A^ioq with dat. and gen., Xen. Mem. 
1, 2, 62, An. 4, 1, 28 ; Plat. Conv. 185 B. 

11. KaTa|iw0iivai : Aor. as fut. See c. 12, 23. With the ex- 
pression comp. c. 26, 4, and Theophil. ad Autolyc. 2, 35.— irapct- 
Xi]({>a;jicv : For the MS. 7rpoaH\i]<pan^v. 

16. TO Ycve'o-eat : Theoretically the inf. with the article ought 
to have no more time than any other verbal noun, to irpa^ai no 
more than /; Trpd^ig, to TreTrpax^ai than to Trpdyfia. But practical- 
ly the inf. is often used to sum up the contents of a finite clause, 
when it must have some temjooral relation other than continu- 
ance, attainment, completion. This is inevitable when the 
article is used with the fut. inf. or the inf. with dv, which 
belong necessarily to oratio obliqua. In this passage, however, 
the simple abstract notion 'our birth' suffices. — y]\Lir€pov:=l(p' 
r)iuv. — TO 8' e|aKo\ov9T]o-ai : According to rigid grammar, l. de- 
pends on Tret'^et, but the article holds up the inf. more distinctly 
as an object of thought. Comp. c. 3, 9. As for our birth, that 
was not in our power. 'As for our following what is pleasing 
in His sight, it is He that persuades us thereto.' 

18. TreiSct T€ Kal els irio-Tiv ayn : Comp. c. 8, 6. 

19. TO [JLT] clLpYeo-9at : On the inf. see c. 3, 9 ; on /^jy, c. 2, 4. Some 
read r^ with the MSS. 'And we think that [this] is [so] (is 
done) for the sake of all men, on account of (r(^=^td to) their 
not being kept,' etc. Not satisfactory. Otto now edits to. 

21.''0'Trep . . . TttvTa: So the MSS. No change is necessary. 
So Thuc. 6, 17 : on .. . TavTa^ and Xen. Cyr. 1, 6, 11, with the 
commentators. 



124 NOTES. 

22. 6 \oYos Pcios wv : ' The Logos being divine,' ' by its divine 
power.' Pcrionius writes ^^og dv, to give the ordinary con- 
ditional form to the sentence. — clpYdcraTo, cl [vq : ' Did (actually) 
Avork, only;' el fn) being restrictive. ElpydaaT dv, ei nrj : 'would 
have wTOUght (but did not), had not.' But perhaps it would be 
better not to refine ; dv may readily have been dropped after uiv. 

23. iroWa x|;€v8ti Kai a8ca : See cc. 23, 14 ; 26, 32 ; B 12, 15 ; 
Athenag. Suppl. 3, 12. 

25. wv ov8ev Trpoo-co-Tiv : Short relative clausulae have a jDecul- 
iar emphasis. With the phrase comp. B 2, 47 ; 12, 16. 

11. 'My Kingdom is kot of this World.' 

1. TTpoo-SoKwvTas : 'Akovco, as a verb of knowing, takes the parti- 
ciple, or oTi ; as a verb of thinking, the inf. ; of actual perception, 
the gen. and partic. 

2. dv0pto)irivov : Fem,, as in Plato, Legg. 5, 737 B. — Xeyciv: 
'Mean.' — vireiXY^cjjaTc : 'Have taken up the impression,' often of a 
false impression ; hence it is necessary to define it. Comp. [Plat.] 
Delf. 413 A: vttoXtjxPlq 6p2fii, and Aristot. Eth. Magn. 1, 35, 
15: r) VTroXij-ipig kcrriv, ij VTrep aTrdvTOJV tTrafKporepi^ofXEv, rrpbg to 
Ktti dvai ravra ovrio Kal f^ii) elvca. 

3. iQfAuv . . . X67<5vTcov : Gen. absol,, although r)ixdg precedes. 
The deviation is justified by the strong contrast. See c. 62, 12. 
— XcYovTwv : ' Whereas we mean.' Adversative jDarticiple ; so 
yivuxTKovrag, 'although we kno^v.' TLVMcncovTsg, which some re- 
tain, w^ould refer to the emperors. 

5. Oavarov tt]v ^Tjjjiiav: Qdvarog 7) ?/;/n'a is a very common ju- 
dicial phrase. 

6. K€i(r0oi : Practical perf. pass, of TiBtjiii. TeS'ej^mi is little used 
in classic authors. The inf after yivwcKO} is more common when 
7. means 'to believe.' — El Trpoo-eSoKwixcv : On the unreal con- 
ditional, see c. 4, 6. 

7. oirtos jxT] dvaipw(jie8a : "Oiriog has among its numerous con- 
structions the constructions of 'Iva. Whenever the neg. is used 
with tenses of continuance, the combination has a peculiar 
stress ; ottwc m dvaiptbjxt^azizTov firj dvaipuaBat. On the Sequence, 
see c. 12, 9. 

8. oirws . . . Tvx"K«v : Aorist of final attainment. 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 12. 125 

10. ir€<{)povTiKa;xev : Emotional perfects denote (in conformity 
with the original symbolism of reduplication) not completed, 
but intense action. So reSravnaKu, ceoia, and the like. Hence 
the present translation. — tov Kal TrdvTws dtroQavelv : So c. 57, 9: tou 
Trdvrcjg aTroSravelv, ' death at any rate.' The article with the inf. 
is often contemptuous. ' This thing of dying,' ' this inevitable 
doom of death.' See note on c. 29, 4. — 6<})eiXo}i.eVov : Comp. the 
famous passage in Eur. Ale. 418-9 : yiyvojaKe de | wg Trdaiv r'uxTv 
KurSr avaXv o^eiXerai. So Menan. Monos. 69: jSporolg uTracnv 
aTToBavelv oipeiXerai. Also B 11, 3: Trdvrojg Tvavri yevoi-isvd) 

13. 'As EVER IN OUR GREAT TASKMASTER'S EYE.' 

1, 'Apwyol KT6. : We are great helps to you because we hold 
ourselves responsible to God, whose eye nothing can escape, 
whereas the wicked count on your blindness. 

2. ravTa 8o|d^o}i€v : Tavra anticipates the inf. clause A 4, 4. 
— us : As if he were about to use lari, a slight want of sequence, 
which is more common with on. An example with ojg, Isae. 6, 10. 

4. cvdperov : A late word. — irpos oXiyov : ' For a little while,' as 
in Luc. D. D. 18, 1 ; Plut. Mor. IIG A ; Ilermias, 2. In the better 
period only with a subst., as Trpdg yrjpag, tt. to yy)pag. 

7. Yivwo-Kcijv . . . TTopcweo-Oai : 'Knowing that he is on his way.' 
On the inf , see c. 11, 6. 

10. Tvxoi : The MSS. have tvxv- I lic'ivc written tvxoi (and so 
has Otto now), though examples of change of mood are not want- 
ing. In the later period -y and -oi were jDronounced alike. The 
opt. after a past tense because it is a past tense, whereas in c. 11, 
7 the subj, is used after kclv ijpi^ovfieSra because it=:oyK apvovixeBa. 
— dirTi\XaY}i.evos ctri : The perf. is little used in the final sentence 
except of resulting condition. So especially in the periphrastic 
form, as Dial. c. T. 16 : 'Iva ?]re drrb rwv dWiov i^vCJv d(p<jjpi<jfiei>oij 
1. C. 56 : 'iva 7r£7r€t(T/.t£i'oi yre. 

11. 01 yap ktI. : The MSS. have Ou ydp and a jDeriod at ddiKov- 
ai, which does not give a clear sense (unless we read iravovrai for 
Treipujvrai, and omit the first XavSfdvHv)^ and leaves an incredible 
asyndeton at ei 'ijxa^ov. O'i (Thirl by), with the punctuation given, 
makes the passage transparent.— KeijicVovs^re^et/iei-ouc- See c. 11, 6. 



126 NOTES. 

12. Xav6dv€iv dSiKovvTcs: A number of verbs of manner, such 
as XavB^dvuj, Tvyxiivio, (pBdvio, take participial constructions. We 
often translate by an adverb or some other turn, as, to our con- 
ception, the participle contains the main notion. That the ac- 
tions are coincident is shown by the fact that the combinations 
may be reversed : XaS^iLv t7roh](ra occurs as well as tXa^e iroujaag. 
The typical construction is identity of tenses, so far as continu- 
ance, attainment, and completion are concerned, but the rule is 
not closely observed except with (pSrdvM. 

14. ejJLa0ov Kai eTr€icr8T]<rav : Justin's favorite chain-shot style 
(coupled synonyms). See Introd. xxxii. — liriKciiJicva : Sc. vtto tov 
^eov (Trollope). 

17. ScSieVai j-vq: The moods after verbs of fearing have some 
marked peculiarities. So the pres. subj. is used not only as a 
fut. but also as a present (future ascertainment of a present ac- 
tion) ; the aor. subj. is invariably fut. (both ascertainment and 
fiction). — SiKaioirpaYTio-wo-L : Ingressive aorist. Comp. c. 3, 13. 
Trollope and others are shocked at Justin's unmannerliness. 

18. Ko\d<r€T€: The MSS. have KoXa^ere, for which I read with 
Thirlby, Braun, and Otto (2) KoXdaerE, others KoXdc,)]Te. There is not 
much choice. True, the fut. ind. is the normal construction after 
the relative of adaj^tation; but after 'ixoj {ovk f'xw) the subj. is 
often found by an early and natural confusion of relative and in- 
terrogative, Ovk ix^re ov KoXdaare, 'You have not any one to 
punish,' and ovk tx^re ovriva KoXd^ijre, 'You do not know whom 
to punish,' are not kept apart as nihil habeo quod, non habeo 
quid, m Latin. — e'lcre : Change to the future construction, found 
rather after such verbs as bpdv, (iXk-nruv, and the like. After SsdoiKa, 
Xen. Cyr. 2, 3, 6 ; after (po^ovi-iai, Plat. Phileb. 13 A. Otto comp. 
2 Cor. 12,20. 21 (Tisch.). — 8Tjp,iwv: Classical word for ' executioners.' 

20. CK SaifjLovwv : 'E? of the source, not equivalent to viro, with 
wdiich it is seldom parallel in Attic prose. Comp. Athenag. Res. 
20, 96 : e K ^eov kuI irapd Sreov. 

22. ot Y€ : The restrictive relative (:=qui quidem) is often caus- 
al. Comp. B 3, 4. 

23. irpalai: The aor. inf. is often used for the fut, inf. after 
verbs of hoping and promising, in which wish or will intrudes. 
See cc. 14, 20 ; 15, 18 ; B 3, 1. This is extended to other verbs, and 



_THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 12. 127 

we find the simple aor. inf. where the rule would require the fut. 
inf. or the aor; inf. with aV, which H. Stephanus desiderates 
here. Remember, however, that dv is often dropped by accident. 

26. oo-ov Kai: Kai is superfluous for our idiom in the second 
clause of a correlative sentence. For the Greek it seems to give 
a co-ordinate balance. 

27. KaX\iepTio-€T6: 'Sacrifice acceptably '=' succeed.' The sa- 
cral sense seems to have died out in ordinary parlance. ' Jus- 
tin's meaning is that their persecutors will not succeed in their 
attempts against the Christians, since Christ himself has prom- 
ised to support them in making a wise choice; at tlie same 
time that their faith is confirmed by the fact that their very suf- 
ferings are so many fulfilments of his predictions, and conse- 
quently so many proofs of his divinity ' (Trollope). 

28. ov pao-iXiKwraTov : So-called superlative for compar. The 
superl. enhances the comparative. The gen. of the standard 
after compar. (' than ') is now commonly explained as a whence 
case (abl.). Otto cites Cohort. 9. 35 (Trpe(Tf3vTaTog), 12 (apxaioTdrriv), 
21 (-n-puiTovg). It is characteristic of the philology of the hist cen- 
tury til at Thirlby calls the construction absurda Atticorum elegan- 
tia, and avails himself of Philemon (fr. inc. 109), ^aveiv dpiaTov 
iariv 7] Znv dSrXUog, to deliver an ugly blow at Bentley. 

29. ovSe'va o\'8ajj.ev ovra : See c. 3, 3. O'iSafxev rare in Attic. 
Common form in the Koivt) ^tdXtfcroc. 

30. irevias : The plural of abstracts is frequently used distrib- 
utively in Greek, rarely in English. For mviai comp. Plato, De 
Eep. 10, 618 B; Legg. 10, 890 C; Prot. 353 D, ah — irarpiKas : 
' Hereditary.' 

31. oa-a av: The relative with dv and subj. is in some respects 
parallel with Idv (c. 2, 18). But observe that the relative with 
dv and subj. is always generic in prose. — virayopiva-ri^^ virdTry. 
See c. 2, 2. 

32. fiT) Seiv : Comp. c. 4, 24. Add imper. notion in vrrayopEv(y\i. 
— 6 V0VV6X11S : The Stoic definition of vowsx^ia is iTnaTrjur] eTriTSv- 
KTiKr) Tov tKaoTi}} (TKOTTov. — ovx alpi(]<r£Tai : So-called gnomic or seu' 
tentious future.— Pcviio-co-eat . . . Trpoctirc: E/7reTv,in the sense of ' say' 
(not ' order'), commonly takes on or iog in classic Greek ; but the 
exceptions are far more numerous than one should suppose from 

H 



128 NOTES. 

the v>ay iu \Yhich the rule is stated, as Thuc. 7, 35, 2 ; Hdt. 1, 39 ; 

2, 30; Andoc. 1, 57; Xen. Hell. 1, C, 7; 2, 2, 15; Cyr. 5, 5, 24; 
Pluto, Gorg. 473 A; Legg. 2, C54 A; 5, 736 C ; Clitoph. 409 A. 
410 B ; Acschin. 3, 38 ; Lj'curg. c. Leocr. 50, to say nothing of the 
poets, such as Pmd. 01. 7, 62 ; Soph. Antig. 755, etc. For later 
Greek, examples are not necessary : Luc. Peregrin. 18 ; Theophil. 
ad Autol. 2, 8 ; 3, 3 ; Athenag. Suppl. 20, 85 ; 23, 113 {t^mrdv yev- 
va<7^at) ; Origen, c. Gels. Praef. 5 ; 3, 6. 35. 66. So cc. 33, 11 ; 46, 

3, and often in D. c. T. The rule, however, is not without its 
reason. EiVeir originally gives the exact utterance (tTrog). So 
in Homer (rdS' eZttev). When the on form of o. obliqua became 
common, it w^as natural that this form, which is nearest to oratio 
recta, should be retained. 

33. TavTtt irovTa : Sc. on ov KaWieptjcrere. — <}>tj|ji.C serves to resume, 
as in Eng. ' I say.' 

34. diroo-ToXos : Is a term of special dignity in Greek. Comp. 
cc. 31, 17; 33, 17, and C. 63, 12 : dyyeXog KaXeirai kuI aTroaroXog: 
also Hebr. 3, 9 : Kamvoiifrare rov cnroaroXov Kai apxup'^a njg ofio- 
Xoylag I'/iiwv X. 'I. 

35. TO eirovojjid^ea-Sai : See c 3, 9. — Xpio-riavoi : Familiar con- 
cord with the subject of the leading verb. 

37. 7iv6}Ji€va: Participle with (paivojxai as a verb of showing, 
c. 3, 3. Notice the more common use of yivojiai (for yiyvoiiai) in 
later Greek. 

38. <j)9do-as— :r|o6rfjOov: a pleonasm wdth TrpotTTrer. See note one. 
12,12. So Origen, c. Cels. 2, 29 : (p^aaavr^g elpr]KafjLEv. So 5, 1 : 
<p^d<TavTeg d7n]VT7'](Tafi£Vj 23, 11: (pBdaavreg {Ittov. — 7€V€0'8ai = 
yevi'jffeaSfat, which we should expect, but see 1. 23. — oirep : ' The 
very thing which,' ' the very thing W'hich is peculiarly.' Comp. 
c. 18, 3.— Trplv^j: C. 4, 13. 

39. elvrciv : ' (Namely) telling before a thing happens, and then 
to have the thing shown as happening just as it has been fore- 
told.' EiVeTv : So the editors for eItts. 

40. '^Hv : So called for l^riv. ' But there w^ere such a thing as 
not adding.' ' We might stop here (tTri rovroig) and add noth- 
ing.' In such phrases dv is said to be omitted. The difference 
is commonly stated thus (after Hermann) : ''Hi' dv, ' it w^ould be 
possible' (in other circumstances), but, as it is (vvv ^s), it is im- 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 13. 129 

possible. ''Uv, 'it were possible,' but it is not, will not be, done. 
This distinction does not hold throughout. Observe that the 
phenomenon is confined to the imperf. tense of abstract relations, 
such as, tSei, txpn'^, (X|or/j', Athenag. Suppl. 32, 158), ^warbv iiv 
(c. 39, 15 ; Dialog, c. T. 24). The imperf. itself is a suspended 
fat. of the past=zf /tfXXe and fut. inf. 

41. XoYi<raji6vo\)s on: C. 2, 18. 

42. paov. By frequent usage -with the standard suppressed, 
pq.ov has lost something of its comparative color. Comj). ocius, 
projnus, and ' near.' 

44. clSores oTi : C. 3, 3. — ouk c!8ijvaTov : Two conflicting nega- 
tives are frequently used in Gr. to produce a strong affirmative 
by litotes. The English language, though greatly influenced 
by classical and Scriptural example, does not go so for in the 
use of the figure. This passage from ovk . . . (pvyelv has been 
apj^ropriated by Irenaeus, Adv. Haer, 3, 2 (Grabe). 

13. 'Our Reasonable Service.' 

1, &)5 oi/K lo-fie'v: Depends on tiq . . . ovx oj-ioXoyijcrei ; (1. 12). 

2. dvevScTJ alp.dTwv: The plural conception is difi'erent in dif- 
ferent languages. Comp. c. 12, 30. A<>ara is very common: 
'streams of blood,' or 'gouts of blood,' as the case may be. 
Braun has accumulated parallels for the thought from both pro- 
fane and patristic writers, as Eur. Here, Fur. 1348 : Sairat yap 6 
^eug, e'lTrep tar uvtwq S'eoc, ovSevog, and Clem. Alex. Strom. 6 p. 635 : 
dvevdei]g dk f.i6vog 6 SreSg. See the Second Satire of Persius. 

4, \6y<a €ixT]S : Comp. 2 Cor. 5, 19: tov XSyov Tijg KciTaXXayijg, 
Hebr. 13, 22 : tov XSyov T^g TrapaKXrjaewg. Gregory of Nyssa dis- 
tinguishes Evx>) and Trpoaevxi] : ^^xv H-^^ ^'^''''-^ tTrayy^la rivbg rwv 
KUT ei)G8J3eiav d(pi£pov[.isvojv, 7rpo(T evxv ^^ a'iri]cng ciya^CJv f^ierd iKe- 
rrjpiag Trporrayofikvr] ^fr^. See my note on Pers. 2, 3. The distinc- 
tion is not to be pressed. — e4>' ois=:£7ri Tovroig u. — irpocrcJjepop.eQa ; 
' Take to ourselves,' ' eat and drink,' 'enjoy,' as in Xen. Cyr. 4, 2, 
41; Athenag. Res. 5, 24; 6, 28. The translation 'offer,' 'sacri- 
fice,' is without warrant for the middle. So below, c. 67, 4 : tTri 
TTctcriv olg Trp o(7(f)sp6 [xe^ a EvXoyoi'nev ktL 

5. o<rt] Svvajxis : A common phrase, at every turn in Orig. c. 
Gels., ' to the extent of our power.' See cc. 55, 27 ; 67, 15.— 



130 NOTES. 

alvoGvTcs: TIic imc()mi)oiuided form is rare in Attic prose, and 
luis a higher, more religious tone. Greg. Naz, says, 1, c. 142-3 : 
t IT a IV 6 g iiJTiv ev ri twv tfiwv <ppd(Tai, \ aivog 8' trraivoQ elg Sreuv 
ml^afffuog. — tijitjv TOVTtiv : T/}j/ r</t?/i' Tavrtjv would mean 'this 
lionor.' TavTijv is attraction from tovto (c. 3, 8) : ' That the only- 
honor worthy of Him is this, namely, the offering.'' 

6. irapaXoP^vTCS : C. 4, 23. 

7. ov irvpi: Is really parenthetic, and influenced by irapaXa^ov- 
rer — hence ov, not juj}. — cavTots=//^u^' ahroig. See c. 2, 16, 

8. Slo. \670v : Comp. Ep. ad D. 6, 9. — Trojxirds : Justin prefaces 
TToixTTug by cud Xuyov to distinguish these Christian irofXTrai from 
the heathen processions, the diaboU 2>ompae, which were an es- 
pecial abomination to the Church. See Constt. Apostt. 2, 6. 
' Solemn prayers.' 

9. VJJ.VOVS irefiirciv : 'AvaTrijjnreiv is still more COmmou. Comp. 
Clem. Alex. Paed. 3, 12, 101 : alvov dvaTre/x^pai Kvpii>j. 

10. TToioTTJTOJv |i€v 7 o vwv t Thc MSS. liavc yei'wv. Buusen 
(Christianity and Mankind, 1, 219, note) writes: ttuvtojv ttohjtujv 
Kai yeinjTwv, putting a comma after rroptjjv. Otto supposes j(.v(bv 
to mean 'elements.' I write yovwj-', which is coupled with 
'fruits' by Origen, C. Cels. 5, 12: Kap-rrovg koI yovag diraaag . . . 
KapTtCJv Kai Tracrwv yoviov ai<j^i)Tb)v. The reference is to 'variety 
of products.' Comp. further B 5, 6 : rd ovpdvia (xroix^la Etg av^tj- 
criv KapirCjv Kai dtpoJv fierajSoXag., and Max. TjY. 17, 5 : Kpaaeig dkpiov 
Kai <^(jj(t}v yEvscreig Kai KapirCjv (pvcreig . . . ^eov Trdvra tpya y) -ipvxn) Xeyn 
ktL — [jLcv : Solitarium, i. e., ji/lv without es, but Kai is equivalent. 

12. Tis a-oi^povwv ovx ojAoXoY-qo-ci : ComjD. Athenag. Suppl. 10, 
43 : Tig ovv ouK dv dTTopijcrai ktL 

15. cTTi IIovTiov: 'Eiri w. gen. of official dates. Comp. cc. 26, 
6 ; 3o, 25 ; 46, 6. — cirl xpovois : A later construction. 

16. eTTiTpoirov: 'Procurator.' — vibv avxov : Otto now reads av- 
rov. 

17. irv€{)|idTe: Te . . . r£ intimates parallelism; the point of 
view shifts from c. 6, 8. 

18. oTi . . . Ti}i,(«;|ji€v : C. 3, 3. — diroSeilo^Jiev : 'ETTt^ei/cvwai for ef- 
fect, hence often in a bad sense, though not always (E. ad D. 
12, 10), ivd. of a practical illustration (E. ad D. 5, 11), d-rro^. of 
logical proof 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 14. 131 

19. 'EvravSa : 'In this point,' anticipating the inf. — |j,aviav . . . 
KaTa<f>aivovTai = ju. Karriyopovcri: Unusual transitive sense of the 
middle of Karacp., after the analogy of d7ro(paivofxai. 

21. Tov airdvTwv: Third attributive position. So the MSS. 
Otto and Trollope write tmv. — avGpwirw crravpcaGevTi : A common 
sneer. It is unnecessary to multiply proofs of the scandal of the 
cross. In the Rabbinical books our Saviour is spoken of simply 
as ^^htr\H. 

T — 

22. Trpo(rex€iv : Sc. toi^ vovv^ a familiar ellipsis. 

23. €|t]Yov[ji€v«v : Sc. iij.iu}v. The subject of the genitive parti- 
cijDle is not unfrequently to be supplied. 

14. The Demons Malign Christians. 

1. IIpoXeYojJicv: 'Forewarn.' — <|>v\d|a(rSai : 'To put yourselves 
on your guard;' (pvXdTreaBai, 'to be on your guard.' See c. 3, 
13. — irpoSiaPepX-qiJievot : 'Previously accused.' Comp. the use of 
Siaf3d\\(o in Luke, IG, 1 (of the unjust steward). Maran aptly 
quotes Tertull. ad Scapulam, 2 (p. 117 D. S.) : Daemones autem 
non tantum respuimus venim et revincbmis et quotidie traduci- 
mus et de Iwminibus expellimus, sicut plurimis notum est. 

3, IvTvxeiv Kal o-vv€ivat : ^vveivai fr. crvvhjfii. See the combina- 
tion in B 3, 11 : el tvTvx'^v fX)) (TvvrJKe to Iv avrolg ixeyaXsiov. 
The use of tvrvyxdveLv, ' read ' (c' 26, 38), begins Plato, Lys. 214 A ; 
Conv. 177 B; De Lege, 316 C. Observe the aor. of total nega- 
tion. See c. 4, 10. 

5. vTTTjpcTas : 'Y7n]peT7]g, often of an official 'underling,' 'under- 
strapper.' AovXoi Kal vTTijperai combined, in Jno. 18, 18. 
Comp. Lucian, Char. 17: dyysXoi Kal VTrripkrai Qavdrov, Sacrif 
8: iiTTijpsrai Kal dyyeXiacpdpoi (Iris and Hermes). 

6. oTpo<|>uv : ^Tpotp})^ hardly a dignified word, though used 
by Aeschyl, Suppl. 623 ; it belongs to the language of every- 
day life (Ar. Ran. 775, Plut. 1154), and creej^s into Latin in 
the time of Augustus. Tertull. Apol. 15 (p. 55 D. S.) : Dlspicite 
Lentidorum et HostiUormn vemistates, utrum mhnos an deos vestros 
in iocis et stj'ojyhis rideatis. 'Shift.' — ovk eo-S' oirws: 'In no 
way.' 

7. Wep TTJs avTwv (ra)TT]pias : Ahrh)v is ipsorinn^ ' jDcrsonal.' The 
reflexive is not necessary.— ov rpoirov : C. 4, 22. The thought is, 



132 NOTES. 

' You ouglit to i)ut yourselves on your guard just as v:c did 
when we found out their wiles.' 

0. Tw dytvvriT<j^ : Otto would now read everywhere with Ash- 
ton and AVaterhind dy&i^ijTog, 'unoriginated,' instead of dykvi')]Tog, 
* unbegotten,' and cites a large number of passages to show that 
at this period God was called dyev7]T0Q, not dyswrjTOQ. See 
Atheuag. Suppl. 4, 15. Bohringer (ap. Ott.) says that Justin 
calls God the unbegotten, partly in contrast to the begetting 
of gods which went on so freely in polytheistic Paganism 
(c. 25), partly hy way of distinction from the begotten Son, the 
Logos. 

10. ol irdXai (lev ktI. : This powerful evidence of the divine 
origin of the Christian religion is eloquently insisted on in the 
Ep. ad Diogn. 5 foil. Parallels might be multii^lied indefinitely. 
Keim well calls this theme the triumphal song of the Apologists. 
— iropvctais : See C. 12, 30. 

12. dyaQ^ koX dy.Q.: Concinnity would require vvi^ dya^o^, 
which Otto has recently edited. But Justin is not concinnous. 
— lavTous dvaTc^cLKOTes : The notion that the middle is a reflexive 
in the ordinary sense of the word is a vulgar error that is not 
yet wholly dissipated. The object of the middle is really neither 
dat. nor accus., as the middle is older than the cases (Curtius). 
The middle can be used as a direct reflexive only when the ac- 
tion is natural. The reflexive pronoun is always expressed when 
the action is of itself unnatural, or has become such in the cir- 
cumstances. — XPT.'J''*^''""'' Kai KTKiftaTWv : Kn//<arrt, ' real estate,' xp>)- 
para, ' personal property.' So Braun, who cites Clem. Alex. Quis 
dives, 14: Krrj /xaTa yap tan KTijrd uvra, Kai \pi] jxara xp)](n}ia uvra 
Koi eig xpriaiv dvSrpu)7r(i)v TrapeaKSvacyixsva vtvo rov ^eov and 1. C. 19 : 
Xpnfiara dvri KTrjudrojv Xa/SeTr. Comp. Plato, Lcgg. 5, 728 E : 
// Tu)V %|0»j/t arwi' Kal kt)] j-idr ojv KTtjcng. But KTlj/naTa notably in- 
cludes ' slaves and cattle.' The currency of the combination is 
partly due to the jingle. 

15. pLKrdXXiiXoi : Comp. Tit. 8, 3 : fxiaovvTEQ dWtjXovg. 

10. Tovs oi»x 6jio4)vXovs=ro{'e dXXo^vXovg : the neg. coalescing 
with the word. Otherwise /o) ofxocpvXovg. — koi . . . |ii]=://'K£ : M/; 
is regular on account of the article. See cc. 4, 9 ; 26, 30. — eo-rias 

KOlVaS TTOlOVjACVOl^KOJJ^W^ taTldjflEVOl '. SCB C. 1, 9. 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 15. 133 

17. ojJLoSiaiToi : Comp. B 2, 18. 

20. vTToS-qiJioo-iJvas : Poetic, or late. 

21. Tvxeiv: Oil the tense after svs\7ridsg, see c. 13, 23. 

21. Trpb TTJs diro8ci^€tos : Promised in c. 13, 18. — vjieTcpov : Comp. 
c. 3, 16. 

25. <j)S SuvaTwv Pa<ri\eW : Familiar ajDposition of gen. "vvith 
possessive. 'Qg restrictive, and so causal. The Greeks called 
the emperor (SacnXiug^ a word for which they had a certain affec- 
tion, whereas 7'ex was tabooed at Rome — a divergency easily ac- 
counted for by history. — Sumrlv : Power has its duties. Noblesse 
oblige. Hence there is no necessity of changing hwarCov into aw- 
ETu)v with Stephauus. Comp. c. 17, 18. 

26. Bpaxeis 8e Kal <rvvTO}ioi : Comp. D. C. T. 18: (Bpaxea . . . 
Xoyia. Comp. Origen, c. Cels. 3, 39, on the language of the evan- 
gelists, and read a passionate defence of ungrammatical Chris- 
tianity in Arnobius, 1, 59. 

27. <ro<|)icrT'qs : ' Professor of wisdom.' There is necessarily a 
bit of charlatanry in the word itself, despite the famous vindica- 
tion of Grote. In this age the professor was chiefly a rhetori- 
cian. Luciau calls Christ ' the crucified professor.' See my ar- 
ticle on Luciau (Southern Review, Oct. 1869, p. 424), and comp. 
Max. Tyr. 21, 6 : £i Se ijBeXsi^ u 'Hpa/c\//g . . . SiMKeiv aocpiav cnrpd- 
yj.iova^ yv av Sijirov av^' 'llpuKXeovg ao(pi(7Tif]g, Kai oudtig av avTuv 
iTuXi-ir](Tev eIttslu iraXca ^log. It may be also worth noticing that 
M. Aurelius says of Antoninus Pius (6, 31) : ov \po(podsr]g, ovx 

VTTOTTTijg^ V (7 O (f) I (T T )) g. 

28. Suvajjits CeoO : Comp. Matt. 7, 29. 

15. Christ's own Teachings. 

1. TocrovTov: Perhaps with reference to the brevity {ahvTonoi 
Xoyoi) of Christ's words.— '^Os av . . . ecw : Matt. 5, 28. With Jus- 
tin's first citation of the words of our Lord begins the endless 
controversy as to his use of our Gos^Dels. See the Introduction, 
XXXV. foil. I shall not undertake to point out the divergences, 
much less to explain them. 

3. El 6 6<})9aX}i.os . . . irvp: Matt. 5, 29. Comp. 18, 9, and 
Mark 9, 47. 

7.'*0s yajjiei: . . . p-oixarat: Matt. 5, 32. Comp. Luke 16, 18. 



134 NOTES. 

8. Eio-i Tivcs . . . xo)pova-iv: jMatt. 19, 12. 

11. "flo-Tc : So Otto (:3) after Davis for w<T7rep. 

12. SiYttfiias : It is much disputed wlietlier the forbidden mar- 
riage was simultaneous (bigamy), or successive (after death or 
divorce of the former partner). Simultaneous marriage (Ma- 
ran) was not allowed by the Roman law ; marriage after divorce 
is supposed to be meant here by Thirlby, Ritter, and Otto ; 
Braun thinks that Justin entertained the harsh view of second 
marriages common to the early Church. So Athenag. Suppl. 33, 
162 : 6 Sevrepog [ydf-io^] iV7rpe7n)Q tan /.loix^ia. On the difficulty of 
keej)ing widows from a second marriage, see the instructive 
chapter in Constt. Apostt. 3, 1. — Troiov|i€vot : See c. 1, 9. — irapa tw 
T|}jL€T€pa) 8i8ao-Kd\a) : 'In our Master's school,' 'according to His 
doctrine.' See c. 8, 8. 

15. [ioix€v<raL: lugressive aorist. See c. 3, 13. With the pas- 
sage Otto comp. Iren. Adv. Haer. 2, 32, 1 : cqmd quern non solum 
qui moechatur expellitw seel et qui moechari vult. — ws ov twv cpYwv 
<{>av6pwv: On wg and ov see c. 4, 19. ^avepCJv sc. ovtojv. The par- 
ticiple of the gen. abs. is not freely omitted, chiefly with such 
adjectives as are virtually participles {Ikwv and aKrwj/),or have an 
affinity with verbs, as (pavepiov here. 

17. iroWoi TIV6S : Tig is often added to designations of numbers. 

18. Ik iraiSuv : A common phrase. 'Ek includes the period 
from which it dates, as in Engl. ' of a child.' There is some dis- 
pute as to the limits of this passage, which is supposed to bear 
on paedobaptism. — a^Qopoi=ddid(pBopoi. 

19. €(ixofJi.ai . . . Set^ai: On the aor.=fut. see c. 12, 23. — Kara 
irav Yevos : C. 1, 5. 

20. Ti . . . XeVixcv: 'What shall we (I) say of?' The use of 
the present for the fut. is a survival of an older stage. The 
' conative ' element lies in the so-called connecting vowel. 

23. oiKoXdoTovs : 'AK6\a<TTog refers to want of training, aKpari'ig 
to defect of temperament (Vomel). 

24. Elirc 8' ovTOiq : Justin regularly uses ovTujg to point both 
ways, backward and forward. So ovrog. — Ovk -qXQov . . . |xcTa- 
voiav: Matt. 9, 13 (Mark 2, 17), Luke 5, 32. — KoKea-ai: An old use 
of the infinitive after verbs of motion, found here and there in 
classic Greek prose, common in N. T. 



THE FIKST APOLOGY. C. 15. 135 

25. ©eXci . . . av»Tov: Comp. Ezek. 33, 11. 'E^&Xco is the form 
in normal prose, but after a vowel and in certain formulae S-eXw 
is often found even tliere, and everywhere in later Greek. ekXco 
y-=Ha\Xov IBeXuj //. So also (3ov\oixai and the like. Eur. Tel. fr. 
22, 2: (TixiKp av B eXo i fxij kul kciB' t'lj^dpav 'tx<^Vj \ dXvTrov oIkCiv (3io- 

rOV fj 7cX0VTU)V VOdHV. 

27. El . . . iroiovo-iv: Matt. 5, 46 (comp. Luke 6, 32). — ava- 
irciTc : 'Ayairav is a colder word than ^CXCiv and less intimate. 
The larger use of it in Christian writers is perhaps due to an 
avoidance of ^iX^lv in the sense of ' kissing.' The refinements of 
the commentators on John 21, 15-17 seem hardly tenable when 
we remember that the Evangelist himself did not see the point, 
as Augustin notes (Civ. Dei, 7, 11). Xen. uses ayairav and tpiXCiv 
as absolute synonyms. Comp, Mem, 2, 7, 9, with § 12. See the 
comprehensive definition of ayairi] (a Christian word) in Clem. 
Alex. Strom. 2, 9, 41. Greg, of Naz. says, 1. c, lGO-1 : (rvfiipuxiau 
ck Ti)v ciy uTTi] V dplCofiai. 

28. Kttivov : ^eoQ of the organic, kuivoq of the inorganic ; vko^ of 
that wdiich grows, kuivoq of that which is made. Here 'strange.' 

29. 'Eyw . . . liTTjp. vjjias : Matt. 5, 44 ; comp, Luke 6, 27 foil. 
On tTrrjpEa'CuvTiov, see c. 1, G, 

33. irpos 8d|av : Comp, Trpvg x«p"', A 2, 12, — ITavri . . . iroioGcriv : 
Matt, 5, 42 ; Luke 6 (30), 34,— alrowxi : The old distinction be- 
tween alreXv, ' ask ' (absolutely), and aiTeicBai, ' borrow,' breaks 
down in the application, as in Xen. Anab. 2, 3, 18 and 19. Still 
the middle is often used as 'borrow,' and in the aor. seems to be 
the Attic expression for ixpr](Tanr]v {iY.Kixpni-'^')-)^^^^^^^^^ was avoided. 

35. XaPeiv : See c 12, 23. 

36. 'YfJieis . . . a<J)avit€i: Matt, 6, 19. 20, — |x^ eTio-avpiSere : So 
I read for the ungrammatical p) SrijcravpiZijre. 

37. €avTOis=y)u7j/ avrolg. Comp, C, 2, 16. — cttjs Kai Ppucns a<|>a- 
vi^ci: The concord as in old English and idiomatic English. 

39. Ti . . . a^aviUi: Matt. 16, 26; 6, 20. Ti is ace. of inner 
object (adverb, ace.) ; ri oj<peXeiTaL:=Tiva wcpsXeiav axp^Xeirai. 

40. Kep8i]crYi : Attic KepSdvy. 

43. Tivea-Qe . . . irovripovs : Luke 6, 35 foil. Matt, 5, 45, Tlve- 
o-B-f, ' Show yourselves.' — xpy\(rToi : See c. 4, 4, — olKxipixovcs : Of 
active benevolence. So Gregory of Naz. 1, c, 124. 125 : tXeog yikv 

H2 



136 NOTES. 

£(7-1 ai'i-iTrd^tia avj-K^yopuQ^ \ oIktoq oe ksv ti tuv Tnirov^ora cpdffai. 
On fXeoe, see Clem. Alex, Strom. 4, 6, 38. 

45. apiapTwXovs : For uj-iapruAovQ Davis proposes dvSrpujTrovg. 
Tliirlby suggests : t-n-i ufiaprujXovg kuI dyaB^ovg ical (Spex^'^ ^^i"^ 
diKaiovg Kui Trovijpovg. Otto : tTrt d/A^apnoXovg kuI ^iKciiovg icai 
jipex^i- tfi oaiovg Kal Trovrjpovg. Comp. D. C. T. 96. 

46. Mtj |i€pi]xvaT€ . . . dvOpwTTov: Matt. G, 25 foil. (Luke 12, 
22-24), 31-33 and 21 (comj). Luke 12, 34). Mkpiuva means 'anx- 
ious thouglit,' an exaggeration of (ppovrig^ as Gregory of Naz. 
says,!, c. G7 : cppovrig o' tXiyfxog^ i) fxkpifiva to ttXsov. 'Thought' 
in the A. V. 7iad the same meaning. — ti ^dyii]Te : More exactly, o 
Ti (pdyrire, but the simple interrogative is very common in de- 
pendent questions. The notion of question is involved in anx- 
ious thought. A question in the subj. expects an answer in the 
imperative. Hence the person is chiefly the first person, or the 
third as the representative of the first, as ttoI ng (pvyy^^Trdl (pvyio, 
^vycjfiev, or, as here, in a dejoendent clause. Do not ask : ri (pdyoj- 
/.lev ; Occasionally we find this subj. question used as a purely 
indicative fut. (Luke 11, 5), in which the earlier and later stages 
of the language meet. 

48. Mt] . . . fJi,cpi}JLVT]cnfiT€ : Above, fxi) fx^piixvcLTE. Mr] with the 
aor. subj. denotes total negation, 'do not;' ju// with the pres. im- 
per. a negative course of action, ' keep from,' or the negative of 
a course of action, 'cease to.' The former=?2e w. j)erf subj. ; the 
latter=:?2<?/i w. inf. 

52. Mtj . . . ovpavois: Comp. JNIatt. G, 1.— ttoicitc: For the un- 
grammatical TTouirt of the MSS. 

53. eeaG-Jivai : ' Gazed at.' — cl 8e p.ii 76 : Ei ^e jxi) has become a 
mere phrase, ' if not,' ' otherwise,' and is used to introduce oppo- 
sition to the statement involved in the foregoing, whether posi- 
tive or negative. 'If you fail to keep from doing '=' If you do 
these things,' ' otherwise.' 

IG. Bear all Things. Swear not at all. 

1, IIcpi 8e Tov oLveliKaKovs civai : Comp. C. 3, 9. 'Avs^iKUKia oc- 
curs in Plutarch. Comp. Athenag. SujDpl. 34, 164 : ou yap dTrapKd 
diKuiov th'ca {tern ce ciKctiotrvvi] 'iaa 'iaoig «/t£j/3€ir) dXX' dya^oXg Kai 
dvfKiK:dKoig uvai -rrpoKHTai. 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. IG. 137 

2. TavTo. eo-Ti: See note ou ot'rwc, c. 15, 24. — Tw . . . KtoXtJo-Tis : 
Luke G, 29. 

4. r\ TO i|xdTiov : Thii'lby would read Kai to ihcltiov : ?) kuI would 
account better for the text. Kai, ' even,' because the l/ianov is 
the more valuable. So Matt. 5, 40 : r^ BsXovn . . . roi' x^'''^^"- 
GOV XaiSdv, d(peQ avT(^ Kai to ij.iaTiov. 

5. "Os 8' av . . . oipavoLs : Matt. 5, 22. 41. IG. 

(>. o-e : According to Otto (3d ed.) the MSS. have o-oi. — olko- 
Xov6t]o-ov : The pres. imper. is the rule for general directions ; but 
in the N. T. the aor., being the more energetic, is often found 
where we should exjject the present. The more vigorous the 
expression, the more likely it is to commend itself to the Hellen- 
ist. Some emphatic combinations occur scores of times in the 
LXX and N. T. to once in classic Greek. See note on oh ixt), c. 
38, 9. So in the first fifty Psalms not one in ten of the large 
number of imperatives (including imperative subjunctives) is 
present, a disproportion which can but partially be accounted 
for by the passionate strain. Contrast the first Isocratean dis- 
course. As in the Lord's Prayer, so in the ancient Greek liturgies 
the aor. imper. is almost exclusively used. It is the true tense 
for 'instant' prayer. 

*). ivraCpeiv : Plat. Euthyd. 272 A. Comp. Matt. 5, 39 (Otto). 

12. "O ye: So Thirl by for o yap. — em iroXXuiv : 'In the case of 
many.' See c. 5, 17. — irap' vjjliv : For the MS. Trap' yj-ui'. 'Which 
we can prove by the example of many who have lived, who 
once lived, among you.' Comp. Tertull. Apol. 18: De vestris 
fu i m u s ; Jiunt, non nascuntur Christiani. 

13. airoBeilai: C. 13, 18. — e'xofxcv : C. 3, 5. — f|TTTi0evTcs : The fol- 
lowing participles depend on this. 'Overcome by.' 

14. KapTcpiav Piov TrapaKoXovG'qo'avTCs : HapaKoXov^dv in the 
sense of ' perceive,' ' understand,' with the ace. from Polyb. 1, 12, 
7 on. 

15. TrXcoveKTovjievwv : 'Overreached.' Surely a crucial test of 
true piety. The caiqjo of antiquity was infamous. — levtiv : 
' Strange,' in the secondary sense. Comp. Kaivog, c. 15, 28. 

IG. IIcpl 8e Toti [XT] 6[jLvvvai : Comp. C. 3, 9. 

17. oXojs : 'At all' See c. 29, 10. 

18. Mt| d|ji6o^Te . . . irovYipov : Matt. 5, 34. 37 (Ja. 5, 12). 



138 NOTES. 

20. 'i2s 8€i . . . eircKTCV : C 8, 8. — tov Ccov \i.6vov irpoo-Kvvciv : See 
note on c. 6, 8. With TrpooKwiiv Justin uses both ace. and dat. 
but the normal ace. more frequently. The LXX almost always 
liave the dat. See c. 20, IG. The construction often shifts in a 
few lines, as in Orig. c. Cels. G, 71. 

21. clirwv: The actions in iirtiatv and dirojv are coincident. 
See c. 17, 17. — Mcyiot-t) . . . iron^o-avTo, <re: Matt. 4, 10; Mark 
12, 30. Comp. Luke 10, 27. — irpoo-Kwiio-cis : ' Adore,' by ' kissing 
the hand to,' which is simply an abridgment of the fuller form 
of 'kissing the ground before.' 'If I beheld the sun when it 
shined or the moon walking in brightness, and my heart hath 
been secretly enticed, or 7,iy mouth hath I'issed ony hand^ Job 31, 
26. 27. Comp. Minuc. Felix, Oct. 3 : Caecilius simulacro Sarapidis 
denotato, tit xidgus siqjerstitiosus solet, manum ori admovens, 
osculum laliis im2)ressit. See Athenag. Suppl. 32, 160. — 
Kvpiov . . . ironio-avTd <r€ : 'An unbiblical addition due to Justin's 
wrath against Gnosticism' (Semisch). Comp. c. 26, 24. 

22. Xaxpcvo-cis : AorpEia, originally of menial service, is often 
used slightingly in profane literature. So in Lucian, Merc. Cond. 
231; jjro Merc. Cond. 4: ayfri^i} Xarpeiav, Nigr. 15: Xarpev- 
eiv t)covg. Observe how Ion vindicates his humble office in 
Eur. Ion, 129 : ov Bimrolg dW ciB'ai'dToig. 

24. npoo-€X0<ivTos . . . irdvTa: Matt. 19, 16 foil.; Mark 10, 17 
foil. Comp. Luke 18, 18 foil. — IIpoo-cXGovTos avrw: The differ- 
ence between TrpoaeXBeiv rivi and tt. Trpog nva is that between 
adire aliquem and a. ad aliquem. 'Applied to him.' Comp. 
Athenag. Suppl. 15, 59 and 18, 74. 

25. ci v'h '• ^^^ii ' except.' 

27. PiovvTes : In Attic the usual form is iComQ. On the parti- 
ciple here and in ovt^q, see c. 3, 3. — Yvwpi^eo-Swo-av : The long 
form is not uncommon in Attic. — p,Tj ovres : The neg. on account 
of the imperative. 

28. Kav Xc'ywo-iv : C. 2, 10. 

31. Ovx*- iras • • • ovpavois: Matt. 7, 21. — clo-cXcvo-CTat = €('(T£i(Tt 
which is the Attic j)rose form. 

32. Twv ovpavwv : Hebraistic conception. To the Greek heaven 
was a single canopy, a single cover (var), whereas the Hebrew 
singular is lost, and the plural is used as one of ' the names of re- 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 17. 139 

gions that are infinitely divisible ' (Ewald). The Hebrew word 
U^'Q'd ' is derived from S^^T^, to he high [Flirst], and denotes the 
upper regions, i. e., heaven ; the plural designating not distinct 
heavens of various elevation, but rather extent in all directions, 
and comprehending all the parts of the vast expanse above us ' 
(Green). In the LXX the sing, is generally used. The occa- 
sional plural occurs only in poetic passages or passages with po- 
etic coloring, chiefly in the Psalms, whence it has passed into 
the Vulgate (e. g. Caell enarrarit^ 19, 1) and the Latin Fathers. 
But caelos is found in Lucr, 2, 1097. Comp. further Grig. c. Gels. 
6,21. 

33. "Os . . . pe: Matt. 7, 24 (Luke 10, 16), 10, 40 (John 14, 
24). 

M, HoWol . . . dvoixias : Luke 13, 26 foil. ; Matt. 7, 22 foil. 

36. 8vvd)jicis : See note on c. 26, 7. 

37. Tore . . . irvp: Matt. 13, 42. 

39. ircixirtovTat : In his last ed. Gtto indulges in the extraordi- 
nary solecism of Trefixl/ojvTai^zwfi.Kp^uxnv. 

40. HoWol . . . pdXXcTai : Matt. 24, 5 ; 7, 15. 16. 19. 

42. cTriYvwo-ecr0€ : A very common intensive of yiyvuxTKuj. 

43. TTouovv Kapirov : This use of ttoisIv seems to belong to famil- 
iar language. 

44. Ko\d^€<r8ai : C. 3, 4. — tovs ovk dKoXov9ws : Gn the neg. 
comp. c. 4, 9. 

46. Kai v<j>' vjiwv : As well as in the next world. Comp. c. 3, 
18. 

17. 'Render unto Caesar.' 

1. Popovs Kai elo-<(>opds: ^ ^opog is the regular tax {trihutum an- 
?iuum), ei(r(popd any extraordinary assessment {stipendlum tem'po- 
rarium) ' — Gtto. ikXog corresponds to vecUgal, <p6pog to stlpendi- 
iim, ei(T(j)opd to tributum ; but stipendium and tributum are often 
lumped, and rkXoQ is used as a general term. Comp. Constt. 
Apostt. 7, 16 : cnroriffare TeXog, ^opov Kai eicrtpo pdv evyvtofiovojg, 
Theoph. ad Autolyc. 1, 10: tsXtj kuI eUcpopdg. See the com- 
mentators on Rom. 13, 7 : r<^ rov (p6pov t6v (j)6pov, t<^ to Ttkog to 
TsXog. Comp. TertuU. Apol. 42 (p. 100 D. S.) : Vectigalia gratias 
agent Christianis exjide dependentibus debitum. 

2. irpo irdvTwv =/iaX60'ra. 



140 NOTES. 

3, Kax £K£Lvo Tov Kaipov : Sucli a combination, instead of kut' 
iKHvov Tov Kuipov, IS not fouucl in Attic except in the tragic po- 
ets, as Soi^h. O. C. 1138 ; Eur. Ale. 9 and Plioen. 425. Common 
in later prose, as Thcophil. ad Antolyc. 3, 10. 20 ; Euseb. H. E. 2, 

OQ O 
/wO, /v. 

4. €1 ScL Kaio-apt ktI. : Comp. Luke 20, 22. 25, and tlie parallels. 
8. irpoo-Kvvouixev : Comp. c. 16, 20 and Theopliil. ad Autolyc. 1, 

11 : Tij-iijaio TOV liaaiXsa, oh irpoaKvvwv avT(^ ciW evxof^^voQ vir'tp 
aiTOv. 

1), irpos Ta aWa: 'In everything else.'— vmipeTovpev : C. 14, 5. 

10. Pao-i\€is : C. 14, 25. 

11. Pao-iXiKTjs : ' Imperial.' — o-w<|>pova tov Xoyio-jjlov : Predicative 
position. The article is often neglected in translation. 

12. exovras : C. 3, 3. — El . . . o(})povTi(r'n]o-eTe : Notice the harsh, 
minatory future, which is seldom used in prose without good 
reason. See c. 8, 17. — Kai r\\xC)v : Ka/, ' after all.' 

13. oiSev T|p.€i:s pXapTjo-6p,€0a ktI. : Thirlby calls attention to 
Justin's ' rare attack of politeness ' and his silence as to the fate 
of the emperors, who are, of course, chiefly meant. 

14. irKTTCvovTes, [xdWov 8e Kai Tr€Tr€i(r|xeVoi : On the climax, see 
c. 8, G, and add Dialog, c. Trypli. 4 : jHt-a tov TmriaT^vKkvai Kai 
TTsi^ea^ai, Rom. 14, 14 : o'ica kcu 7rl7r6to-/<a(, Origen, c. Cels. 3, 41 : 
voi.iiZoi.iev Kai 7r£7r£((T/te.3'«. 

17. diraiTTiC-qo-eo-Sat : 'Att- in Comp.=r^(^/) of that which is due. 
See c. 2, 12. — ep,iivvo-€v cl-n-wv : When the action of the leading 
verb and the action of the participle coincide, the tenses are 
usually of the same kind. See c. 16, 21. 

18. ''fit . . . avToG: Luke 12,48. 

18, PiiooFs OP Immortality. 

l.^dp: You will all have to give an account — emperors as 
well as the rest — despite the official apotheosis. The strands are 
a little twisted. 

2, Pao-tXe'wv : C. 14, 25. — tov koivov 0dvaTov : Cognate accusative 
— which is far more frequently used in Greek than in English — 
with modifier as usual. 

3. oTTcp : Stephanus proposes oamp, but the neuter relative 
may refer to masc. or fem. antecedent considered as a thing, or, 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 18. 141 

as here, to the whole thought : to t6v koivov ^dvarov cnro^avCiv. 
See Thuc. 1, 59.— epjiaiov : 'Godsend,' 'windtall,' which last is 
especially approjDriate if Hermes was the morning breeze, as the 
comparative mythologists suppose. See my note on Persius, 2, 
13. For the thought, comp. Dialog, c. Tryph. 5 : aX\a fi^v ovde 
d:TO^vrjaKeiv (pt^iil Trdaag rag i/z^xac tyw * epfxaiov yap ijv wq d\i]^CJQ 
ToiQ KUKolg, Plato, Phaedo, 107 E : d fiev yap iiv 6 ^dvarog tov 
Tcavrbg diraWayt]^ £pf.iaioi' civ yv roTg KUKolg diro^avovai tov t£ (Tw- 
/.laTog ufia dirriWdx^ai /cat ri/t' avTuJp Kaiciag fxeTu rJ/C ^vxrjg. 

5. iracrt 7evofievois=7r. Tolg y. : 'All that have ever lived.' — irao-i 
(ieVci : How dilferent from TrdvTag jxkvH ? — onroKciTai : ' Is in store,' 
Avith the same tone as our English expression. Comp. Hebr. 9, 
27 : d-TTOKf-iTai TO~ig dvBpojTroig urra^ diro^favdv. 

6. ircio-STjvai re kui irio-Teuo-ai : The latter the result of the for- 
mer. On oTi see c. 8, 8. 

7. NcKvojiavTciai : Clem. Alex. Protrept. 2, 11 : Ti'p^j.jvCJv v^kvo- 
HavTeX at (tk6t<ij TrapadiSoG^ojv. — at a8ia({>06pcov iraiSuv eiro'7rT€uar€is : 
Children were sacrificed and their entrails inspected, because 
their pure natures were supposed to give truer answers. Grabe 
cites Socr. H. E. 3, 13; Eus. H. E. 7, 10 ; 8, 14. Add Philostr. 
Vit. Apoll. T^'^an. 7, 11 : ^aai o' ujg rraXSa Brixraig VTrep /tavTiKrjg j]i' 
Ta vmpd Tujv (nrXdyxvcov (pa'ivu. With the whole passage comp. 
Tertull. Apol. 23 (p. 72 D. S.) : Pueros in eloquium elidunt, etc, 
'^TTOTTT^vrng is a Justinian word (Otto). 

9. irapa rots [loiYOis : C. 8, 8. — oveipo'n-ojxiToi : Pers. 2, 56-58 : 
Namfratres inter aenos \ somnia intuita qui purgatissima mit- 
tunt, \praecipiii sunto. — irdpeSpoi : 'Familiar spirits.' 

10. TTCLo-aTOJo-ay : -dTojaav rejected by Cobet for best Attic. 

12, pnrTou|i€voL : In conformity with Hermann's view that 
piTTTit) is iacio^ pnrTuj (pnrTuo) is iacto. See Curtius, Gr. Verbum, 1, 
337. 

14. 'A[j.<f)iX6xov : The oracle of Amphilochus (at Mallos in 
Cilicia) seems to have been much in fashion at this period, which 
may account for the mention of it before such familiar oracles as 
Dodona and Pytho (Delphi). See Plut. Mor. 528, 5 and 681, 17 
(Didot) ; .Max. Tyr. 15, 7 ; Pausan. 1, 34, 3 ; and especially Luc. 
Alex. 19. For the Acarnanian oracle of A. see Celsus ap. Origen. 
3,84. 



142 NOTES. 

15. XIvOovs : On the Delphic oracle and its relation to the 
doctrine of the immortality of the soul, see Curtius, History of 
Greece, book 3, chap. 4 ; also the remarkable description of Eu- 
ryuomus in Pausan, 10, 28, 7. E. is an ogre, who devours the 
flesh but leaves the bones, as a symbolical noii omnis moriar. 

16. 'EnTTcSoKXeovs : See Ritter and Preller, Hist. Phil. 179 (ed. 
sec. 148) sqri. ; Ueberweg, Hist, of Philosophy (Am. Tr.), 1, GO. 
— nXdrtovos T£ Kat 2«KpdTovs : Notice the close coupling of the 
'double star' (Emerson). 

17. Trap' ' O \irip(a = ajmcl Homerum. — pd8pos : The pit which 
Odysseus filled with blood to attract the souls of the dead : tyw 
dop o^v tpv(j(rd[.iEvog Trapd ni)pov \ (3 6^pov vpv^' o(T(jov re irvyov- 
aiov tv^a Kul tvSra. Od. 11, 24. 25. 

19. Kav . . . diroSe'lao-ee : Kdv is elliptical and=v€l, e. g. Plato, 
Theag. 181 A. So 2 Cor. 11, 6: kup 6jg dippova ok^aah'i /Ltf, The- 
ophil. ad Autolyc. 1, 13: c€i%6v /xoi kuv eva tyepBkvra Ik vsKputv. 
Be it observed that the true ellipsis with the imperative is the 
notion of W'ill that lies in the imperative — not kuv d7roc^£^?;T.9-£ 
(Kiihner), but kuu uTrooklaG^ai tBeXjjre. For kcu w. imper. comp. 
the typical cry of Ajax : tv ce <pdn Kal oXtaaov. 

20. ovx r^TTov : The neg, ohx is retained after the imper., partly 
because of the fixity of the very common phrase, partly because 
of the causal sense of the participle. So Orig. c. Gels. 5, 31. 

22. €avr(av=^r)[xeT£pa avrCJv. — [iiriSev . . . Xc'yovtcs : ' Maintaining,' 
rather than ' saying ' (c. 4, 18), that nothing is impossible for God. 

19. '\Yhy should it be thought a thing incredible with 
YOU THAT God should raise the Dead?' 

1. KaravoovvTi, ti: So Grabe for Karavoovvri. K. the fiimiliar 
dative of reference. — onrio-TOTcpov p,d\\ov : There is really no ple- 
onasm. MdWov is ' rather,' not ' more.' Combine with U^ai, — 
8o|ai: Less common in Attic than ^61eu. 

2. 1] €1 . . . |XT| vinipxofJLcv : In comparisons, either the ideal (c. 
3, 5) or the unreal condition (c. 4, 6) is employed. Here they are 
blended by a shifting of the point of view. So Andoc. 1, 57 ; 
[Plat] De Justo, 373 E. 

3. paviSos: This fact has often been used to humiliate man 
(Pallad. Anthol. Pal. 10, 45 : h ce \6yov ^rjTeig ruv dXij^ivov, t^ uko- 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 19. 143 

Xdarov | Xayveiag yeyovag ical fiiapag pav id og) Or to glorify Gocl 
(Theophil. ad Autolyc. 1, 8 : tirXatyk oe l^ vypag ovaiag /xiicpag kuI 
k\axi(TTi]g paviSog). Comp. Athenag. Kes. 17, 80 and M. Anton. 
10, 26. 

4. ocTTea : The open forms occur even in Attic prose. — cIkovo- 
iroiTfiQcvTa : There are swarms of such formations in later times. 

5. "Eo-Tw . . . X676(jL€vov : Not distinguishable from XeyaaBu) at 
this stage. Comp. taTojaav dyovreg, Athenag. Suppl. 15, 59. 

6. (ATI ova-i ToiovTois (XTiSe ToioTJTwv : ' Not being such yourselves, 
nor [sons] of such parents.' Comp. b-rroiovg kuI il otto'udv below, 
and Xen. Anab. 3, 2, 13 : toiovtojv Lark Trpoyovojv. 

8. oldv T€ : First adaptation (z=itolovtop oxtte), then possibility. 
Olog is used more strictly of character. — 8iaPePaiovjjL€vos : A favor- 
ite word with later writers. 

9. Trplv iSeiv: C. 4, 13. — Ycvojicvov: Verbs of actual perception 
take commonly the present and perfect participles, as these rep- 
resent the most common states of objects of perception. The 
aor. is used of concentrated perception, or, as here, of non-jDer- 
ception, according to the principle laid down, c. 4, 10. So be- 
low, avacTTctvTa veKpov. The aor. is also often used of intellectual 
perception =: on and aor. ind. — lirio-Ttvo-aTe : We should expect 
tTTitTTEmaT' dv. But to correct dv in .might be to correct Justin. 

10. avT€nr€iv: 'Maintain' (in opposition to another), not 
* deny,' which would give a counter-sense. Still htzhv {dv httCiv) 
would be more natural. 

13. YivojieVovs : On the tense, see 1. 9. 

14. XoYicrao-fic on : C. 8, 1. 

15. BiKTjv o-ircpiAaTwv : Ai'kjj (comp. SeiKvvj^i), 'way pointed out,' 
' manner,' ' fashion ; ' adverbial accusative. Later writers use this 
semi-poetical turn freely after Plato. So Max. Tyr. 2, 3 : upviBog 
diKi)v, and elsewhere ; Athenag. Suppl. 3, 12 : Hktjv B7]pi(xjv, also 
10, 41 ; Clem. Alex. Protrept. 10, 92 : (tkoj\i)kojv cIkiiv, also Paed. 
1,G,36.38; 2,1,11; Orig. c. Cels. 5,40 : SiKnv Xyarutv; 6,53: di- 
Ki)v dvdpa7rodi(Trov. — ovaXvGevTa: So Thirlby for eiaXvSrsvTa, after 
abundant analogy. Others, and so Otto, finally, diaxvSrsvra. 

16. d<|)9apo-iav cv8uo-acr8ai : A Pauline reminiscence (?). Comp. 
1 Cor. 15, 53 : del to (pBapruv tovto iv Cva aa^ ai d(p^ apa'iav kui 
TO ^vTjTbv TOVTO ivdvaac^ui d^avaaiav. That it is not a mere coin- 



144 NOTES. 

cidence would appear from Athenag. Res. 18, 88: eel kutu tov 

CLTToaToXov TO cp^apTov TOVTO t V S V c u (T ^ tt I CKpBapcTiav. Comp. 
Tatiau, c. 20; Theopliil, ad Autolyc. 1, 7; Orig. c. Cels. 7, 33. 
It is a much disputed question how far Justin was acquainted 
with the Pauline epistles, and wdiat was his attitude towards 
Paul. See AYilliuk : Justinus Martyr in zijne verhouding tot 
Paulus. Zwolle, 18G7. 

18. oi <j)ao-KovT£s : Practical present part, of ^t/jui, 'allege,' 'as- 
sert,' 'maintain.' $j;jui is the most 'subjective' of the common 
verbs of saying, and in model Gr. seldom takes any thing but the 
inf. In this stage it is freely combined with on. Oi ^dcrKovreg 
are the Stoics. 

19. ovirep: C. 12, 38. — iraparavTa: Uapd is often lised with 
comparative notions, as might Ijc supposed from its meaning 
' alongside.' 

20. ovK cx°}^^^ • ^- ^' ^- — <ruvopa);j(.cv : C 9, 21. 

25. '7rap€iX7J<j)a}i€v : So I read with Otto (3) for Tr/JoetX/^^a/jer, as 
in c. 10, 2. 

26. eyvoiiLiv : Shorthand for perfect. When the perfect is used 
as a present, the aor. is used for the perf ; ' we have learned.'— 
€i'7r6vTa=ori €i7r£j/. See 1. 9. — to. aSvyara . . . 0£w : Luke 18, 27. 
Celsus liarj)s on this. See Orig. c. Cels. 5, 14. 

27. M^ . . . iHtPaXciv: Luke 12, 4 foil. ; Matt. 10, 28. 

28. jXT) SvvajJievovs : C. 4, 9. 

30. 7€'€vvav: Valley of Hinnom (nsri '^i;). See Bible Diet. 

31. eV3a: Always a relative in prose. — KoXd^co-Gat: C. 3, 4. — 
jic'Wovo-iv: 'Are destined.' M^XXw is more frequently construed 
with the fut. inf , especially when it is used in this sense, but it 
is impossible to draw a sharp line of distinction between fut. 
and pres. The combination with the fut. is the older, and seems 
to arise from the original meaning of the word, 'think,' ' expect.' 
Comp. Fr, j^^nser. 

20. 'Teste David cum Sibylla.' 
1. 2iPvX.\a: The Sibyl is so familiar a figure in Pagan My- 
thology and the (spurious) Sibylline Oracles so notorious in the 
history of the Christian Church, that a simple reference to the 
classical and biographical dictionaries will suffice. See March, 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 20. 145 

Latin Hymns, p. 294 ; Neander, History of the Christian Relig- 
ion (Am. Tr.), 1, 176; Keim, Celsiis, S. 115, 4. The oracle to 
which Justin alludes begins (O. Sib. 4, 168) : Trvp 'iarai Kara k6- 
(Tfj-ov ' tv c^ rods crPj/xa TsrvKvai ' | pofX(pdlai^ caXTriyye^, ujx r]iXii{) avi- 
ovTL ' I KoanoQ uTrag fivKr]f.ia Kal ofAJSpifiov ifx^v ciKOvaH. \ (fKk^u de 
X^ova TTciaav icvL — 'Yo-Tdo-iriris : The Sibyl and Hystaspes are 
coupled below (c. 44, 41). The pro^jhecies of the Persian Hys- 
tasjDes (Gushtasp) are commended in the Praedicatio Petri 
(Clem. Alex. Strom. 6, 5, 43), and are mentioned by Ammian. 
Marcell. 23, 6, and Lactantius, Inst. Div. 7, 15 and 18. 

3. StwikoI . . . avTov Tov 0€ov els TTup dva\-u€0"8ai : A popular 
statement of the Stoic doctrine. The Trvp tsxvikov of the Stoics 
w^as a different thing from ordinary fire. See Ueberweg, His- 
tory of Philosophy (Am. Tr.), 1, 194 foil. 

4. dva\v€o-3aL . . . yeviadai : ' Is to be resolved,' ' is to be made.' 
Present and aor. as futures. Comp. c. 12, 23. But remember 
that according to Stoic doctrine the process is ever going on, 
so that dvaXvetjB'ai may be translated as a present. — av irdXiv : 
More commonly ttciXiv av. 

9. 0610)5 : We should expect B^norepoog. — onroScilcws: See c. 13, 
18. — xapd iravxas =jua/\Xor Trdvrujv : Comp. c. 19, 19. 

11. nXdTwvos: In the Timaeus, which the Fathers were never 
weary of citing. 

12. T(5 8e (sc. Xeyeiv) cKirvpcoo-iv yevia-^ai : See C. 60, 14. 

15. ironqraTs Kal (j>i,Xo(7o4>oi9 : No end of cxamjoles might be ad- 
duced. 

16. x^'-P'ii'v ^'pY^- oLvSpwTTotJs : The MSS. have x^^P^'^ dv^ptoiroic. 
Various emendations have been proposed. Stephanus suggests 
X^i^pi^v tpyoig avBpM-rrovQ. I prefer tpya, as Justin more frequent- 
ly uses the normal ace. See c. 16, 20. However, the LXX have 
the dat. in the passages to which Justin alludes, Jer. 1, 16; Mi- 
cah 5, 13. 

17. MevdvSpo) Tw KWfiiK^ : Editors refer to passages which are 
cited in [Justin] De Monarchia, 5 (frgg. 196, 237, 330, 375 Mein.), 
but none of them is much to the point. — ravra <|>ii(7acri: Meineke 
reads m roiavra (Otto). 

18. ^paX,o\kiv: ^pa'Cu), orig. 'point out,' is used by preference 
of detailed explanation, 'teach.' 



146 NOTES. 

21. Analogies to the History of Christ. 
This line of argument is repugnant to our modern sensibilities, 
but the Fathers did not disdain to meet the heathen on his own 
ground. Fable for fable, the Christian religion was not more 
improbable than the Pagan. So Tertull. saj's (Apol. 21) : Heci- 
pite interim hanc fabulam^ similis est Testns,dum ostendiinus quo- 
modo Christus probettiTj and the same writer parallels Gehenna 
and Pyriphlegethon, Paradise and the Elysian Fields, 1. c. 47. 
Comp. Orig. c. Cels. 1, 37 : ovdkv utottov Trpbg "EXXijvag /cat 'EX\7]vi- 
Koig i(TTopiaiQ \pi](ya(y^ai^ 'iva jxr) doKwixev fxovoi ry 7rapad6^<^ ravry 
iaropii^ Kexp)]<ySrai. 

1, Tw . . . 4>a(rK6iv: As above, c. 20, 10. (^dcxKovrfg would be 
more elegant. — 5 : Agreeing wdth the predicate. 

2. 7€7€vvT]o-6ai : So Thirlby for yeyevija^ai. Otto now says 
that yEyewtjir^ca is the MS. reading. 

5. ov . . . Kaivov Ti <|)epo[i6v : See note on Ep. ad Diogn. 1. — 
rrapa Toi»s . . . \670fieV0vs vloiis : See c. 19, 19. 

6. ojiovs Tw All : Stress on vIovq. Below v'lovg rov Aiog with stress 
on Aiog. In classic writers the constructions vary, sometimes to 
produce a kind of chiasmus or alternate stress, as in Hdt. 7, 2 ; 
Isaeus, 3, 13, sometimes without any apparent reason. 

8. 'Epp.'nv . . . \6yov tov €p|xt]V£vtik6v : This is the sublimated 
Logos view of Hermes, of which the most was made by Porphy- 
ry and the later theosophists generally. So, for instance, by the 
Emperor Julian. On the later development of Hermes as the great 
ipfiriv£vg, see Preller, Gr. Myth. 1, 264 and Schol. L in II. 2, 104. 

9. 'Ao-KXiTTriov : See Class. Diet. s. v. Aesculapius, and so for all 
the other familiar classical legends. 

10. KcpavvtoGevTa : LuC. D. D, 13, 1 : o Zevg as tKspavvuxrev ci 
fii) BkfxiQ TTOiovvTa, vvv ce Kar tXsov av^ig a^avaaiag fiSTSiXr}(pag. — 
dv€\T)\v9cvai : Depends on tTricTTCKT^s. 

13. TOV e| av9pwTrwv : ' Of mortal stock.' ' The Euhemeristic ex- 
planation of apotheosis is very common in the Christian writers 
of the second century.' (Keim, Celsus' Wahres Wort, S. 37, 2.) — 
€<})' iirirov : So Svlburg for ixp' "nnrov. Thirlby calls attention to 
Justin's slip. Bellerophon did not get to heaven. See Pind. 
Isthm. 7, 63 ; Hor. Od. 4, 11, 26. 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 21. 147 

14. Ti . . . \4yo\i.iv TT)v 'ApidSvTjv : C. 15, 20. 

15. KaTTjo-TcpiorGai : See the list in Tatiaii, 10 : rig lariv 6 Bepe- 
viK)]g TrXoKafiog ; ttwq ce 6 reSrveujg 'Avrivovg [xeipocKiov iv Ty asXijvij 
wpaiov Ka^icpvrai ; Clem. Houi. 5, 23 : x^P'^^o/xevoi raig Ipdjfievaig 
KaT7](Trkpi^ov avrdg. — ti ydp : Sc. \eyof.iei>. 

16. ovs: Due to Thiiiby. — dira0avaTi£€o-3at : There are three 
notorious iustances : that of Romulus, at which Tertull. mocks, 
Apol. 21 ; that of Augustus, which Suetonius mentions, Aug. 100 ; 
that of Drusilla, at which Seneca sneers, Apocol. 1 : Si necessefu- 
erit auctorem iwoducere^ quaerite db eo qui Drusillam euntem in cae- 
lum vidit : idem Claudium vidisse se died iter facientem. 

17. Kal . . . TrpodYere: 'You actually produce.' 

18. dvepxojAcvov : Actual perception, c. 19, 9. — KaraKaevTa: 2 
aor. pass, not Attic, = KaTaKav^ivTa. 

20. irpos clSoras Xc'yciv : When the direction is emphasized, the 
preposition irpog is used, not the dat. On the phrase, see c. 9, 8. 

21. €ls 8ia4)opdv Kal irpoTpoTTTiv : Supposed to be ironical; 'for 
the excellence (advantage) and furtherance.' But ha<popav is 
awkward, and SiacpSropav Kai irapaTpoiriiv lies A'ery near, as the 
older commentators have remarked. 

23. 'AireiTi : Opt. of wish. The present is used when a state 
or process is desired, the aorist when attainment. Hence regu- 
larly x^^poiQi evSaifiovoirig, EVTVxohjg^ but yevoio, t^oXoio, rv^oig. — 
vj/i)x^5 : The genitive as the case of possession is also the case of 
dispossession (ablative). On the free handling of the gen. as an 
abl., see c. 58, 13. 

24. ws . . . irapaSe'lao-Gai : 'As to accejot the tradition that,' 
the other infinitives depending on Trapad., for which comp. c. 23, 
5 andOrig. c. Cels.4,81.93. 

25. iraTpo^JOVTi^v tc Kal Trarpos toiovtov : ' A parricide and son 
of a parricide.' Zeus did not kill his father ; he was a irarpa- 
Xoiag, not a 7raTpo(j)6vri]g, as Thirlby remarks. But who can resist 
such a familiar effect ? 

26. ^8ov«v : Depends on ^rrw, ' slave of.' 

27. eirl rav\/|iT]8Tiv ; 'Ett/, 'after;' standing use of the preposi- 
tion. See Index. 

28. rds avTov iraiSas : Not to be changed into cwtov, which J. 
does not use, nor into iavrov. The unemphatic possessive gen. 



148 NOTES. 

of (he pronouns is regularly put outside of art. and subst. But 
here avTov is ipsius, not eius. 

20. ws irpoc'cjJTjiJLcv: C. 5, G. On the form tcptjixer, see c. 8, 1. 

30. 8e8i8d7|jLe9a : Mav^dvu) is far niorc common than the pass, 
of 6idd(TK(i), and justly. The normal construction of oicVirr/coj is 
that of a verb of showing. Here it takes an inf., like TrtoTeuw. 

32. oSiKws : Sc. (Siovvrag. 'AdiKOvg (suggested by Billius) would 
be smoother. — ev alcoviw irvpi : The scene, not necessarily the in- 
strument. See note on c. 38, 14. 

22. Christ's Sonship and its Analogies. 

]\Iaran calls attention to the fact that Aruobius (Adv. Gentes, 1, 
38) argues in the same way. 

1, el Kat: Where we might exi3ect ksI. But comp. c. 2, 7. Kat 
must be joined closely to Koivojg, as in kuI ISiiog below. 

3. avSpwv re Gcwv tc : A familiar Homeric phrase. Notice poet- 
ic use of re . . . r£ to couple two words, and o( avcpu)v=^dv^p(o- 

4. irapa ttjv koivtjv ycvco-iv : na,oa=j>r«e^6'r. 

5. yeyivvy\<T^o.i.: So the MSS. says Otto 7ioic. Comp. c. 23, 7. 

6. ws 'Trpoe<j)Ti}jiev : C. 21, 1. — eo-Tw : 'Must be considered.' — tois 
. . . Xe'Yovo-iv: Apposition with a personal pronoun has the ar- 
ticle. 

7. dyveXTiKov: Comp. Hymn, in Merc: ayyeXov d^avdruiv kpi- 
ovviov ov TtKi. M«7a. — El . . . aiTido-aiTo : The ideal condition oc- 
casionally admits' in the apodosis imi:»erative and indicative 
forms, such as Ave find more frequently associated with iuv. 
"While these deviations may be accounted for, we must bear in 
mind for this stage of the language the gradual eflfacement of 
the optative and its force. 

8. Ktti toCto kolvov: Comp. Arnob. 1, 41, who adduces among 
others Bacchus, Aesculapius, and Hercules. 

9. VIOLS Ka0' -ujxas tov Aids : To be closely connected. 

10. 'Ekcivcdv re ydp : A solitary re, even when it connects sen- 
tences, not w^ords, is comjoaratively rare in the model Attic joe- 
riod. It sometimes serves, like the Latin -que, to complete or ex- 
tend a previous statement, sometimes to give an emj^hatic sum- 
mary. Tliis may be called the postscript or afterthought -e. 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 23. 149 

Comp. c. 48, 4. — ovx ofAoia . . . dWa 8id<|>opa : The use of litotes 
is so common in Greek that it is necessary to guard against it 
by an antithesis. Aid(popa Kai ovx o[xoia would be a climax (comp. 
Soph. O. R. 58 : yj'wra kovk dyviord fioi) ; ovx of^oia ciWd did^opa is 
a simple statement. 

11, WO-T6 p,ir]8e . . . 8oK€iv: C. 5, 8. — to iSiov : Dependent on ijv- 
Tova. ' ' In the peculiarity.' 

13. irpoiovTos Tov \6yov : ' As the discussion goes on,' ' in the 
course of the discussion.' So c. 34, 7 and Athenag. Suppl. 1, 4. 

15. 8id irapQivov : Comp. Dial. c. Tryph. 23. 'E/c would be more 
natural, and unnecessary offence has been taken at the use of Sid, 
as savoring of heresy. 

16. Ilepo-ea: See Class. Diet.— ""fti . . . \eyo\Kev=\eyovTsg. 

17. 6K Y^vcTTis dva7ri]povs '. The MSS. have Trovijpovc^, in the 
sense of ' suffering,' for which the recessive accent irov^povg is 
generally preferred. Most editors desiderate Trrjpovg, but dvairi]- 
povQ fills the space better. Comp. Luke 14, 13. 21. 

23. Statement op the Argument. 

Justin undertakes to prove three things: 1. That the doctrines 
of the Christians are the only true doctrines (cc. 24-29) ; 2. That 
the Son of God was incarnate (cc. 30-53) ; 3. That the demons 
have invented the myths of the heathen in order to lead men to 
their ruin (cc. 54 foil.). So in effect Maran. See the Analysis. 
Ritter (ap. Otton.) says there is no proof of the first thesis in cc. 
24-26, and would regard the first thesis as the general propo- 
sition, which is satisfied by the proofs for the second and 
third theses, for in the second it is jiroved that Christianity is 
true, in the third that Christianity alone is true, all else being a 
device of evil spirits. Justin is not distinguished for clear logi- 
cal development of his themes. 

1, tj8ti : 'By this time,' 'now\' "Hcij differs from vvv as iam 
from luaic. In the former the relativity is emphasized. 

5. TO TavToi . . . avTois : The familiar compendious construc- 
tion. 'The same with them '=' the same as they.' — Tropa8£xG'n- 
vai: Comp. c. 21, 29. 

7. l8i<os: C. 22,4. 

10. irplv TJ : C. 4, 13. I have written Kal Trpiv, according to 



150 NOTES. 

Maran's suggestion. Perliaj^s unnecessary difficulty has been 
made al)out this i^assage. 'And [that] before Christ became a 
man among men, certain men, at the instigation of the before- 
mentioned demons, recounted as facts by the instrumentality of 
the poets the figments which they had made and uttered, in the 
same way as they have fabricated the charges of impious and 
abominable deeds that are brought against us,' Still it is not to 
be denied that the sentence would be simplified by writing to. 
with Ashton and Otto (3) for cia {rCJv). 

11. <j)6d(ravT€S =7rjo6re|Oov. See C. 12, 38. — 8ia rovs . . . 8ai{Jiovas 
. . . TiCv iroiTjTwv : Scholars sometimes (e. g. Rauchenstein on Lys. 
13, 58) allow themselves to say that ^id with the accus. is used 
like ^id with gen. So broad a distinction, which could not es- 
cape any decent Hellenist (comp. Hebr. 2, 10), is not to be given 
up so lightly. ' Owing to,' will cover all the cases of sujDposed 
confusion. For ^id w. ace. and gen., see Dem. 6, 6 and Constt. 
Apostt. 2, 24 {hd I'eoQ — ^id i-iETavoiac). An eftacement of preposi- 
tions is not to be assumed without evidence. Observe how Ath- 
enag. refines on ixerd and alu/ (Suppl. 31, 57), on vvrsp and Trepi 
(Resurr. 1, 4), Iv and Trepi (Resurr. 21, 101), Kard and cid (Resurr. 
11,48; 18, 84), l^ and Trapd (Resurr. 20, 96), liri and Sid (Sui:)pl. 
2, 8), -n-pog and cid (SupjDl. 10, 40), not to speak of such familiar 
distinctions as otto and tg (Tatian, 20; Orig. c. Gels. 1, 51). 

12. ws Y6v6p,eva: 'Qg with participle after a verb of saying or 
thinldng=inf See c. 4, 18. 

13. SvTpdirov: C. 4, 22. 

15. TovTov 'dXtyxov iroiTjo-djAeOa : ' This is the proof that we shall 
offer.' TovTov Tuv tXeyxov would be ' this proof.' See c. 13, 6. On 
rovTov, where we should expect rovSe, c. 15, 24 ; on tXeyx^^i C- ^> 
29 ; on 7ro<);(ro^e3'a, c. 1, 9. 

24. Variations of Heathenism. 

First argument to show that the doctrines of the Christians 
are true. Others are free to worship whom or what they please ; 
Christians alone are slain for their worshii3. The hatred of the 
light proves that it is light. The same line of argument is found 
in Tatian, 10 ; Athenag. Suppl. 14 ; Orig. c. Cels. 5, 27. 

2. fJ.T]8ev a8iKovvT€S : C 8, 19. 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 25. 151 

3. ws apiapTtaXoi : Sc. iivTeg. 

4. SeVSpa: So the Indians and others. See Curt. Hist. Alex. 8, 
9, 34: Deos putant quidquid colere coeperunt^ arioi'es maxime, 
quas violare capital est. Also Fergusson's Tree and Serpent AVor- 
ship. — iroTaixovs : So tlie Persians, among others. See Clem. 
Alex. Protrept. 4, 46 and the long list in Max. Tyr. 8, 1. — |jtvs : 
So the Egyptians, 

0. alXovpovs: Comp. Athenag. Suppl. 1 : ol ^k AiyvTTTtoi kuI al- 
\ov p ov g icai KpotcodeiXovg Kai u(peig Kai d<J7ricag Kai Kvvag ^eovg vo- 
l^uZovcn, and Orig. c. Cels. 5, 51. — KpoKoSeiXovs : See the anecdote 
in Max. Tyr. 8, 5. 

7. wo"t' ctvoi : C 5, 8. 
8."07rep: C. 12, 38. 

9. oTi p.T) . . . a-i^o\i.€v : As ju// became more and more common 
with the inf., so it crept into object sentences with on as a kind 
of indication of oratio obliqua. See note on c. 4, 18. Examples 
abound : Lucian, Nigr. 32 ; Dial. Mort. 15, 2 ; Charon, 1 ; Sacrif. 
2 ; Piscat. 24, etc. ; Prom. 20 (cioTL fxr)) ; Max. Tyr. 7, 9 ; 9, 5 (wg 
/(//) ; Athenag. Suppl. 23, 107. 115 ; Resurr. 5, 24 ; 10, 40 ; Orig. 
c. Cels. 3, 18 ; 4, 65 ; Euseb. H. E. 1, 3, 20. 4, 8 ; 3, 38, 1. 4. 

10. If 7pa4>ai:s o-TccJxivous : ' If this mean any thing, it must be 
taken as an equivalent for arecpdvovg yEYpaiAf.dvovg^ " painted 
crowns." Maran contends, indeed, that ypatpr] signifies not only 
a picture but a statue, and interprets the words of the decora- 
tion of the statues of the gods. But in that case Iv is inadmis- 
sible [as Braun notes] ' (Trollope). None of the numerous con- 
jectures is convincing. I incline to one of the oldest, tv ratpaig 
{iv TCKpoig^ Thirlby). Com|). Minuc. Fel. Oct. 12: coronas etiam 
sepulcris denegatis, and Lat. Hymns, p. 246. So Otto 7ioio. 

11. "Oti "yap ovv to, avra: The MSS. have on yap ov. Sylburg 
omits oh ; Otto reads ovv. — ols jacv ktI. : Familiar use of the rel- 
ative as a demonstrative with i.dv and ^k ; common after De- 
mosthenes in prose. 

25. Christians Abandon tiik World of False Gods. 

1, A€VT€pov: The second argument is drawn from the purity 
of the worship of the One God in contrast with the impure dei- 
ties, from whose service the Christians have turned even in the 

I 



152 NOTES. 

face of death (Maran). — Ik iravrbs ve'vovs dv9pwira)v: C. 1,5. — ol ird- 
\ai : So Sylburg for TtaXaioL 

2, Aiovvo-ov Tov Scjjlc'Xtjs . . . 'AiroWwva tov AtjtoiStiv : In study- 
ing the ft-en. notice the frequent parallelism with adjective. 
'Son of — the old cxi)lanation of the name ysviK)) — however in- 
sufficient, is not uninstructive. Comp. 'son of in Hebrew. 

3, So-a: ' All.' "0<jo£ of number, olog of quality. ' Such,' orig- 
inally of quality, is very loosely used in English. 

4, n€p(re<|>6vT]v : The symbolism of the myth of Persephon6, 
Aphrodite, and Adonis, which belongs to the cycle of Birth, 
Death, Resurrection, and Immortality, is sufficiently familiar. 
See my article on the Legend of Venus (Southern Review, April, 
18G7, p. 358 foil.). But the Fathers resolutely shut their eyes to 
all symbolism save their own. Tatian says (c. 21) : 7^£^(T^//^£ fioi 
vvv^ Jj dvcpeg "EXXi]vsq, fxijct Tovg p.v^ovQ H7]Ce tovq Sreovg vf-iCjv aX\i]yo- 
pt]ai]T(. ' KCLv yap tovto TvpciTTUv t7rix^ip)]cn]Te, Bsotijq /) Ka^' v/xag dvjjpt]- 
Ttti Kai v(p' vfiojv. See also Athenag. Suppl. 22. — aI<rxos Kal \iyeiv : 
Comp. Eph. 5, 12: ra yap Kpv(p7} yiv6/xeva vir' ahrCJv aiaxpov lari 

Kal Xeyeir. Al<rxog is not much used in Attic prose. See Clem. 
Alex. Paed. 3, 8, 43. 

7. KaiTrep Oavdrov direiXovjJievov : C. 7, 7. 

8» TovTcov . . . KaTe<})povi]o-afJtev : C. 3, 2. — Gcm tw dYCVv^TOJ Kal 
diraeci: C 14, 9. 

9, cavTovs dveSi^Kajiev : C. 14, 12. — cir' 'Avtiotttjv: 'Ett/, 'after,' 
as above. 

11, 8id 0eTi8os: See II. 1, 401-3. So Luciau, mockingly (D. 
D. 21, 2) : d f-u) )) Oirig KareXeijaaca licdXeaep avTi^ av/.iiiaxov Bpid- 
pE(t)v iKaroyx^ipf^'- ovra, Kav Icsdero civ [Zev^] air^} Kepavvt^ Kal 

(SpOVTJJ. 

12. |X€pi}JivwvTa ktI. : 'Solicitous that the son of Thetis should 
destroy.' 

14. oXeVai: The prose form is cnroXitrai. 'OXscraL in a half-quo- 
tation. Comj). II. 2, 3. 4 : dXX' oys i.upix{]piL,s Kara (ppkva Cjg 'A^t- 
X//a I tij.i1](jh\ 6Xk(jai ce TroXeag IttI jnjvalv 'AxattDi'. 

26. Human Agents op the Demons. 

1. TpiTov : The third proof that the truth is what is hated. 
Those whom the devils have inspired to corrupt the Christian 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 26. 153 

religion are not persecuted, or if tliey are persecuted, it is for 
their crimes, not for their faitli (Maran). — ave'Xcvo-iv: Eusebius, 
who copies this passage (H. E. 3, 13), has dvd\7]\piv, but comp. 
Dial. c. Tr. cc. 39 and 87 (Thirlby). 

3. XcyovTas eavxovs : The reflexive is rarely expressed when 
the subject of the leading verb and the subject of the inf. arc 
the same, 

5. Stjxwva . . . 2auap€a : Simon Magus (Acts 8, 9-24) was re- 
garded by the Fathers as the ringleader of all heresies (Euseb. 
H. E. 2, 13, 6) ; but ' it is quite uncertain with how much reason 
the beginnings of heretical gnosis have been ascribed to Simon 
Magus' (Ueberweg). Origen tells us (c. Cels. 1, 12) that the 
number of Simonians had shrunk in his time to thirty persons, 
Comp. 6, 11 : ovcafiov rrjg olKOVjxkvriQ 'S.ij.noviavoi. 

6. TiTTuiv : So in the Constt. Apostt. 6, 7. — em KXavSiov KaC- 
capos : C. 13, IG. 

7. 8vvd|ieis : A terminus technicus ; orig. t^iliiSX See Matt. 11, 
20. 21 ; 13, 54. 58 ; 14, 2 ; Mark 6, 2, 5. 14 ; Luke 19, 37 (Winer). 

8. Pa<ri\i8t : ' Imperial' See c. 17, 11. 

9. Trap' vjjiwv : Euseb. has Trap vfxXv. 

11, 2IMI2NI : For this story— repeated by numbers after him 
— Justin is responsible. The truthfulness of the author and the 
correctness of the statement are not to be confounded. Thirlby 
argues at length in favor of Justin's allegation, but argues con- 
fessedly as a lawyer, not as a judge. He lays especial stress on 
the madness of an appeal to evidence which could have been 
refuted by a moment's inspection. But it is the more prevalent 
opinion that Justin misread an inscription on the pedestal of a 
statue of Semo Sancus — a much-revered Sabine deity — which 
pedestal was dug up in the island of the Tiber in the year 1574. 
The inscription runs : 

SEMONI 

SANCO 

DEO • FIDIO 

SACRVM 

SEX • POMPEIVS • S • P • F. 

COL • MVSSIANVS 

QVINQVENNALIS 

DECVR 

BIDENTALIS 

DONVM • DEDIT. 

Grut. T. I, p. xcvi, n. 5. 



154 NOTES. 

For the confusion of Semoni and Simo7ii, see c. 4, 4 and B 3, 3. 
Comp. further Bunsen (1. c. 1, 354), who notes the fact that Hip- 
polytus, being a Roman, did not make this blunder. 

13. to)s Tov irpwTov Gcov : He called himself sunwiinn 2Mtrem, ac- 
cording to Tertull. De Auima, 34. 

14. 'EXc'vTjv: A very common name, despite the evil omen that 
Aeschylus found in it (Agam. 66G Herm.). — crvfxircpivooTijo-ao-av: 
I read avf-iir. with Sylburg, Maran, Braun, against the MSS. n?- 
pivoaru), ' ramble,' or ' roam about,' with a reminiscence of the old 
Nocrrot. Comp. the use in Ar. Plut. 121. 494; Plato, De Rep. 8, 
558 A; Luc. Tim. 13 (bis). 

15. KttT* cKCLvp TOV Kaipov : C. 17, 3. — Itti tc'yovs : 'Ettl with gen. 
usually of a fixed (normal) position on, hence of a regular ' stand ' 
at. See the Lexicons s. yv. rsyoc, olV/y/ia. — o-raSeio-av: Comi^.jjro- 
stare. See the Lexicons. 

16. cVvoiav : Tr. by Tertull. iniectlonem. Parallels in other sys- 
tems will not fail to suggest themselves. 

17. MevavSpov: For an account of Menander, see Euseb. H. E. 
3, 26 (p. 87 D. S.). 

20. e|a7raTT]o-ai : For the inf. see A 3, 3. — Oi8a|xcv='/o-//6v. 

21. w9 fATjSe otTroCvqcTKOicv : In normal Gr., wq ovck airo^avovvTai 
or aTTo^avoivro. In classic Gr. prose, after a jjast tense, principal 
indicative clauses may be represented in oratio obliqua either by 
the infinitive (the older form) or by on or ioq with the opt. 
The latter construction faded out with the opt. itself, and Justin 
uses here and c. 49, 21 the opt. as a fut, Comp. Clem. Alex. Pro- 
trept. 3, 44 ; Ep. Eccl. V. et L. ap. Euseb. H. E. 5, 1, 24. The neg. 
ni] is used as after on, c. 24, 9. 

22. air' cKeivov : 'Atto of a school or sect is very common, e. g. 
Athenag. Suppl. 6, 25. 26 ; 16, 65 ; 23, 107 ; Clem. Alex. Protrept. 
5, 66 ; 6, 72 ; Strom. 2, 3, 10 ; Orig. c. Cels. 3, 75 ; 4, 68 al. So in 
Lat. ab: Zeno et qui ah eo simt, Cic. Fin. 3, 3. — MapKiwva . . . tov 
IIovTiKov : This passage is cited by Euseb. H. E. 4, 11. The Catho- 
lics persecuted the memory of Marcion as that of their worst en- 
emy, as is shown by the famous anecdote from Iren. (3, 3) quoted 
by Euseb. 1. c. 4, 14, 7 (p. 109 D. S.). According to Marcion, who 
was an older contemporary of Justin, there were two gods, one 
the Demiurge, or maker of the world, to be denied and renounced, 



THE FIKST APOLOGY. C. 26. 155 

the other the greater god, whose works are far more excellent 
than those of the Demiurge. 'The person and character of 
Christ are not to be explained by any historical preparation for 
His coming, or by any national prophecy or expectation of the 
Jews.' ' Christ saved mankind by divine, gratuitous, spontane- 
ous love, expecting no reward, but knowing that thus alone He 
could destroy the cruel Demiurge, the Prince of this world, who 
knows no higher motive than reward, and who could only be 
humbled and crushed by Christ's self-sacrificing love. His love 
redeemed mankind, that is to say, it has the power of freeing 
them from selfishness, the root of all sin and estrangement from 
God.' 'Marcionism was doomed to perish by the two inherent 
errors and heresies of the system ; the breaking with the history 
of the world in placing itself in contradiction both with the 
past and with the present. In the past, it saw the principle of 
evil in that which was the preparation for the Gospel ; in the 
present, it laid the hand of destruction both on the historical 
records of Christ and His apostles, and on the life of practical 
Christianity in the congregation' (Buusen). See also Ueberweg, 
Hist, of Philosophy, 1, 284 (Am. Tr.). 

23. eo-Ti SiSdo-Kwv: 'Is engaged in teaching.' Comp. c. 19, 5. 

25. Kara irolv 7€vos dvSpwirwv : See C. 1, 5. — o-v\\ti\J/€U)s : ^vWijtpig 
in the sense of ' help ' is rare. Comp. Max. Tyr. 14, 7 : Beov cu 

a V Wl] TTT OpOQ. 

27. Tov TToiTiTTiv ToOSe Tot) TTavTos Geov : 'That the maker of this 
universe is God.' Tov ■kou)t1]v is the subject, as is sliown by the 
article. Comp. Plato, Timaeus, 28 C— ws ovra }jici£«va: Ground 
assigned by Marcion. See c. 4, 18. 

28. H€i^ova irapd : C. 19, 19. 

29. ws €<|)Ti|i€v: C. 7, 10. Euseb. has ttpafiav. On the form, see 
c.8,1. 

30. ov TpoTTov : C. 4, 22.— ol ou KoivwvovvTcs : Emphasizing the 
opposition to icolvuv. Comp. c. 14, 16, 

31. TO eiriKaTTiYopoT^jicvov 6vo|jia : See c. 7, 9. Otto reads, with 
Euseb., iTriKaXovj-iEvov Unnecessarily, and iv before (piXoaucpoig. 

33, tKetva : 'EKshwg, like the Latin ille. — (ji,v0o\oYov|j-€va epya : 
These stock accusations can be found in Athenag. Suppl. c. 3 ; 
Ep. Eccl. Vienn. et Lugdun. ap. Euseb. 1. c. 5, 1, 14 (p. 130 D. S.) ; 



156 NOTES. 

Tertull. Apol. 7 (p. 39 D. S.) ; Theopliil. ad Autolyc. 3, 4. Ac- 
cording to Orig. c. Cels. G, 27, the Jews started these stories. — 
Xvxvias . . . cLvaTpoiniv: The signal for Avild debauchery. The 
classic form is Xj'xj^'oj', not Xvxvia. 

34. ave'Srjv : Regular adverbial formation from dv'njfn = aveii-ie- 
vcjg. 'Avaict]v^ suggested by Morell, and once approved by Otto, 
is a faulty formation found in later writers for avai()u)Q. — o-apKwv 
Popds : On the plural, see c. 13, 2. 

35. on fiT] : C. 24, 8. 

36. Kav 8ia TO. SoYjiara: Kaj^=ffO('. See C. 2, 7. 

37. -np-ivmijitoj : On the case, sec c. 27, 18. 

38. evTvxeiv : C. 14, 3. 

27. Guilt of Exposing Children. 

1. ixTjSev a8iK(ic(jLev : So I read with Stephanus. The MSS. have 
p.r\Uva euoKwusi', defended at length by Maran and retained ])y 
Braun, Otto (1. 2), Trollope. But Otto noic succumbs. Thirlby 
prefers ni)l'iva d^iic. — eKXiQivai Ktti TO, Y€vva))i€va : Kai sllOWS how 
trivial such an affair seemed to the heathen. 

2. irovTipwv: A change to TTovi]p6v is not necessary. The idio- 
matic translation would be the same. — elVai SeSiSdYjicOa : See c. 
21, 30. Comp. with the passage Ej:). ad Diogn. 5, 16 : [XpwTiavoi] 
ov piTTTOVffi TO. yevvio/jLeva and Athcnag. Sup23l. 35, 167 : ov rod avrov 
fiT^ tKTiBkvai }.dv TO yevmjBsVj oj£ tCov ticriBevrcov tekvoktovovvtojv^ Tvd- 
\iv ct TO Tpa(pev dvaipHV. 

4. irpooLYOVTas = 7r|Ooaywy€i;ovr«^ (E. A. Sophocles). 

5. ov xpoirov : C. 4, 22. 

6. tinrwv <|>oppd8ft)v : Comp. Plat. Legg. 2, 666 E : olov a^poovQ 
TTixiKovQ iv ci-ykXy v^^wf-ikvovg (p a p j3 a d ag Tovg vsovg KiKTijcBe. This 
passage of Justin is imitated by Tatian, Or. ad G. 28 : Trai'^wv dys- 
Xag uxTTTSp "nrTTMV (poplSdduJV (xvi'ayeipsiv avTCjv Tre/pw/tei^wv, and 
by Clem. Alex. Paed. 3, 4, 26 : fxsipaKiojv cjpalujv dysXai KaBuTrsp 
^pfijXnaTiov Trap' <Lv dfisXyovTOL to KaXXog. 

7. ovTft) vvv Kai iraiSas : Sc. opCjfi^v Tps<ponsvovg. Otto (3) reads 
oi'rwc, because Justin always says dv Tpoirov . . . ovTwg^ even be- 
fore a consonant. 

9. ciri Tov avTov Tc'-yovs €o-ttjk€v : The MSS. havc IttI tovtov tov 
dyovg^ •which is supposed to be equivalent to elg to ai(TxpCJg xpu- 



THE FIllST APOLOGY. C. 27. 157 

(T^aL above. If so, tlie combination stands alone in Greek. Thirl- 
by's suggestion, wliicli occurred to me indejDendently, I have 
ventured to put in the text. Tliirlby comp. Hieron. in Esai. 2. 
As much to the point would be Clem. Alex. Paed. 3, 3, 21 : IttI 
reyovg tcrrdcri Trap' avroiQ rijv (rdpica ti)v iavrojv eig i'lSpiv t)dovr]Q 
TTiTrpdaicovcrai yvvctiKeg Kal Traidsg apvelcrBai rrjv (pvmv esdidayfisvoi 
7rpo(nroiouvTai yvvcuKcig. 

10. jxi(r8oi)5 Kttl €l(r<|)opas Kai tcXtj : Taxes for prostitution {quan- 
tum quaeque uno concuhitu mereret) imposed by Caligula (Suet. 
Cal. 40), forbidden to be used for religious jDurposes by Alex. Se- 
verus (Lamprid. 24), abolished by Justinian. Comp. the iropviKov 
Ttkog at Athens. 

11. Ssov: '■Whereas you ought.' See c. 4, 20.— Tfjs v;i€Tepas ol- 
KovjAeViris : Substantivized participles seldom have a possessive 
pronoun, in classic prose. 

12. irpbs Tfi dQco) Kxe. : 'Besides.' 

13. cl Tuxoi: 'Perhaps,' 'perchance,' a common phrase, e. g. 
Plato, Hipp. Min. 3G7 A. — tc'kvw : TkKvov is used only in relation 
to parents, not to age— proZ^s, llheri. Strictly siDcaking, it is not 
a prose word in the classic jieriod. Even Plato uses it very sel- 
dom. Of the young of animals in Herodotus, Xenophon, Plato. 
It is common as a term of endearment in Christian writers. 
Minuc. Felix puts Justin's argument with his usual vigor. See 
Octav. 31. 

15. diroKcJiTTovTaL = k-rijuvovra/ : Deutcr. 23, 1; Theopliil, ad 
Autol. 1,9; 3, 8 ; Clem. Alex. Protrept. 2, 14. 

10. (JLTiTcpa 0€wv: INIagna Mater, Cybele. See Catull. 63 and 
Class. Dictionaries. 

17. Gcwv : For Gew (Sylburg), 6<j)is : The serpent is a consiDicu- 
ous figure in all religious. See commentators on Persius, 1,113; 
Fergussou's Tree and Serpent Worship). 

18. xip,tv: The so-called dative of the agent simply shows the 
person interested in the action. When the action is completed, 
the inference that the person interested is also the agent is often 
very natural. When the action is future (as with -rkov) the infer- 
ence is irresistible. With the tenses of continuance (present and 
impf ) the construction is rare in prose. 

10. ws dvarerpajAjjievov Kai ou irapdvTOS ktI. : On the Xvxviag dva- 



158 NOTES. 

rpoTT/), see c. 20, 33. On the construction and negative, see c. 4, 
18. 

20. irpofTypd^eTe : ' Ascribe.' 

21. ov pXdpTiv <}>ep€t: With the sentiment comp. c. 2, 19. 

28. God Cares for His Creatures. 

1 • ^PX'HY^'T'ns : Justin seems to use the word always in a bad 
sense, ' ring-leader.' 

2, 6<j)is : Comp. Rev. 20, 2 : Krai tfcpanycre tuv CpuKOVTa, tov otpiv 
Tov apxctioi^j og Ion S id j3 oXo g Kai craravcig and Dial. C. Trypli. 
103 : Mco'utTijg i-itv urj) iv /caXeT, tv Cf. Ti^ 'Iw/3 Kai t(^ Zaxapig- Sidf5o\og 
KSKXtjTai Kai i'TTo tov 'lr](rov aaravdg Trpocrrjyopevrai. — caravas : 'i^''^, 
' adversary.' A droll etymology is given by Justin in D. c. T. 
1. c. (Trtra=ili:b, which he renders «7ro(Trar?;c, and roc='!^'7?5 "^'^• 
This is only less amusing than the etymology in Theoph. ad 
Autol. 2, 29 : SpoKiov KaXtirai diet to cnrocedpaKsvai avTov Atto 

TOV B(OV. 

3. 6K Twv ■f]\}.. <ruYYpa.|Ji.}Ji.aTwv : Comljine with f.iaBtHv. — epevvqo-av- 
T€s : 'Epevvdi', in(7a(/a?'e, orighmUy of tracking an animal. Comp. 
Clem. Alex. Strom. 1, 3, 21 : Ka^air^p 6 T7]g dypag tpojTiKog Zr]Ti)(Tac, 
dvixvivcjag^ ip(.vvy]a ag^ Kwocpoyi'inag a'lpeX to ^tjpiov ktL 

C. 7rpc€(jnf]vv(rcv 6 XpioTos : Matt. 25, 41. 

7. "H eTTtjxovT) TOV |Jiir]8eTr(o tovto 7rpd|ai tov 0€ov : Tlie gen. of the 
inf. is the appositive of iTrifxovf], a classical construction, in which 
the negative is accounted for by the negative notion contained in 
tTT/juoj^//, as a verbal noun of hindering (negative result). Comp. 
Thuc. 2, 49 : ?} diropia TOV fu) })(TvxdZeiv tTTtKftro. Add 3, 75 ; Plato, 
Politic. 279 C ; Dem. 19, 149 ; 24, 9. 

9. fJicTavoias: The general term for 'change of mind' is /.utu- 
fuXsia ; iJETdvoia is ' a change of mind for the better,' ' a change 
of heart.' Comp. M. Anton. 8, 10: y /.iSTdvoid Icttiv l-rriXyjiliig Tig 
tavTov Mg xp/;o-(ju6v n irapeiKoTog, and Greg. Kaz. 1. c. : t})v Se /^leTd- 
voiav Trpbg Ta Kpdaaova aTpocpfjv. The difference between fxsTa- 
fdXeia and /xBTdvoia appears in 2 Cor. 7, 10 : // kutu ^sbv Xvirt] 
fiiTavo lav £lg cr(OTi]piav a j-ist a jxeXyjT ov KUTspydZeTai. But Clem. 
Alex. Protrept. (10, 90) distinguishes ^nTdvoia Ktvi] from /.uTdvom 
yvi](yla (10, 99), and Chrysostom (Homil. 15 in 2 Cor.) uses n^ra- 
vout for fJiiTaniXofiai. 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 29. 159 

10. tV opx^v : See c. 10, 8. 

11. €v irpaTTciv: In the less usual sense of 'virtuous action,' 
not of ' prosperity.' So Otto, who comp. c. 43 ; Dial. c. T. 12. 17. 
See commentators on Acts 15, 26. Add Theophil. ad Autol. 
2,17. 

12. Sxrre . . . elvai: See C. 22, 11. 

13. irapa tw Ccw : C. 8, 8. 

14-. p-eXeiv TovTtov tw StiS : The gen. depends on the substan- 
tive notion in /.isXew. The most simple way of disposing of all 
impersonal verbs is to consider the subject as involved in the 
verb. — TOTJTwv=rwi' dvSfpvJTrcov. Otto comp. Dial. c. T. 1. Others 
consider r. neuter. — jxtj elvai : M// as often in classic prose after 
ufioXoyelv, which involves icill as well as thouglit. See c. 6, 3. — 
8ia Te'xvns : Supj)osed to be equivalent to ' evasively,' ' indirectly ' 
(TroUope), as opposed to in 7rpod>]\ov. 

15. T] ovTtt : ' Or, if he exists.' 

10. 8o|t] : C, 3, 1. 

18. Tjircp : Attracted from vrrfp. See also c. 12, 38. 

29. The Bounded Continence of Christians. 

1. \i.r] Twv eKTeSe'vTwv : A return to the construction of c. 27, 
'We have been taught not to expose children, lest.' — (atj avaXr)- 

2. TT|v apxiiv : See c. 10, 8. 

3. ovK €7a|jLo\)p,6v . . . Iv € KpaT6vo[ie9a : The imperfect where we 
should expect the present. — el [it]: JSfisi, 'except.' Comp. c. IG, 
25. — lirt iraiSwv dvaTpoAfj : 'Etti w. dat. of the basis of an action. 
Comp. the marriage formula among the Athenians, tVi yvi]mojv 
TraiSiov dporci), and for the Christian conception of wedlock, Ath- 
enag. Suppl. 33, 161; Clem. Alex. Paed. 2, 10. Minuc. Felix 
says (Octav. 31) : ciqmlitate procreandl aut unam scimiis aut mil- 
lam. 

4. irapaiTovfjievot : Favorite verb of the period. — to Yi](ia(r9ai: 
Regularly of the woman. The aor. on account of the negative 
notion. Comp. c. 4, 10. The article gives a half-contemptuous 
tone: 'This thing of getting married.' Comj). c. 11, 10. — Ivc- 
KpaTCvdjJLcOa : So Otto (3) for fcj/£ y K-pareyo/if.S'a (MSS.). 

0. r\ dve'Siiv |jli|i,s : C. 26, 34.— pipXiSiov : ' Paper,' ' memorial.' 

12 



160 NOTES. 

7. dve'SwKcv: Notice the especial use of this compound of pe- 
titions, c. G7, 33; Phit. Mor. 1, 909 C— 4>>i\iKi: The MSS. have 
*(\/;k-j, and below ^iXijKog. See note on c. 4, 4. 

8. T0V9 8i8u}jLovs =::roi'e opx^^G, as in Clem. Alex. Protrept. 2, 15. 
—avev . . . TTJs Tov t|V€jjlovos eiriTpoirtis : The prohibition of this 
procedure goes back to Nerva. 

10. jJiT]86\<i)s=^?jo' oXojg. Often written at this stage as one 
■word. 

11, 6(j)' eavTov |i€ivas: 'By himself,' 'to himself,' 'unmarried.' 
So Clem. Alex. Strom. 3, 12, 82 : cu^av ahn^ ohpaviov TrepnroLH fxel- 
vag l(j)' eavTov and Constt. Apostt. 3, 1: i^' iavrijg fxeXvai 
(of a widow). 

12. OuK . . . tnrT]px€v: Cited by Euseb. H. E. 4, 8. 

13, TiYTio-dixcGa : In epistolary style == //you/ie^a, which Euseb. 
lias 1. c. See A 2, 14. — 'Avtivoov : Antinous, the notorious favor- 
ite of Hadrian, drowned in the Nile. Divine honors were paid 
to his memory by his master, and, indeed, A. has a chapter to 
liimself in the history of plastic art. There is no end of mar- 
ble portraits of him, as a man, as a hero, as a god. The plain- 
ness of Justin is an instructive contrast to the caution of Lu- 
cian, who does not mention the subject, although there may be 
some oblique reference to it in his ridicule of Alexander's ex- 
travagances about Hephaestion (Cal.non temere credendum, 17) 
Much more courtly and reserved is Athenag. Suppl. 30, 150 
there is a scornful mention of A. in Tatian, Or. ad Gr. 10 ; Clem 
Alex. Protrept. 4, 49. Theophil. (3, 8) says : myCi rd 'Avnvoov Tefievij 
Celsus (ap. Orig. 3, 36), on the other hand, couples A. with Christ 
— TOV vvv y€yevii]\kivov : Ni»v is very elastic. See Ep. ad D. 1, 10. 

14, Sia <j>6pov: So I read with Euseb. for cue (pufSov, 'in fear.' 
Seec. 23, 11. So also Otto ?2(92r. 

15. Tis = o(Tr(C <IS 7r6^Ev=::o7r6Bev. See C. 15, 4G. — irdScv tiirTJpxcv: 
Here inrapx^i-v is not simply == arai. See c. 2, 10. 'T. is often 
used of source. This is one of the passages cited to show the 
low origin of Antinous. 

30. But was not Christ a Magician? 

' Here he performs his ^^romise (c. 23) to prove that the Son of 
God was made man' (Maran). 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 31. 161 

l.^Oirtos 8e \LY\ Tis ciirTj dvTi06is : The MSS. have dvriTiBeig. I 
insert with Otto d7r?j (comix B 4, 1 ; 9, 1), but prefer dvri^eig (co- 
incident action). See note on c. 17, 17. 

2. av9pwirov e| dv9pw'7r«v : 'A mere man.' Comp. c. 21, 13. 

3. K-ayiKfi Te'xvT] : This charge is familiar and found in the Tal- 
mud. See Origen's refutation, c. Cels. 1, 38, also Arnob. 1, 43: 
Magus fuit^ clandestinis artibus omnia ilia perfecit, — 8yvd}X€is: 
C. 26, 7. 

5. TroiT](r6jx€8a : C 1, 9. 
C. TTpiv r\: C. 4, 13. 

7. oxJ/6t . . . opav: Comp. c. 32, 18. So Plut. Vit. Cic. 2.— 

Ycvdjxcva Kttl ■yivoncva : C. 19, 9. 

8. jicYio-TTj . . . diroScilts : So Orig. c, Cels. 8, 48 : al Trpo^r]THai 
Tolg ju?) irapkpyojQ tvTvyxcivov(n tjj tv avraig Trpoyvojcrei iKavai f.iOL d- 
vai doKovai Trphg to TreTcrai rov avverCug cifxa kuI wyvoj}.i6v(x)g civayivoj- 
(TKOvra on Beov Tcvi.vp.a ijv Iv Tolg dvdpd<nv tK^ivoig. 

31. Of the Hebrew Prophets. 

Aube considers this whole section of the Apology as more or 
less irrelevant. 'Autre chose est I'apologie, autre chose est la 
propaganda' ' La question de Torigine divine du Christianisme 
n'etait pas en jeu, et Saint Justin pouvait dire du dogme Chre- 
tien en g^ngral ce qu'il disait du dogme de la resurrection des 
corps' (c. 8, 17). See Aub6, Saint Justin, p. 58. But Justin 
would not have been Justin if he had not been instant out of 
season as well as in season. 

1. Iv 'lovSaiois: 'Among the Jews.' But the Greeks prefer 
to designate the country by the inhabitants ; hence also ' in Ju- 
daea,' as etc Ufp(Tag, ' to Persia.' 

3. "Trpiv ■^ : C. 4, 13. 

4. Kaxd Kaipovs: 'In due succession of times,' 'from time to 
time.' 

7, KTwjievoi: 'Procuring.' — Trcpiciirov : Seldom of things, as here. 
But these are ' lively oracles.' — nToX6|j,aios 6 AIyvittiwv Pao-iXcvs : 
The Greek says 'King of the Egyptians,' not 'King of Egypt,' 
a trace of his republicanism. Comp. the old iwe divino 'Roi de 
France,' and the constitutional ' Roi des Fran9ais, des Beiges.' 
The king was Ptolemy Philadelphus. 



162 NOTES. 

11. 'HpiiSii : Tlic anachronism is so wild that some of Justin's 
editors have tried to lay the blame on the unfortunate scribe, 
and various emendations have been proposed to relieve Justin 
of this blunder. Eleazar was the high-priest to whom Ptolemy 
applied. 

14, 'EitciStj . . . ovk ^v: 'ETTHoi] is iised with the imperfect 
Avhcn the clause overlaps. 'After (he found that) Avhat was 
written in them was not intelligible.' ^o 2^ostquam with imperf. 
in Latin. 

16. Tovs |jL€TaPa\ovvTas : The article with fut. part, denotes 
adaptation=5?a w. subj., E. ad D. 2, 12. The translators were 
the f\imous LXX of the Septuagint version, for which see Bible 
Dictionaries. 

17. diroo-TCiXai : C. 12, 34. 

19. Ktti dva7Lv«o-KovTas : 'Although they read.' Tivuxtkio the 
prevalent form since Aristotle. 

20. IxQpovs . . . Kai iroXcixiovs : 'Ex^pof: of the animus, v,^hetheY 
the enemy be public or private, 7roXf/aoc of the armed foe. They 
are often combined as here, and in Plutarch, Malign. Herod. 35. 
Of the hostility of the Jews to the Christians, Justin has much 
to say in the Dial. c. T. IG. 95. 110. 133. See also below, c. 30, 
15 and Ep. ad Diogn. 5, 27. 

21. KoXd^ovTCs: C. 3, 4. — oiroTav SvvwvTai : In prose, di^ with 
subj. is the rule for all temporal conjunctions, Avhen they deal 
with the future or with the generic present. The relation of 
the two clauses is much more accurately exi3ressed by the sub- 
junctive than it could be by the indicative. 

22. Ktti vdp . . . dird7€o-8ai : Cited by Euseb. H. E. 4, 8. Bar- 
Cochba was rampant against the Christians because they refused 
to iight against the Romans.— Iv tw vvv: See c. 29, 19. 

23. Bapx^x^Pas : See Dial. c. T. 1. In this war (132-135), the 
only war that disturbed the peace of Hadrian's reign, we have a 
repetition of the familiar image of the Bellum Judaicum of Jose- 
phus, fanatical rage on the one side, relentless cruelty on the 
other. The occasion was given by the prohibition of circum- 
cision, the establishment of a Roman colony under the name of 
Aelia Capitolina on the ruins of Jerusalem, and the erection of a 
temple to Capitoline Jupiter on the site of Solomon's temple. 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 31. 163 

The cause may be sought in the oppressiveness of the Roman 
yoke and tlie cherished liope of Messiah. The expected Mes- 
siah appeared in the person of Bar-Cochba (Son of a Star), and 
the enthusiasm of the multitude was kept up by his fiery elo- 
quence and his fanatic courage. At first the Romans suffered 
repeatedly and heavily. But under the conduct of Severus, Ha- 
drian's best officer, who managed the war witli the prudence of 
Vespasian before liim, the Jews were shut up in Bethyr, and 
after a long siege overpowered. Again we encounter the enor- 
mous numbers of the first war; 580,000 are said to have fallen 
by the sword ; the number of those who perished by famine, 
pestilence, and fire is incalculable. The Roman loss was so se- 
rious that in Hadrian's despatch to the Senate the usual for- 
mula, Fgo e.verc it usque Talemus, was omitted. The Jews were for- 
bidden to set foot in the new colony, to which prohibition Tcr- 
tullian alludes when he says (Apol. 21, p. Go D. S.) : quibus nee 
advenarum jure terram patriam saltern vestigio salutare conceditur. 
The Christians, however, whom the Jews had treated with as 
much enmity as they had treated the Romans, were admitted. 
(After Peter, Gesch. Roms, 8, 2, 181-3.) 

25. el jiT) dpvoCvTo : Et w. opt. after a past tense representing 
tdv with subj. after a principal tense. Observe that in Greek 
oratio obliqua follows the forms of o. recta fiir more closely than 
in Latin. Hence, if we have dv in o. r., it reappears in o. o. The 
reason why dv does not reappear when tdv, orav, and the like, 
with the subj., are transferred, is to be traced to the fjict that 
the simple subj. (without dv) is the original form. 

26. aTrd-yeo-fiai : Sc. Tt)v hwi ^avdvi^^, a standing expression, as in 
Lat. ducere. 

27. 'jrpoKT(]pv<r(rdp.€vov : C. o, 3. — irapaYivojxcvov : This and the 
other participles depend on irpoKi]p. as a verb of showing. Comp. 
c. 33, 1. 

28. 8ia TrapeeVov : C. 22, 15. 

32. ovpavoijs : C IG, 32. 

33. els irav yevos dv0pwirtov : Ei'c is not used with persons literally 
except with the plural, or as here with collectives. Comp. c. 1, 5. 

35. €6vwv : In the technical sense of ' heathen.' — (xaXXov : Than 
the Jews. — irio-Teveiv: Change of construction. 



1G4 NOTES. 

36. irpivTJ: C. 4, 13. — €T€<ri: Dative (locative) as measure of 
diffcrcnco. — irevTOKicrxtXiois : It is idle to attempt the distribution 
of the figures among- the i)rophets. In this pLacc Adam is sup- 
posed by some to be meant, by others, Enoch. In c. 42, 8 Jus- 
tin puts David 1500 B.C. 

38. Tois SiaSoxag rdv yivdv '. 'Successive generations.' On the 
plural, see c. 12, 30. 

32. Christ Foretold of Moses. 

1. M«vo-f]s: The Coptic form (Otto). — irpwros : In time. 

2. avToXelei : A late WOrd = avToig Xe^eaip. — Qvk . . . avTov : 
Gen.49, 10. 11. 

3. e«s av cXOt) : "Ewf; regularly (but not invariabl}') with aor. in 
the sense of ' until.' 

4. <S airoKcnai = ouTOQ i^ a.: For a. COmp. C. 18, 5. — d^iroKCiTai : 
Sc. TO dpx^u-'i t) I3a(n\eia. 

5. Tov TTwXov aviTov : The LXX and the N. T. neglect the reflex- 
ive of the third jDcrson in the possessive (genitive) case. In He- 
brew the possession is indicated by a suffix ; hence the tendency. 
The best MSS. have only avTov. 

6. 'YfJicTcpov: C. 3, 16. 

8, iSios avTwv : Here avrwvz^ijysorian. So Plato, De Rep. 9, 580 

E : 6v6f.iari idiitj ai'TOv. 

11. fiTj €K\eii|/eiv: See c. 4, 18. 

12. TO Pao-i\eiov=// iSamXeia. Late use (Otto). 

25. IIwXos vdp Tis ovov : Matt. 21, 2 ; Mark 11, 2 ; Luke 19, 30 ; 
John 12, 14. 

26. TTpbs diiircXov : Nothing of the sort in our Gospels nor in 
Justin's citation. Dial. c. T. 53. — dvaYciv avrw: 'Him,' rather 
than 'to him,' which w^ould be rrpog with ace. 

27. dxOtvTos: Might depend on i7ri(3dg, but it is more natural 
to conceive it as a gen. abs. 

28. €l(7eXi]Xv0€v : We should expect eiarjX^ev. — cv6a: C. 19, 
21. 

29. l€p6v : C. 9, 2. 

30. TO Xeiirov : Intransitive use, which is found in Plato, and 
often in later writers, e. g. Luke 18, 22 ; Tit. 1,5; 3, 13 ; Orig. c. 
Cels.7, 11. Scec. 52, 7. 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 33. 165 

32. ov iraayeiv cpeXXe : Ou the familiar attraction for o. On 
fjitEWf, see c, 19, 31. 

33. 'H . . . o-ToX-f] ot Trio-T€TJovT€s . . . cio-iv : Agreement witli 
the predicate. 

36. (rirep(jia : See Introd. xxxix. The word in its entirety {Trag 
\6yog) is in the believers (toTq TridTevoumv). Other men have 
only a seed or germ (o-7rep/ia, ^dpog). Comp. B 8, 10. 

39. 'H 8c irpwTT] 8uva}j.is ... 6 XoYos co-tiv : Article in predi- 
cate and snbject, a convertible proposition. 

40. riva^ovTiva : Simple for compound, as often. Sec c. 15, 
4G. 

41. 6v Tots kir\q : 'In what follows in order.' So Kri.=^Kai tu 
i^ijQ, et quae sequuntur. 

42. "Ov Tpoirov : C. 4, 22. Refers to U ^dag cwd/jieojg. Justin 
is parenthetic to a degree. 

43. ovK e| dv9p&)Tr€iov o-irepiiaTos : The neg. ovk on account of 
the contrast. Comp. c. 14, 10. 

45. Kai . . . 8e : As is the connective, Kai belongs to the fol- 
lowing word. The combination is exceptionally frequent in 
Justin. 

47. 'AvaxcXci . . . eXiriouo-iv : Num. 24, 17 ; Isa. 11, 1. 10 (mixed). 

50. Aici 7ap TrapOe'vov : C. 22, 15. 

53. TO XoYiov: 'Oracle.' Justin uses Xoyia of Our Saviour's ut- 
terances. Dial. c. T. 18. Comp. Papias's work : Aoyiiov KvpiaKuJv 
ilr]y{](THg, ap. Euseb. II. E. 3, 39, 1 (p. 102 D. S.). 

54. Kara yivovq 8ia8ox'»lv : C. 31, 38. 

33. Manner of Christ's Birth Foretold. 

1. avToXc|€i : C. 32, 2. — 8ia TrapdcVov : C. 22, 15. — tcxBtio-op-cvos : 
The participle is sometimes used after verbs of saying, consid- 
ered as verbs of showing. See below, cc. 35, 26 ; 51, 35. 

3, 'I8ou . . . 0€ds: (Isa. 7, 14), Matt. 1, 23. — "^ irapeeVos : The 
article is a Hebraism. — cv Yao-rpl e^ci : LXX and N, T. 

6. irapa tois dvOpw-jrois : C. 8, 8. 

7. (AcXXcLV Yivecr8ai : C. 19, 31. 

8. iv' orav : Otto noio 'iva. There is no end of hiatus in later 
Greek. — orav yivy\Ta,\.: C, 31, 21. — fjiTj onrio-TTiGf) : In classic Greek 
the retention of the primary or principal tenses after the second- 



1G6 NOTES. 

ary or historical is not uncommon, and is technically called re- 
praesentatio, or the assumption of the point of view of the speak- 
er. In Hellenistic writers there is no necessity for this fine dis- 
tinction ; in fact, no ground for it. The optative dies out more 
and more. In modern Greek it is dead. 

9. "Oircos 8g (xtj TUV€S, fJLT] vo-qoravTcs : So Tllirlby for oirajg ci Tiveg. 

11. ci-irouo-iv . . . €\Y\\v$ivai ciri YvvaiKas : On the inf., see C. 13, 
33 ; on the phrase, c. 25, 9. 

12. ircipao-cJjJieea : So Otto for Tzupcwio^a^a. The fut. in accord- 
ance with Justin's usage. 

14, El . . . eo-vvovo-ido-Sif) . . . oiiKeri riv irapSevos ; We should 
expect av i)v^ but the condition may be considered logical. If 
not, iiv:=:^ti.ifX\^v 'iaea^ai^^zi'iv dp. 

17. irciroiTjKc : Perf. unnatural in English. The Greek perfect 
can be used even when the further end is dated. See B 2, 27. 
— dTro(rTa\cis : C. 12, 34. 

18. Kar* eK6ivo tov Kaipou : C. 17, 3. 

19. €VTiY7€\i<raTo av)Tt]v : The accus. is a late construction (N.T.). 
The LXX have the dative of the person, e. g., Isa. 61, 1 ; Jcr. 20, 
15. — cIttwv: Coincident action. — 'ISou . . . adreiv: Luke 1, 31. 
35; Matt. 1,21. 

21. KaXecreis : Open form only here and there in Attic. Hel- 
lenistic writers tend to mechanical uniformity. — auros vap o-wo-ci : 
AvroQ where the Greek would more naturally use ovrog. See c. 
50, G. 

22. Tov Xabv avTOj : C. 32, 5. Aaog is little used in classical 
prose. — oi airo}Jivif}iJLov€vo-avT€s : Comp. Luke 1, 1 and see c. 06, 
13. 

23. TO. ircpl ToG o-wTT]po'3 : The gen. on account of o7ro/(j/?//<. 
Otherwise the accus. 

26. Y€VTioro|jL€vov • See above. 

28. w3 MwvoTjs: The reference is to c. 32, 11. The kingdom 
is reserved for the first-born (Otto). 

31. To 8^ 'Itio-ovs : Comp. B 6, 13. 

^o.^Oti . . . <|>ii(reTc: <I>//jiu' is seldom used with un in the best 
period ; at every turn in later Greek. 

36. e€o<j)opo{ivTai : A late word. — cl [xt] : C 10, 22. 

37. •uTToXajipdvu) : C. 11, 2. 



THE FIUST APOLOGY. C. 34, 35. 167 

34. Place of Christ's Birth Foretold. 

3. Kai (TV . . . rov Xaov \i.ov : (Micah 5, 2), Matt. 2, G. 

5. €^€\€vo-eTai=:i?ei£7t. 

9. KvpTiviov : Kvp}]VLog is the Hellenized form of Quirin(i)us. 
For the endless controversies on the subject, see Bible Diction- 
aries or references in Farrar's Life of Christ, 1, 7. 

35. Other Prophecies that have Come to Pass. 

2. axpis av8pw9TJ : As there is no reference in the prophecies 
to Christ's being hidden until he reached man's estate, but all of 
them bear on his crucifixion, Grabe suspects a lacuna. Maran 
wishes to include man's estate, which the aor. will not suffer. 
Perhaps the situation may be relieved by reading dxpiQ av arav- 
pu)Sr7j — not so violent an emendation as it might seem. The 
compendia for otjo {:=(jTavp) and op might easily be mistaken for 
each other. But comp. Dial. c. T. 102. As to dxpig ar^pw^y it 
may be noted that dv is often omitted even in prose with tem- 
jjoral particles of limit ('until'). On the subj. for opt., see c. 
33, 8. — oircp Kal Y€70V€v : Kai ' actually.' 

3. eU toGto : ' With reference to this.' 

4. IlaiSiov . . . wjxwv : Isa. 9, 6. 
7. irpoiovTOS Tou Xdyov : C. 22, 13. 

9. 'Eyw . . . ov KaX?] : Isa. 65, 2. 

11. A'lTovcri p,e . . . Kpio-iv : Isa. 58, 2, cited as if in the same 
passage. Double accusative (inner and outer object). 
13. AvToi . . . IjxaTKrjiov [uov : Psa. 21, 16. 18. 
18. 4>a(rKovT(«)v [AT] eXvaL : C. 4, 18. 

10. 8iao-vpovT6s aviTov : A. has a familiar tone, used in the orators 
and often in late writers. See the clever tract of the Christian Lu- 
cian, Hermeias : Aiaavpi-ibQ rivv t^uj (piXoffocpixJv. We do not gain 
mucli by Clem. Alex. Paed. 1, 9,81 : Sidavpnlg tern xl/oyog ciaavpriKog. 

20. Kpivov "n|iiv : Not in our canonical Gospels. The reference 

is to Isa. 1. C. : alrovai /t£ vvv icpicii'. 

21. e|T]-yTi(ris . . . o-Tavpw(ravT€s . . . airdv : Comp. John 20,25; 
Matt. 27, 35. 

25. eirl XIovTiov IIiXdTov . . . aKTwv : On trri, see C. 13, 15. On 
the (spurious) Acts of Pilate, see Euseb. H. E. 1, 9. 3. 



1G8 NOTES. 

26. Kai oTi = Kal "iva fid^rjTE oti. — Ka0eo-0Tio-<J|i€vos : Add to 
Yeitcli, who cites only Acschin. 3, 1C7. On the participle, see c. 
33,1. So Dial. c. T. 49. 

21 , (l(Te\iv(r6\i€vo<s =^ iicnujv. — irpoe ir € <j>ir]T€VTO : The MSS. have 
irpoecpt'jTevTO, 

28. 2ocj)oviov: Zcphaniah. A lapse on the part of Justin. 

29. Xaipc . . . viro^v7iov : Zechar. 9, 9 ; Matt. 21, 5. 
32. viov : Not of animals in classic Greek. 

36. Prophets Eepresent Different Persons. 

1, is airb irpoo-wirov : Seems to be a later phrase. See Dial. c. T. 
25. 37. 42 ; Orig. c. Gels. 3, 1 : tK TrpomoTrov, Gonstt. Apostt. 5, 20. 

2, p.'T] • • • vo\ii(rf\Te : G. 15, 48. 

10. iSclv co-Tiv: "Eariv SO called for 'tt,e(TTiv, c. 12, 40. 

11. [iTj voi](ravT€s : G. 5, 9. 
13. 01)86 : So Thirlby for ovte. 

15. lo-Tavpwo-Sat : Inf after verb of showing. See c. 5, 10. — 
liKTovo-iv : G. 31, 15. 

37. The Father Speaks. 

3, oiSc ot X6701: The pronoun as regularly in classic Greek. 
3 See note on c. 47,/. — ''Eyvw . . . Kvpiov: Isa. 1, 3. 4. 

8. orav Xc'ytj : As the present is not generic, om XiysL would be 
correct, but the habit of using dv and the subj. with the tempor- 
al conjunctions is too strong for the Hellenist. So tdv w. subj. 
is found Avhere we should expect ei w. indicative. —diro tou ira- 
Tp6s=a7ro Tov TrpofTwTTou TOU TTUTpSg. In his last ed. Otto inserts 
rod TrpoaojTTov wdienever utto is thus used. 

0. IIoiov fJiot . . . Twv iroSwv (Jloi : Isa. G6, 1. 

11, Ta9 vovp.T)vias . . . x^'-P'^^ v\i.iay . . . 'AXXa . . . o"oi> : Isa. 1, 
11-15; 58,6.7. 

13, 6<j)0T]vai=:0a)/r/i'at : Hcnce the construction. Gomp. c. 27, 
18 and c. 50, 14. 

38. Ghrist Speaks. 
2. <t)0eY76Tai : ^^kyy^a^ai and cpioveTv are both ' utter,' but ^Bty- 
yecr^at ' to reach the ear,' (pioveiv ' to reach the mind.' See com- 
mentators on Od. 10, 229. — 'E^w . . . KaXfj : Isa. 65, 2. 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 39. ' 169 

5. Tov . . . 8iKaiiio-as |x£ : Isa. 50, 6-8. 

8. IvcTpdiTTiv : A favorite word in the LXX. 

9, ov |j,Tj al(rxvv9w: This emphatic form of the negative {ov /t/y) 
is far more common in the LXX and in the N. T. than it is in 
classic Greek. The tendency to exaggeration in the use of an 
adopted language is natural. For Hebrew analogies, see Ewald, 
Lehrbucli, S. 320, a. The fact is that ov /jh) with the aor. subj. 
(very seldom with any other tense) is used as a strong negation 
of the future. The common explanation is, that a verb or phrase 
of fear or apprehension is to be supplied. If this be true, the 
consciousness of it must have been utterly lost, as the expression 
is often used where the notion of fear or apprehension would be 
unnatural to the last degree. The practical limitation to the 
aorist seems to indicate that the expression was originally im- 
perative, (comp. the use of bx in Hebrew), oh being a free nega- 
tive. * Nay, let me not be ashamed,' Afterwards the im]3era- 
tive notion became fainter. It might seem easier to make ov be- 
long to alaxw^io^ thus combining objective and subjective nega- 
tives, but it must be remembered that oh with the subjunctive 
had died out (except in p) oh) before this construction came in. 

10, oTttv Xc'YTjmore Xsyti : Comp. Athenag. Suppl. 21, 90: orav 
. . . 6Svp7]Tai, Clem. Alex. Paed. 1, 5, 15 : orav pj (bis), 1, 7, 50 : 
orav X'iyy. 

11. Airol . . . xc^pas. 'Eycj . . . p,ov : Ps. 21, 16. 18; 3,5. On 
ahroi, see c. 33, 21. 

14, 'EXd\T]o-av . . . lavTov: Ps. 21, 7 sq. AaXeTv in classic 
Greek a familiar word, used seriously in later times. — Iv \d\i- 
o-iv : When the instrument is regarded as the seat of the power 
as well, Iv may be used in classic Gr,, but the very large use of 
it in the LXX is due to the attraction of the Hebrew. 

IS.^ATiva: The compound is used here with no special force. 
Notice ' which' in English, lequel in Fr., ogtiq in mod. Gr, 

IG. 2Tavp(o9€'vTos . . . lavxdv: Matt. 27, 39-43.— ,1,5: Is due to Ha- 
gen. Otto now reads "Anva . . . oti^ suggested by Thirlby's "A 

. . . OTl. 

39. The Spirit itself Speaks. 

1. \a\fj : C. 38, 14. 

2, 'Ek Yoip 2iwv . . . TToXeiJLciv : Isa, 2, 3. 4. 



170 NOTES. 

3. 65eXev<r€Tai=t^ft(Tj. 

4. Xa6v : C. 33, 23. 

0. ov (XT) XT]x|/ovTai— oy p] XdfSixjm. Qu f-ifi w. fut. iiid. is most fre- 
queutly used in tlic second jDerson as a strong imperative. Here 
it is employed as a strong prediction. The combination is com- 
monly explained as an interrogative, and ov is made to negative 
the /u;}. This theory of Elmsley\s would require ov — ov, as in 
Xen. Hell. 5, 2, 23. A more simple explanation regards ov and 
jui] as both belonging to the future (Goodwin). But satisfactory 
examples of the fut. ind. with fir) in an imperative sense are rare. 
Perhaps it may be best to consider ov as 'Nay !' (see note on c. 
38, 9), and fo) as an interrogative expecting a negative answer. 

7, |xa0«o-iv . . . iroXcixetv : When verbs of perception become 
verbs of creation (verbs of will and power), they take the inf. 
Tr. ' to,' ' how to.' So didd<TKeiv w. inf. c. 50, 34. 

8. on . . . 'jr€io'8Tivai : C 8, 8. 

*). 8€Ka8vo=oa»of/ca : LXX, N. T. Harnack (Ep. Barnab. 9, 3) 
exi)lains tlie absence of Paul on the ground of the typical char- 
acter of the number 12. Hardly necessary. 

10. Kal otiToi : liqye, ' and that.' — ISitGrai : ' Unprofessional 
men,' explained by \aXdv fi)) hivdj-uvoi, 'no rhetoricians.' On fii] 
see c. 5, 4. Otto cites Orig. c. Cels. 8, 47 : ov TriBavbv ovts. roiig 
'Irjffov dTTOCTToXovg, dvSpag dypaiif-idrovQ Kai idioJTaQ, aXX(^t» rivi TE^ap- 
pTjKkvai TvpoQ TO KciTayydXai Tolg dvBpioTroig rov XpKJTiavKTfiov y Ty 
Co^sicFfj avTo7g cwdfisi. 

12. 8i8a|ai: Free use of infinitivc={)to«|o^'rEf, c. 15, 24. 

13. aXXif]Xo({)6vTai : See c. 14, 15. A Justinian word. — iroXcjioG- 
(jicv Tovs Ix^poiJS : The ace. construction is chiefly later. 

14. i|/cv8eo-9ai : C. 8, 3. 

15. T|8ea)S : With diro^vrjaKOj-iEv. 
IG. Lvvarhv . . . ^v: C. 12, 40. 

17. 'H y\C>a-(r . . . dvwfjioTos : Eur. Hippol. 607. The editions 
have' o/tw^ox', //. Cicero's version (Off. 3, 29, 108) runs: luravi 
lingua, mentem iniuratam gero. One of the most notorious and 
best-abused verses in Greek scenic poetry. Comp. Ar. Ran. 102 al. 

18. FeXotov Tjv 8ti: ''Hi (V/, which some editors read for ?yc^//, is 
ungrammatical. The subj. can not be used to assert. ''Hr, 'it 
were,' as above. So also Otto, at last. 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 40, 171 

19. crvvTiGcjic'vovs Kai KaTaXcYOjicVovs : ' Who take the military 
oath {sacrameiitum) and are enrolled.' The editors quote Ter- 
tull. De Coron. 11 : Credimusne humanum sacramentum divino su- 
jperdnci licere et in alium dominum respondere post Christum et 
eierare 2'>cttre7n ac matrem et omnem jJTOximum^ quos et 
lex Tionorari et p>ost deuin diligi praecepit f Suet, Calig. 15 : De 
sororibus auctor fuit ut omnibus sacramentis adiceretur : Neque 
me liberosque meos cariores habeho qtiam Gaium et 
sorores. 

21. (ji,T]8ev a<f)8apTov: 'Although.'' Mnc'tv is normal, because it 
is in an infinitive sentence. 

23. epwvras : 'Enamored.' Comp. c. 1, 2. 

40. Adye]s^t of Christ Foretold. 

I. irepl Twv KTjpvldvTwv : Paul had set the example of taking 
these words in a mystic sense, as Grabe observes. Comp. Rom. 
10, 18. 

5. 'H}ji€'pa . . . 68(5v : Ps. 19, 2 foil. 

10. dYaXXido-exai : A favorite word in the LXX (— b^f), not 
used in classic Greek. See the definition of ayaWiatjig in Clem. 
Alex. Strom. 6, 12, 99. 

II. -yiYttS : Christ. See c. 54, 41 and D. c. T. 69. Comp. Am- 
brose : Procedit e tlmlamo siio, \ pudoris aula regia, geminae gig as 
substantiae, \ cdacris ut currat viam^ and Latin Hymns, p. 227, 
note. — ws 7i7as: Otto reads against the MSS,, laxvphg iog y., and 
comp. c. 54, 41. 

13. €xov . . . XcXoYio-jAcGa : The inf. tx^iv is not necessary. See 
c. 8, 1. — 6X0V . . . oIkciws: 'Appropriate.' "Exav w\ adverb orig- 
inally of condition, afterwards of character also. 

18. oTJveXcvo-iv: On this group, see cc. 26, 1 ; 43, 16. 

19. €K iravTos Yc'vovs : See C. 1, 5. 

21. ot Saijjiovcs : Supposed to be indicated in oi apxovTEQ below. 

22. o(rov: C. 4, 3. — eir' avrois : C. 8, 1. 

24. ixcrdvoiav : C. 28, 9.— irpiv lX0eiv : C. 4, 13. 

25. EipTjvToi: Sc. 01 Xoyot.— ovTws : See note on o'/^e, C 47, 4. — 
MaKdpios . . . avTov : Ps. 1 and 2. 

28. dXX' T] : The restrictive aXX // (which is used everywhere 
in prose) occurs after negative clauses or equivalents. Madvig 



172 NOTES. 

and others write dW y=d\\o !'/. This may have been the origin 
of the turn, but the consciousness of it is lost, as is shown by Pla- 
to, Pliaedo, 81 B: fujctv dXXo aXXy. Add I.e. 83 A; Apoh33 B; 
Dcm. [25, 68] ; and 87, 53. For later writers, see 2 Cor. 1, 13; 
Theoph. ad Autolyc. 2, 18, 24; Clem. Alex. Strom. 1, 19, 9G. 
'AXX' 7/ occurs frequently in the LXX; Winer says, 'bin und 
wiedcr.' 

o-« ^ ^ ' " f^ Oct no 

♦il« Tov Kapirov avTOu : ^j. o^, ^Z. 

33. wcrei : The consciousness of condition is lost. ' As it were.' 

ST.^IvaTi: The ellipsis yemjrai is commonly supplied. As 
the consciousness of ellipsis faded out, IvaTi was written as one 
word. Comp. drjXovoTi, ixr]56XwQ, c. 29, 8. In the Vulgate we find 
'iva Ti sometimes literally translated by ut quid, Ps. 10, 1 ; 84, 1. 
Sec Latin Hymns, p. 119: Ut quid, homo, extolleris? — l<j)pva|av: 
The active is confined to the LXX. 

38. Koivd : ' Strange things.' The ordinary reading is fcei/a, 
but Kaivd occurs in eight MSS. of the LXX. 

43. €K(jLVKTT]pi€i : A drastlc expression, which evidently belongs 
to popular speech. The simple nvKT)]piZeiv is repeatedly used in 
the LXX. The compound k/t. occurs also 2 K. 19, 21 ; Ps. 34, 
19. Clem. Rom. Ep. ad Cor. 1, 39 : x^ei'«?oi;(7/v ///to^ kuI fxvKrrjpi- 
^^ov (TL. — Iv opyfj . . . Ktti cv T<3 6v|ji.w : Greg. Naz, gives the familiar 
distinction : Bv fidg }ikv tanv d^pooQ K'^aig fpEvug, \ opyj) St B'vfibg 
ijijikviov. [Plato] Detf. 415 E: Bvnug op/^it] (iiaiog dvev XoyKyfxov, 
opyrj 7rapdicXt](Tig tou S^vfiiKOv elg to niKoptiaBai. 

47. TTpos ^c: The only common combination of a monosjdlabic 
preposition with the enclitic personal pronoun. 

48. AiTTio-ai: Seec. 15, 33. 

50. €v pdpSo) : 'Ev is a Hebraism. Comp. c. 38, 14. 

51. Pao-iXcis : The sign of the vocative, w, is not omitted in 
classical Greek prose except under especial pressure. — TraiScv- 
OtiTc: In this sense LXX, N. T., Patrcs. It is an intensification 
of the Greek Trawda as defined in [Plat.] Deff". 416 : Traiceia cvva- 

fXig BepUTTEVTlK)) xpvxijg- 

41. Crucifixion Foretold. 

4.*'Aio-aT€ . . . |0\ov : 1 Chron. 16, 23. 25-31 ; Ps. 96, 1. 2. 4-10. 
8. olvos: C. 13, 5. 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 42, 43. 173 

13. jXTj a-aXevQ-qru : Mi) witli the aor, imiDer. of the third person 
is much more common than the phraseology of some grammars 
woukl lead one to suppose. Notice the mass of aorists. 

14. 6 Kvpios . . . |v\ov : Justin charged the Jews with erasing 
this verse, Dial. c. T. 73. It does not appear either in the LXX 
or in the Hebrew. Comp. Ep. Barnab. 8 : ?) (SaaiXela rov 'iz/o-oD 
Itti t(^ ^vX(i)j and Fulgentius, in Vexilla Regis prodeunt (L. H. p. 
66) : Regndbit a ligno Dens. 

42. Past Tense for Future. 

1. TO, (xg'WovTa Yiv6cr8ai : C 19, 31. 

2. u»s tJSt] Yev6|Aeva : C. 4, 18. 

3. diroXoYiav : ' That the circumstances may afford no excuse ' 
for misinterpreting them (Trollope). 

5. irpoXcYci : The LXX often use an aorist where we translate 
the Hebrew by a future. The Hebrew has no future, no preter- 
ite in the strict sense, only a status actionis^ a tense of duration, 
a tense of attainment. 

6. €vaT€vio-aT6 : 'KT^vilit) is used only in late prose, and there 
very often. Notice the tendency to exaggeration. — twvoi: Hel- 
lenistic for v(j~). 

7. xi'^^ois Ktti TrevraKoo-iois : Of course a mistake. It is unneces- 
sary to try to save Justin. See note on c. 31, 11. - On the dative, 
see c. 27, 18. 

8. irplv^i: C.4, 13. 

9. Kat=:Ka('roi : Which Ashton desiderates. 
11. KaG'-fip-as: 'Our.' 

13. l-iriTois . . . KT]pvx6ei(riv : Familiar use of tiri w. dat. as the 
' ground of emotion.' 

43. Doctrine of Human Eesponsibility. 

1. TrpoXcXcyixevwv : More commonly, :rpoetjO?;jU£i^wr. 

2. Ka9' €l|iap|JLevTis avd7Kr]v : 'H elfxapfxsvrj COmmonly without a 
substantive ; f^ioTpa is usually supplied by the grammarians, t/fxspa 
w^ould also be natural. At any rate, the ellipsis with the femi- 
nine gender is often vague. Tatian (c. 8) is very severe on the 
ufxapiikin]^ for which see Diog. Laert. 7, 149. 

3. cK TOW irpociircTv TrpoeYvwcrp.eva : ' Because of the prediction 



174 NOTES. 

of tilings foreknown.' Observe that TrpoeyvioaiJiEva means both 
'foreknown' and 'foreordained.' 

4. 8ia\vo(jLcv : Rhetorical and lively use of the present for the 
future, perhaps too rhetorical and lively for Justin, who regular- 
ly uses the fut, which Otto has restored in his last ed. Comp. 
cc. 23, IG; 30,5; 42,4; 52, IG; 53,22; 54, IG; Gl, 2. For the 
word, see B 5, 4 : kuI tovto otaXi-o-w, Athenag. Suppl. 11, 47: 
Tuiv TovQ avWoyi<r/xovg dvakvovrojv Kai rag an(pij3o\iag S laXvovrcjv. 
— Tois TijJiwpias Kai TOis KoXaorei^ : See C. 3, 4. 

0. cKdcTTov : Thirlby's tKCKTrip would he more elegant. Notice 
the position, C. 44, 35 : kut' d^iav tmv irpa^fAov tKaarov dp,u-)^(.a^ai 
ktL — diro8i8oo'8ai . . . [laQovTe^^^oTi cnrocidovTai p.. 

7. Ktti a\T]9es diTo<|)aiv6}jLe9a : 'Having learned, we also maintain 
that it is true.' 

8. ovSe TO e<|)' T|(ji,iv cVtiv oXws : I have restored the normal ovck 
for the MSS. oi-re. A solitary olVe can be due only to anacolu- 
thon (want of sequence), which were unnatural here. On icp' 
t'lfiip, see c. 8, 1 ; explained by Trpoalpeaig tXevOepa below. With 
oXtjg comp. firjCoXiog, A 29, 10. 

9. TovSe Tiva . . . Kai TovSe : Instead of tuv f-Ctv . . . rhv ck : nvd 
serves to generalize. So Origen c. Cels. 1, 25 : rdh nvd ^ rdde; 
2, 18 : Tovde fxiv . . . roj^ce Se ; G, 53 : -dee juv . . . raoe c^e. Comj?. 
also B 7, 30. 

10. ovT cKcivos : So for the MS. ovb\ as above. 

11. TrpoaipeVet : Upoalpeirig is the antithesis of rb-dyo;, Isocr. 1, 
10. 

14. KaxopGoi Kai o-<|)d\X€Tai : Familiar opposites. Comp. Thuc. 
2, GO: TToXiv 6p^ovj.dvi]v . . . (y^aXXojxkvi]v. — ttjv (JLCxeXcvo-iv ttoioij- 
|icvov: The traditional transl., in contraria transire^ is incorrect. 
' Going after,' ' pursuing.' See c. 1, 9. M. not in Passow ; falsely 
transl. in Sophocles's Lex., ' persecution.' The group is late. See 
c. 2G, 1. 

16. r\ <J>avXov Tj o-TTovSaiov : C. 2, 4. 

18. ov8* ol (jiev ^<rav: "Av may be supplied from the foregoing- 
clause, or it may have dropped out after i](7av^ a common acci- 
dent. 

19. <|)avXwv : Otto now reads dya^utv kuI (pavXojp, which seems 
to be required by the context. 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 44. 175 

20. irpaTTOvo-av av a'Tro(t>aiv o i (leSa : The MSS. have a7TO(paiv6}ii~ 
^a. I have restored, with Sylburg, the optative to match ^6lai 
below, and inserted dv. See note on 1. 18. The unreal con- 
ditional sometimes runs into the ideal, c. 19, 2, — to TrpoeipTj}j.c'vov : 
C. 28. 

21. ovSeV lo-Tiv dp6Tii: Comp. Origen c. Cels. 4, 3: djoerf/r niv 
idv avkXyq to eKovaiov, avflXeg avriJQ Kai rrjv ohaiav. 

23. -nircp : C. 12, 38.-6 d\T,0^s Xdyos : C. 3, 4. 

24. €i}Aapfjie'vT]v . . . Tavxrjv : Taurijv attracted from tovto. See 
cc. 3, 8 ; 13, 5. The only inevitable fate is the due reward of 
those who choose the good and those who choose the evil. 

25. Tois ojjLoiws : Sc. tKXsYoixevoig. Sylb. and Ashton improve 
the position by reading buo'nog toIq. 

27. olov: 'As for instance.' — ^■r\hlv Swdjicva: C. 9, 4. Below, 
ov dvvdfievog. 

28. oviSe Yoip TJv . . . ov8' . . . krvyxo-viv : On the omission of 
av, see c. 12, 40. 

30. TOVTO yev6[i.€vo<i : Sc. dya^og. 
32. tTCpov Trap o: Comp. C. 19, 19. 

44. This Doctrine the Doctrine of the Prophets. 

2. Tw irpwTO) TrXao-OevTi avSpwirw: Adam is often called the 'pro- 
toplast.' Ambrose (L. H. p. 24) : AjJeriens paradisum \ quern 2'>ro- 
to2:)lastus clauserat. 

4. 'I8oi> . . . dvaeov: Deut. 30, 15. 19 (slightly altered). These 
are not the words of God to Adam, but the language of Moses 
to the Israelites. But Justin exj^lains with these w^ords the 
command given to Adam, Gen. 2, 16. 17 (Ashton). Near enough 
for Justin. 

6. «S diro ToO iraTpos : C. 37, 8. OttO reads wc «7r6 TrpoawTTOv r. tt. 

7. Aovo-ao-06 . . . IXdX-qcrc TavTa : Isa, 1, 16 foil. 

8. |xd9eT6 KaXov iroictv : C. 39, 7. 
16. ov \e7€i: 'Does not mean.' 

20. diraXXao-o-ovoTTis : 'Leaving off,' 'that leaves off' (intrans.). 

22. AiTia . . . dvaiTios : Plato, De Republ. 10, 617 E : quoted 
at every turn. See Lucian, Merc. Cond. s. f ; Max, Tyr. 41, 5 ; 
Clem. Alex. Paedag. 1, 8, 69 ; Strom. 5, 14, 137 ; Arnob. 2, 64. 

24. KalirdvTwv: Adeo omnibus. 

K 



176 ^•OTES. 

27. TCLs a4)op,uas: 'A^op////, 'the start,' often 'the capital.' A 
common notion that the Greeli poets and pliilosophers traded 
on borrowed capital. See c. 59. 

2t). o-Tre'pfJiaTa dXriGtias : On the doctrine of the Xoyog (nrspixa- 
TiKoij, see the Introd. xxxvii., and comp. B 13, 10. — eXcYxovrat 
. . . |XTj oiKpiPws voTio-avTcs : On the participle, see c. 3, 3. On the 
negative, c. 9, 4. 

30. avToi lavTois : The nom. or acc of the intensive {avrog) is 
often used Avith the reflexive Avhen there is special stress on the 
strangeness of the action. 

31, o 4>afjLev: Like the Latin quod dicimus of coincident action. 
'In that Ave say (in saying), we do not mean.' See Xen. Oec. 15, 
C ; An. 5, 5, 20. 22 ; G, 1, 29 ; Hier. 6, 12, and for tliis age, Clem. 
Rom. 2 Cor. 2, 2, 1. Davis's orf. is natural, but not necessar3^ 

35, Trap' avTwv ktI. : So the MSS. But I am unable to make 
any satisfactory sense out of the passage, nor are the emenda- 
tions proposed convincing. By reading with Maran avT(^^ trans- 
posing lAtXXovra, and beginning the apodosis with Kal rd Trap av- 
Tov, the difficulty would be relieved. Thus : S6yf.iaT0Q wrog irap' 
avTii) KOT a^'iav tmv Trpd^eojv iKaarov dfiu-^za^ai (on tlie fut., SCe C. 
2, 17) tCov di'BpioTrojv, Kcd ra Trap avrov kcit ci^'iav rCov Trpar-Ofdviov 
fisWovra cnravrrjcFEcrB^ai . . . TrpoXeyei. 'And as it is decreed 
with Him (in His high chancery) that He shall requite each 
man according to the desert of his actions, [so] He also fore- 
tells what is going to befall [them] from Him according to the 
desert of that which is done.' Tlie system of rewards and pun- 
ishments is fixed ; the rewards and punishments themselves are 
foretold, but the subjects are determined by men's own behavior. 
Otto reads Trap avroi', with which he connects fxeX\oi'-a. 

38. els lirio-Tao-iv: I have ventured to substitute this familiar 
word for tTriraaii', which is supposed to mean here liriTacjiv vov, 
animi aitentionem. Polybius uses tTriaratrig, 'pause,' 'consider- 
ation,' ' attention,' in such combinations as kTriaraffig kuI Becopia 
(G, 3, 4); d^iog £ TTicrracrE w g icai Z,i]Kov (11, 2, 4); dyi^iv Tiva etg 
tTTicTaaiv (9,22, 7; 10, 40, 4). Aristotle, Met. 13, 2, 13: t^" 
tTTJorao-iv, 'gives US pause,' 'excites attention.' So Justin him- 
self, Dial, c, T, 28 : d^ov iTviaTciaf. w g. This correction has been 
anticipated h\ Otto (187C). 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. V). 17t 

39. fAe'Xov kfrriv : C. 3, 4. Comp. Plat. Legg. 6, 766 C. 

41. Odvaros wpio-Sr] Kara twv . . . dvay. : Comp. c. 45, 17. Otto 
cites the law in lul. Paull. Senteiitt. receptt. lib. 5, tit. 21, u. 3: 
Qui de salute prlncipis tel de summa rei jnibllcae matliematicos, 
liariolos^ liaruspices^ vaticinatores consulit cum eo qui responderit 
capite punitur . . . Non tantum divinatione quis, sed ipsa scientia 
eiusque Uhris melius feccrit ahstinere. — To-Tao-irov : C. 20, 1. 

42. 2ij3vX\Tis: C. 20, 1. 

43. Sid. ToG <})6pov : Contrast ha rdv (p6l3ov, C. 29, 14. — cvtvyxo-- 
vovxas : C. 14, 2. 

44. avToTs: Ij^sis. 

45. KaTe'xwcriv : On the sequence, see c. 33, 8. 

47. Kai vjjtiv: See Athenag, Suppl. 9, 35. 

48. €udp€o-Ta: The contents, ra tvoi'Ta. — <j)avTi<r€(r?aL : On the 
inf., see c. 5, 11. — Kdv: C. 2, 8. 

49. KcpStjo-avxes co-d}A60a : This periphrastic form, fut. wdth aor. 
part., is not common in Attic. The notion of attainment is more 
clearly brought out than it can be by the fut. inch, which answers 
for continuance and attainment both. Hence, KaraKavuvTsg is 
perhaps better than KaraKeKovoreg in the disputed passage, Xen. 
An. 7, 0, 36, where coincident action would be more elegant. No 
such refinement, however, is to be admitted for a Hellenistic 
writer. Comp. c. 3, 4. 

45. Christ's Throning in Heaven Foretold. 

1. dvoYciv: So Thirlby. Comp. Dial. c. T. 32: kuI top Kvpiov 
TrdvTwv TraTipa dvdyovra avTov. The MSS. have dyayCiv. The 
aor. is rarely combined with jittXXw, c. 19, 31. Otto now returns 
to dyayCiv^ as e/'c tov ovpavov gives the upward motion, but comj^. 
c. 42, 13 : dvtK^u)V dg ovpavov. 

3. Karexeiv : ' Keep him ' there. Comp. 2 Thess. 2, 6. 7. — ews 
av TraTalT) : The subj. after the historical tense f/ifXXs is all the 
more natural, as the time is not yet. See c. 33, 8. On the tense 
c. 32, 3. 

6. |JiT)8eir« : Where we should expect in classic Greek ovciTru). 
— eKiTvpwo-iv: So Billius for the tTrtKi-iOwo-tj/, ' confirmation,' 'con- 
summation,' of the MSS. ; an almost certain emendation. See 
cc. 20, 12; 57,1; 60,23; B 7,12. 



178 NOTES. 

8, El-rrcv . . . iyivvy]a-a. <re : Ps. 109, 1-3. 

17. Ktti, Kaiircp : Kai inserted at Thirlby's suggestion. A more 
elegant writer than Justin would have omitted the Kai-n-ep, and 
trusted to the context for the adversative sense. See c. 7, 7.— 

Kara twv SiSao-KOVTWv : Comp. C. 44, 41. 

1 J), El 8e Kttl vjiels • . . €VT€v^c<r0£ : Kai with vfxug. Comp. c. 
2, 10. On the fut. ind., see c. 8, 17. 

20. Toio-Se Tois X^Yots : See c. 47, 4. — ov irXeov ti : Litotes. 

21. ws 'jrpo€(J)if]p.6v : C 2, 17. 

40. The Word in the World before Christ is Christ. 

1 . dXovio-TaivovTcs : A Justinian word. — airoTpoTniv : 'Perver- 
sion.' Thirlby proposes apaTpo7n)v, 'refutation.' 

2. TTpo Itwv cKarbv irevTiiKovTa : According to many, round num- 
bers, in wdiich Justin deals too largely. Some have seen in this 
passage the exact date of the Apolog}^, 147 A.D., Rome's ninth 
centennial, and the year of the promotion of M. Aurelius to be 
the colleague of Antoninus Pius. The combination 77,06 w. gen. 
for ' ago,' ' since,' is post-classic. 

3. yiyivvr\a-dai : T. depends on Xeyea', Xeyeiv on e'lmoat, for which 
see c. 12, o3. — cttI KvpTjviov : C. 13, 15. 

4. wTepov xpovois : ' Long afterward,' for xpovoig vGrspov (Otto). 

6. ws dv€v6TJvwv ovTwv ktI. : As if we said that all men who lived 
before his time were irresponsible. See c. 4, 18. 

7. 4)9do-avT€s . . . Xvo-o}ie0a: See note on c. 12, 38. Avaofxe^a 
for Xyo-w/ttS-a with Otto. See c. 43, 4 (note). 

8. clvai cStSaxS-nixcv : Elvai instead of on and finite verb. See 
c. 12, 7. — vpoe\ir]vva-a]i.ev . . . ovto : Mr]vvM as a verb of showing 
often takes the participle. 

10. 01 |A6Td XoYov Piw(ravT£s : Justin's liberality in this whole 
passage has given great offence to some, and has been elaborate- 
ly explained away by others. — Kav = K:£(. 

11. olov : C. 43, 27. — 2wKpdTTjs : Honorably mentioned above. 
— 'HpaKXciTos : Justin's evident admiration for Heraclitus is in 
striking contrast to the flii:)pancies of the time. Tatian does 
not share his master's respect for the great thinker. See Or. 
ad Gr. 3. 

12. €v PapPdpois: C. 5, 10. 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 47. 1/9 

13. 'Avavias Kal 'A^apia? Kal Mio-aTf]\ : Morc familiar as Sha- 
drach, Abeduego, and Mesliach, Dan. 1, 7 (the three holy chil- 
dren). Comp. Clem. Rom. 1 Ep. ad Cor. ], 45. 

11. KaraXe'-yciv: 'To go through the wliole list.'— p.aicpov : 'Te- 
dious.' 

15. elvai : Below, c. 47, 15, tTr/crrajuai takes oTi. See c. 5, 10.— 
irapaiTovjicJa : C. 2, 3. — irpoYcvojievoi : Before Christ. — "flo-xe . . . 
r\<Tav : C. 5, 8. 

18. Pi-ouvres : See C. 16,45. — Xpicrxiavoi . . . inrdpxovo-iv : Marau 
has toiled over this unguarded expression of Justin. 

ID. At' Tjv 8' aiTiav 8ia Swdp-cus : C. 23, 11. 

22. o-ravptoCeis airoQavuiv : Bead with Otto (1870) or, Kui UTroBa- 

vLov. Comp. c. 42, 12. — dv6\T]\veev : Notice the change of tense. 
The perfect of the resulting condition. 

23. TocroiJTftjv : Here, ' all' 

26. x<ia^r\<roY.iv : So with Otto for x^pn^^f^^^'i the imperative 
subjunctive. 

47. Desolation of Judea Predicted. 

3. ws oiiro Trpooruirov : C. 36, 1. 

4. Xawv: C. 33, 22. 

o. oiSc : In classic usage ovtoq ordinarily refers to M'hat goes 
before, '6Se to what follows. Justin uses ovtoq indifferently. But 
notice even for the classic time that this pair of contrasts is oft- 
en crossed by another. Ootoq is the pronoun of the second per- 
son, o^£ of the first; and again, first and second persons shift ac- 
cording to the point of view, as ijds r) x^'p, 'this hand of mine,'' 
avrt] }) xe'|0, 'this hand which I offer yoiC This extreme mobil- 
ity was supplemented by gesture. "O^e gives dramatic coloring 
to style. Notice the frequent use of it in the vivid narrative of 
Herodotus.— 'EYcviieTj . . . o-<f)d8pa: Isa. 64, 10-12. 

1). oTi TjpiiixwTo : No change is necessar3^ The pluperfect from 
the time of the proj^hecy. "On, see c, 8, 7. 

10. yevri cr e a-2ai : So I write for yeytrj'yo-^flt. Maran defends the 
perfect because a past tense Avas used in the prophecy. Comp. 
c. 42. 

12. TTcpl Tov fjLT] ciriTpainio-eo-8at : 'Concerning (the statement 
that) no one sliall be permitted,' etc. The fut. inf. with the ar- 



180 " NOTES. 

tide is always a substantivized oratio obliqiia in classic Greek. 
Conip, C. 10, 14. — ^T]8eva aviTuiv: Sc. tojv 'lovcaiojv. 

13. 'H 7T . . . avxTJ: Isa. 1, 7 ; Jer. 50, 3 (comp. 2, 15). 
1-i, <j)a70VTai: For ucvrai^ the classic fut. of ta^iw. 

15. "On 8£ <J)v\d<r<r£Tat ktI. : See TeituU. Apol. c. 21 ; Euscb. 
H. E. 4, G (Otto). 

16. oTTws (XTiScis . . . ve'vTiTai: C. 11, 7. On the aor. c. 4, 3. — 
edvaros . . . wpio-rai : Cc. 44, 17 ; 45,17. 

48. Predictions of Ciiiiist's Work and Death. 

2. 6 f|fi,ET6po$ XpL<rY6s : A favorite expression arising from tlic 
antagonism to the Jewish ideal of the Messiah. So often in the 
Dial, witli Trypho. 
* 8. Ttiv XcXeYiievuv : C 43, 1. 

4. Tfj irapovo-iq, . . . irepiiraTifjo-ovo-iv : Isa. 35, 4-6. Comp. Matt. 
11, 5. — rpavT] : A poetic word in the classic time, often used in 
Orig. c. Gels, 

7. "Oti t€ : On -f, see c. 21, 2G. 

8. 7evo;xevb)v aKTwv: "Aktojv is Casaubon's Convincing conject- 
ure for aiiTc^. See c. 35, 26. 

9. dvaip69T](r<5|Ji£vos : G. 46, 9. 

ll."I8e ... Ik tov ^e'crov : Isa. 57, 1 foil. 

14. Ktti €o-Tai Iv cipiivT)' T| Ta<{)Ti KT€. : Thls Is Justlu's punctu- 
ation. See Dial. c. T. cc. 97. 98. Commonly tv upi]V7j t) racpi] 

avroT) ' yprai (Otto). 

49. His Rejection by the Jews Foretold. 

1. Kai irdXiv : Sc. aKovcrarE (c. 48, 3). — oi ov '7rpo(r8oKT](rav7C5 : 
On the ncg. c. 14, 16. 

2. Xaoi Twv e3vwv: G. 33, 22. — TrpoarKvvT(](rov(riv avirov: G. 16, 
22. 

4. irapa-YcvdjJLCVov^^orai^ Trapaytvrjrai. 

5. u>S airb Trpotrwirov : G. 36, 1. — Elcri 8e ovTOi : G. 47, 4. 

(>, 'E(i4)avTjs . . . evavTiov (lov : Isa. 65, 1. 3. — evp4Qr\v tois (Jltj 
^TiTovo-iv : See c. 27, 18. This construction of the aor. pass, is not 
unwarranted" in classic prose. 

7. €3v6i oi: Construction according to the sense. 

11. 'Iov8atoi . . . c'xovTei: '■Although they had.' The parti- 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 50. 181 

ciple without the article is seldom equivalent to the simple 
identifying relative, but generally conveys a notion of cause, 
condition, opposition, or the like. See A 1, 7. 

13. irapa7€v6p.€vov : So I read with Sylburg, and connect with 
Tiyvorjaai^, as above. The MSS. have Trapayevtjcrofievovj which is 
awkward. — Trapcxpiio-avTo: Not an Attic word. ' Abused,' here 
=' maltreated.' Clem. Alex. Paed. 2, 1, 9 ; Constt. Apostt. 6, 10. 
Billius thinks that Justin uses it for Siexpn<^- 

14. p.ifi8eTroT6 |xif]8£V aKOVcravTCS^e/ kui fxrjdtv I'iKOVcrai'. 

15. H-e'xpis ov : C. 8, 19. 

18. d-iTETdlavTo : A late expression. — tw ouY^vviitw . . . dve'QTiKav: 
The Apostolic Constitutions give as the formula in the case of 
candidates for baptism (8, G) : kavTovQ t(^ iJ.6v(i> dyevvi)T(i) Bei^i ^id 
Tov XpitTTov aurou irapd^^a^E. See note on c. 14, 9. 

19. cavTovs dve8T)Kav: C. 14, 12. 

20. Xex^Tio-djJLCva: C. 33, 1. 

21. €i6v: Justin does not use the optative much in oratio obli- 
qua, and here, as in C. 26, 21, he treats it as a future. 

23. Ppaxt^eirws : A Justinian word, B 9, G. — Oval . . . ykvKv: 
Is:i. 5, 20. 

50. Christ's Humiliation Foretold. 

2. dTt}j.a(r9T]vai vTre'jicive : Comp. Ep. Barnab. 5, 1. 5. 6; Clem. 
Rom. 2 Ep. ad Cor. 1, 2 ; Dial. c. T. 121. 
4. 'Av&' wv . . . 6|i\do-€Tai: Isa. 53, 12. 
T.^ISe -yap auvr^o-ovo-i : Isa. 52, 13-15. 
8."OvTp(5irov: C.4, 22. 

10. Oaijudo-ovTai : Even with living beings the Attic inclines 
to the rule. See c. 3,4. 

11. ots=^oj)rot oIq. 

12. o\j/ovTai: Inserted by Otto upon Thirlby's suggestion. 
See the LXX and Justin himself. Dial. c. T. cc. 13. 118. 

13. Kvpie . . . TJp9Tj : Isa. 53, 1-8. 

15. ws TraiSiov : Justin understands this to refer to the subject 
of dvr]yyei\ai.isv. See Dial. c. T. 42. 

18. irapd Tovs dvOpwirovs : C. 19, 19. 

19. el8i>s <})6peiv : C. 26, 20, 

22. Air6s: C. 33,21. 



182 NOTES. 

24. iraiScia: Scc c. 40, 51. — clpt^vTis : The LXX and Justin (D. 
c. T. 13) add i/ixCjv. 

31, McToi . . . dircoTTio-av : Not SO the canonical Gospels 
(Otto). 

33. €K vcKpwv . . . 8i8dgovTos : Comp. Luke 24, 25 sq. 

34. 6<j)9cvTos avTois : C. 37, 13. 

35. irpoeipTjTo 7€VTjo-6}Jicva : For verbs of saying as verbs of shov;- 
ing with participle, see c. 33, 1. More natural would be wg y. — 
Kai . . . ISiSalav: Comp. Acts 1,8.9; 2,3, 

30. dv€px6|X€vov : Of actual perception, c. 19, 9. 

38. irdv yevos dvBpwirwv : C. 1, 5. 

39. 'irpo(n]yopevQ-(]a-av : The forms of this compound of ayoptvui 
are more freely admitted in all stages. See c. 3, 5. 

51. The Majesty of Christ. 

l.^Iva 8e |JLrivu(rT| : On the subj., see c. 33, 8. 

2. av6K8n77TjTov ... to ye'vos : Predicative position. 'Av. occurs 
2 Cor. 9, 15; Clem. Rom. 1 Ep. ad Cor. 20, 5; 49, 3; Athenag. 
Suppl. 10, 38; Thcophil. ad Autol. 1, 3. 

3. TV vcvciv . . . 'irop68<5eTi : Isa. 53, 8-12. 

4. "OTi=quod, as cc. 42, 6 ; 47, 1 ; 48, 1 ; 49, 19 ; 50, 1 (Otto). 

9. 8wT€ : Sc. avTov. The form Swrai = ^oBy, a monstrosity, is 
found in MSS. of the LXX. 

19. "Apare . . . BvvaT6<i : Ps. 23, 7. 8. 

24. T8ov . . . avTw: Daniel (not Jeremiah), 7, 13. Comp. Matt. 
25,31. 

52. Sure Word op Prophecy. 

On the subject of this chapter, comp. Ep. Barnab. 1, 6; The- 
ophil. ad Autol. 1, 14. 

1, d'7r68€iKvv|jL€v . . . TrpoKCKTjpvx^ai : C 30 foil. Otto now reads 
(iTreceiKwidev for the MS. uTTod. On the inf , see c. 3, 3. 

2. irplvri: C. 4, 13. 

4. irio-Tiv c'xeiv w? . , . Y€vt]o-ojJicvwv : C. 23, 12. 

5. "Ov -ydp Tpoirov : C. 4, 22. 
(J. Toi Xeiirovxa : C. 32, 30. 

7. dirio-TTiTai : The MSS. dTrKTTEirai. — diroPijcovTai : C. 3, 3. 

10. orav . . . oT€ : The former indefinite, the latter relative. 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 53. 183 

modifying orav. — oupavwv : C, 16, 32. — hcto, tt]s olyycXiktis avroO 
orxpaTids : See C. 6, 7. 

13. Tuv jiev d|t<ov : Sc, rd awi.iaTa^ dependent OU kvdv(TH. On 
the absolute use of d^i'wr, see c. 10, 9. 

15. irpoetp-qo-eTai yevT\(r6\i.eva : Participle for inf. See C. 50, 
35. 

16. 'EppeSr] : The usual form is tpprj^tj. 

17. SwaxGricreTai . . . atirw : Mixed. S. . . . ava^iojcovraf , Ezek. 
37, 7 foil. ; Kal irdif . . . avTc^^ Isa. 45, 23. Comp. Rom. 14, 11, 

20. Yevco-8ai fjie'XXovo-iv : On the aor., see c. 19, 31. Justin prob- 
ably wrote yei'i)(Te(T^ai. 

22. '0 o-kuXt]! avTwv . . . <rP€o-6i(]o-6Tai : Isa. 06, 24. Add (7/3. to 
Veitch, who cites this place for TravBt'iatrai (rare). The LXX 
have TeXevrt'jaei. 

23. t6t€ . . . oT€ : "Ore on account of the correlative. 

25. VSwo-i . . . irapa7€v6|j.€vov : Here of actual perception, burst- 
ing on the sight. 

27. 'EvTcXoOfjLoi . . . 6v€i8os: Mixed. Zech. 2, 6 (comp. Isa. 43, 
5. 6 and 11, 12) ; Zech. 12, 10-12 (comi^. Joel 2, 13) ; Isa. 63, 17; 
64,11. 

31 . ov (ATj (rxio'«(riv : C. 38, 9. 

32. K6v|/ovTai : The middle of a natural exi^ression of grief. See 
note on c. 14, 12. — ovj/ovrat els ov e|6KevTTi<rav : Remarkable coinci- 
dence with John 19, 37, variously interpreted by critics. The 
LXX have (Zech. 12, 10) : iTrifSXsxpovrai irpog fie, dvB' wv KUTiopxr)- 
aavTQ. 

53. Import A]s^CE of PiiopnECiES for Faith. 

1. IloXXas . . . KaicTcpas: IToXyc often an adjective in Greek; 
' many,' regularly a numeral in English. — cxovtcs : ' Althougli.' 

2. ciravo-diJicea : The margin has -n-avoi-uBa, unnecessarily. 
4. clvai Xo"Yio-d}X6voi : C. 2, 18. 

7. ovK diroSellai exo|ji.€v: Justin tlius retorts the charge of un- 
reasoning faith commonly brought against the Christians. See 
Origen c. Gels. 1, 9 and Keim, 1, c. 57, 3. 

8. T(5 aYCvvTJTo) 0€w: C. 14, 9. 

9. Tr]V KpiO-lV . . . TTOlllirCTOl : G. 1, 9. 

10. irpW^i: G.4, 13. 

K2 



184 NOTES. 

12. 6pu|ji€v : We should expect tiopw/xev (which Otto now ed- 
its), but Justin has got tlie thread of his long sentence tangled. 
— Tovs diro TravTog Y6vovs dv9puirovs : C. 1, 5. 

14. iraparnio-ajjicvovs : C. 2, 3. 

15. eSt]-. One of the MSS. has tBvr]. — avroi/s -fifids opwvrcs : 
'When we look at our own selves,' i.e., the Gentile Christians. 
TIic MSS. have iavrovg. The whole sentence from Tivi . . . eldo- 
TEQ is disjointed and confused. 

20. KCKX-nvrai: 'Have been called,' hence 'bear the name,' but 
there is no sharp distinction from icaXovvTai. 
23. Ev<{)pdv8T]Ti . . . Tov dv8pa : Isa. 54, 1. 

25. "Ep-njxa : Here=' ignorant.' 

26. x^ip'^*' cp7ois Xaxpevovras : 0. 16, 23. 

29. irapaYCvojicvov T|Yvdirjcrav : C. 49, 4. 

30. irpoelire . . . a-MBricrea-Bai : C. 12, 32. 
32. El |iTj . . . €Y€VT]0ri}i€v : Isa. 1, 9. 

34. laxopovvToi . . . YcvofJievat : C 50, 35. 

3G, |iT)8€vo9 . . . o-wScVtos : In classic jDrose ovcevog. 

38. GvYarepcs : Perhaps ai SrvyaTspsg. 

39. €pifip,ov Kal K€Kav}i.evT]v ovo-av: The perf part, is treated like 
an adjective. A more careful writer would have said L omav 

Kal K6C. 

40. 'Qm . . . irpo^YLvwo-KovTo ; 'Qc ' (to show) how,' as often in 
Greek. 

43. 'lo-parjX . . . dKpoPvo-Tiav : Not Isa. but Jer. 9, 26. 

44. 7r€i0w Kal irio-Tiv : Comp, C, 8, 6. 

45. virb iraOuJv : Familiar personification with v-rro. See E. ad 
D. 2,15. 

40. e|jL<|)opT](rat : Odd expression for t/xTroujcrai, the usual word 
(as Orig. c. Gels. 7, 35). 

54. How THE Myths of the Heathen Originated. 
Of the three things which Justin, in c. 23, had promised to 
prove, this is the third, that the fables of the poets were invent- 
ed for the purpose of turning men aside from the faith. 

3. ciri dirdTT] : 'Etti ' on the basis of,' hence ' with a view to.' 

4. €lpT)cr0ai diro8ciKvv)i.cv : C. 21, 30. 

o. AKovo-avTcs . . . KTjpv<r(rdjievov TropaYevT]o-d;ji€VOV : Awkward 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. oi. 185 

accumulation of participles. On ci/coi'w, see c. 11, 1. Kj/piWo-w 
construed like Trpoixipwio, c. 48, 9. So Dial. c. T. 43. 

8. TrpoePaXXovTo : C. 2G, 2. — Xex^TJvai ycvojievovs: So Maran, 
Braun, Otto, Trollope, for tlie A. Xeyoi^ievovg of the MSS. — vious 
T(S Alt: C. 21, G. 

9. 8vvt]creo-9ai : The mass of infinitives is inelegant. 'Thinking 
that they would be able to work men into the conviction that,' etc. 

10. ojAoia: For ufxo'noQ. The correction is due to Thirlby. 
With the thought comp. Orig. c. Gels. 3, 32. 

11. Kai Tavra 8e' : See c. 32, 45. 

12. oirov (idWov k'ny\K.ovov \ MdXXov belongs to TrKJTEvBrjdeaB'aij 
7rioT£i'3'//(7£tT3ai depends on TrpoKijpvaaovriou. 'Where they heard 
tlie prophets foretelling that Christ would be more readily be- 
lieved.' This notion that the demons overheard (Ltd'jkovov) the 
prophets is common enough in the Fathers, e. g. Tertull. Apol. 
22 (p. 72 D. S.) : Dispositiones Dei et tunc j^yoj^hetis concio7iantibus 
exceperunt [daemones]. 

15. ovK evdovv oiKpiPws : A familiar stroke of polemics. Lact. 
Inst. Div. 2, 14: Sciunt illl quidem futura midta, sed noii omnia, 
quippe qiiiljus pjenitus consilium dei scire non licet, et ideo solent re- 
sponsa in and)iguos exitus temperare (Semisch). 

16. TOV 1QjA€T€pOV XpKTTOV : C. 48, 2. 

17. ws 'irpoe<|)ifjji€v : C. 44. 

18. ws irpo€p.Tivvo"ajxev : C. 32. 

19. OvK €KX€i\J/€i . . . o-TacjjvXtjs : Gen. 49, 10. 

20. <S aTTOKCiTai : C. 32, 4. 

25. ovov: The MSS. have olvov, clearly a mistake for uvov, 
which Sylburg has restored. The ass figures largely in the 
Bacchic mysteries, for the same reason as the goat. Both are 
symbols of reproductive power. 

26. dva7pd(j)ov<n : 'Register,' 'set dow^n.' In the parallel pas- 
sage (Dial. c. T. 69) the verb is Tvapacpepcom, ' adduce.' 

28. et re : Not tWe, as there is no corresponding e'lre or ?/. See 
B 7, 33. Otto now edits elVe vwg tov ^eou 6 TrapayevijcSfievog ten 
fi dv^puTTov. Comp. 1. 34. 

30. dv6Xev<r€Tat:=:ay£i(Tt. 

31. |XTj iTricTTdixcvoi : Causal. See c. 5, 9. 

32. ovov TTwXov: A slip of Justin or of his LXX, probably his 



186 NOTES. 

own, as in Dial, c. T. 53 the words kuI rg tXiKi tov ttCjXov rtjg 
ovov avTov arc added. — o^wv co-Tai=:a?€i : See c. 19, 5. 

33, Ktti vlos : We should expect kuI d. 

34, WS Trpo£'<}>T]p.€V : C, 21. 

35, Ktti avTov : ' Likewise.' — k% dvGpoSirwv : So Otto for av^pMTrov^ 
in accordance with Justin's fixed usage. 

37, XcxSe'v: C. 11, 1, — 8ia irapOeVov Tex6ilo-€Tai : On the other 
hand, Ignat. Ep. ad Eph. 3 : tXa^e ruv dpxovra tov aiCJvog tovtov i) 
Trap^evia Mapiag Kal u roKETug avT)}Q Kal 6 Bdvarog tov Kvplov Kai 
Tpia fivfTTrjpia Kpavyijg iv yavxia ^eov tTrpax^U' 

38, 8t' kavrov : Of himself, and not riding on a horse as Perseus 
(Ashton), cc. 21, 13; 22, 16. 

40. TrpoXc'XeKTai : IMore USUal TTpoeiprjTai. 

41. 'lax^pbs KTc. : Ps. 19, 5. See c. 40, 11. 

42. cKircpivoo-Tiio-avTa : See note on c. 26, 14. 

43. 6fjia0ov '7rpo<|>ifjT€v6cvTa : Cc 3, 3 ; 19, 9. 

44. 'Ao-KXTim^v : C. 21, 9. 

55. The Cross. 
The fjinciful arguments of this chapter belong to the time, 
and are repeated and imitated by other Fathers. Maran re- 
minds us further that they might not be inept in a discussion 
against the heathen, who thought nothing more ignominious 
than the cross. 

1, eirt Tivos : C. 5, 1. 

2. TO <rTavp(«)9f|vai : C 3, 9. — ovi ■yap IvociTO avTois : See Ignat. 
1. c. : tXa^ev . . . 6 BdvaTog tov Kvpiov. On the construction, see 
0. 27, 18. 

5. TO (ie'vio-Tov : The article in the predicate with emphasis. 

0. vTrdpyei: C. 2, 10. 

8. crxiifjiaTos : ' Figure.' See c. 4, 28. — 8ioiK€iTai : It is not neces- 
sary to write ^to^»c£7cr^al. 'Is managed' means also 'is to be man- 
aged,' ' can 1)e managed.' 

0. ©aXaa-cra . . . YiYvovTai : Imitated by Minuc. Fel., Oct. 29. — 
V H^T • • • H-^ivT) : Mhnj woukl be more natural. Generic con- 
ditional, c. 2, 3. 

10. 'wrriov: Tcrtull. Adv. Marc. 3, 18 (Adv. Jud. 10): antenna 
(navis) . . . crucis pars est (Otto). 



THE FirwST APOLOGY. C. 56. 187 

12. pavavo-ovpYoi : Bcivavaog is one of the untranslatables. So- 
cially it would correspond to our 'stoker.' Justin combines 
(popriKU Kal [Sdvavaa. Dial. C. T. 3. — el \i.r\ : C. 10, 20. 

13. To 8e avepwTTCiov . . . lirovojid^eTC : Tertull. Ad Nat. 1, 12 
(Otto). 

14. Twv aXoY^v S«wv : Bracbylogy : r. a. Z.—roh r. d. I. 
19. Xlvevfia . . . Kvpios : Lam. 4, 20 (LXX). 

21. StiXot, Ta Tiv ptiliWwv: The MSS. have cn\oi . . . Xw- 
^i^v Kai rwy rpoTra/wr, with vi^i (by another hand) in the margin 
of Claromontanus. Otto says there is room for about five sylla- 
bles. Nolte says for four or five letters. Various suggestions 
have been made, all agreeing in restoring some form of the 
Greek transliteration of the Latin vexillum. The most simple is 
that recommended by Nolte : rd tCjv (Srj^iWujv. If Otto is right 
as to the space, read with him Xeyw dk tu tuiv ouij^iXXmv. 

23. 861KVVVT6S : Anacoluthon instead of deiKvvvTwv, as if he had 
written ci wv rug irpoocovQ TroteT^^e, a different state of things from 
c. 11, 5, whicli Otto cites. 

24. Kal Twv ktI. : Li^Dsius refers ItvI tovto^) t(^ axhf-iaTi to the fig- 
ure of a cross formed by tlie spears and standards on which the 
images of the emperors were elevated. Cavedoni thinks it evi- 
dent that Justin sees the figure of tlie cross in the pagan images 
of the deified emperors, who are often represented in the form 
of a man borne towards heaven by an eagle, or by the gen- 
ius of eternity, whose outspread wings form, as it were, the 
two arms of the cross, while the upright is represented by the 
body of the deified person and by that of the genius himself. 
(Otto.) 

27. o<rr\ Svvajiis : C 13, 5. 

28. oiSajiev . . . ovTcs : ' We know that we are,' c. 3, 3. — Xot- 

Tr6v : C. 3, 21.— Kav . . . Lttiirrr^r^ : C 2, 7. The MSS. have diri- 

CTE I re. 

56. The Demons still at Work. 

1. TipKeo-S-no-av . . . clireiv: A later construction. 

3. viovsTw Au: C. 21,6. 

4. oirws : ' How,' not ' that.' 

5. €v iravTi 7€V€i : C. 1, 5. 

7. ws irpo€8TiXw<ra|x€v : See c 26. 



188 NOTES. 

9. airaT«ji€Vovs e\ovai : "ExwzrK-arfcX^'^j ' keep.' 

10. KaiYap: EteuDn. — ws Trpoe4>Ti|i€v : C. 2G. 

11. Itti KXavSiou Kai<rapo9 : C. 13, 15. — tt]v Upav otJykXtjtov : C. 
1,4. 

12. KaTCTrXiilaTo : The middle in Polyb. 2, 52; 3, 89; Dion. 
Hal. 1,82. 

13. 0€os : Agreeing with 2//iwv according to the rule. Otto 
reads ^t6v on account of wc tovq uWovq ktL 

17. €1 Tis ciT] . . . KaT6xo|icvos : When the participle is used in 
the predicate, it becomes to a greater or less extent an adjective. 
Karexo/^ej^oc^/caroxoc. In later times, however, the periphrastic 
forms are loosely handled. See c. 19, 5, Notice the ideal pro- 
tasis with an apodosis such as is more commonly found after 
kcn>. 

18. KaC: With stress. 

19. Ka0aip'»io-aT€=fv-«3£Xer£. Veitcli gives no authority earlier 
than Polyaenus, a younger contemporary of Justin. 

57. The Demons Instigate Persecution. 

The connection of thought between this chapter and the last 
seems to be : The followers of Simon are to be turned from the 
error of their ways; and they may yet be turned, as the demons 
have not succeeded in abolishing the belief in tlie final confla- 
gration, wdiicli frightens men into right. 

I, jiT] Ycvc'<r8ai=/i// yevrjasaBai : M/y is common after verbs of be- 
lief, c. 8, 6. On the aor. instead of fut., see c. 12, 23. 

3. ovircp TpoTTov : C. 4, 22. — XaGciv . . . Trapa-ycvoiJicvov : C 35, 1. 
Aa^eTf depends on 7rpat,ai. 'As they have not availed to effect 
the concealment of Christ's advent, but are only able to make 
those who live irrationally kill us,' etc. 

4. CK61V0 p,6vov : Anticipates the infinitive clause. Comp. c. 
4,5. 

7. eXeovvres : On the synonj'm, see c. 15, 43. 

9. Tov TravTws airoOavciv 6(JLoXo'YO'0[i€VOv : C 11, 10. 

10. Kaivov : Otto comp. Eccl. 9, 1 : kuI ovk tariv Trav Trpoa^arov 
vTTo tI)v ')'j\wi'.—oXV Tj : C. 40, 27. 

II. 61 p.ev Kopos . . . ex^'-: I have written t'x^ * ^or i'xy. The 
conditional here is nearly causal. In Attic prose d is rarely 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 58. 189 

found -witli the subjunctive. Miv -uitli Thirlby for fit] : but d 
/.lev here stands in no clear contrast to Ei ds below. — Kav cvLav- 
tot) : ' Even in the course of a year.' But kuv (^kuI kv) Iviavro) 
Avould be more natural. 

13. irpocrexctv : C. 13, 22. — airio-Tovo-t jirjSev etvai: After negative 
verbs the negative result is often expressed by the negatived in- 
finitive. Disbelieving that anything is=believing that nothing 
is. This does not exclude the positive construction, as in Ath- 
cnag. Suppl. 12 : u7n(TTovf.ie^a B^eoaejSdv. 

14. €is avaia8T|<riav \<i}p€iv : C 18, 2. 

15. iraOwv : Thirlby notices the similarity to Plat. Apol. 41 D : 
dXXd fioi dtjXov tffTi TovTO oTi fjdrj TeBrvdvai kuI aTnjWdxSraL Trpayfid- 
T(i)v fSiXriov ijv fiOL ' did tovto . . . to7q Kara-iprj^Krafxepoig fxov kui toIq 
KaTi]y6poiQ ob Tvdvv xaX^Tra'ivio ' Ka'iTOi ov ravrij tjj diavo'u}. KaT£-\p7](pi- 
ZovTo i-iov Kal KaTii]y6povv dXX olufxevoi (iXdirrnv ri. A hton desid- 
erates ira^ojv n'cv^ but antithesis is often an after-thought. 

16. lavTOTJs: Expressed on account of the contrast with ijiiag. 
Otherwise : <pavXoi uvreg ^HKvvovaiv. 

17. ws dira\Xd|ovT€s : The notion of purpose in this familiar 
combination is a mere inference ; comp. c. 4, 19. 

58. Marcion Put Forward by the Demo2Is. 

1. Kal . . . 8€': C. 32,45.— 6s irp6e({>riU€V : 0.-26. 

5. KaraY-yeXXei : ' Proclaims.' Comp. c. 5, 33. — dWov . . . -irapd : 

A familiar construction. Plat. Theaet, 15G A : to ttuv KivnaiQ kcu 

dXXo Trapd tovto ovdev. See C. 19, 19. 

7. ws jJLovo) . . . e'7ri(rTa|J,€V{{) : C. 4, 19. 

8. ^jJLwv KaraYcXwaiv : C 4, 2G. — |ji.ir]SefJLiav . . . exovTcs : ' Al- 
though,' c. 7, 8. 

13. TT]s YTJs . . . eiraipco-Oai : It is not necessary to read with 
Sylburg d-n-o Tijg yiJQ or d-rralpecr^at^ as Otto has done in his last 
cd. The gen. is freely used as a whence-case in later Greek 
prose. Comp. Athenag. Suj^pl. 31, 155 : Trjg 'Ecpsffiajv TrSXecog rjXav- 
vsTo (comp, Eur. Med. 70); Resurr. 18, 84: ypTrjvTai Ttjg dvoiag; 
Clem. Alex. Paedag. 2, 9, 79 : dveyepTaov Tf]g KoiTrjg. 

16. vTr€KKpoiJovT€s : Only here. Literally, ' slyly tripping np.' 
Comj). Plat. Phaedr. 288 E: tKKtKpov Kag fxe IXTridog. — t]v [xtj 
. . . €\oia-iv : Generic, c. 2, G. 



190 NOTES. 

59. What Plato Owes to Moses. 

1 . \4yOfLtv . . . Tov \6yov : Atyof.i^v is used, as it were, paren- 
thetically, without influence on the construction, rov \6yov being 
in apposition. So often. Comp. Lat. dico, Maclvig, 219, Obs. 3. 

2. \a^6vra=uri tXafSe : C. 3, 3. 

3. TO elirciv : Exactly like a substantive, ' the saying.' But 
the article were better away. On the inf. Troujaai^ see c. 12, 23. 

4. oT-pexj/avTa : Sylburg (and Kaye) rpexpavra. Comp. c. 67,27. 

5. avTo\e|€t: C. 32, 2. — 8ia Muvaioiq : Plato's indebtedness to 
IMoses is a not unfamiliar theme. See Clem. Alex. Strom. 1, 22, 
150: Noi';U£vtot,' Se 6 Uv^ayopeiog (pi\u(TO(j)og dvriKpvg ypcKpet' t'l yap 
t(TTi JIXciTcov y Mu)v(T)]g ciTTiKiluiv. Couip. Protrept. G, 70 : TTO^EV, 
at HXdroJV, dXtjSreiav aiv'iTTy ; . . . vofiovQ tovq oaoi dXi]^elg kuI So^av 
Tt]V Tov ^eov Trap' avrutv McpkXijrrai tCjv 'E[3paiojv, and Orig. C. Cels. 6, 
19 : tyw Cf. ovK dTToyivtocTKU) rag aTro tov (^aicpov X^^fig arro Tivwv 
'Efipa'aov iLi^/ia^tjicoTa tov TlXaToiva ktL — tov irpoScS-qXtojievov irpwrov 
irpocj).: See cc. 31, 3G; 44,22. 

8. TTJV otpxTlv : C. 10, 8. 

1), 'Ev oipxf] . . . 67ev€To ovTcas : Gen. 1,1, sqq. 

13."^0"T6 . . . ljid6o|JI,6V : C. 5, 8. 

17.''Ep€Pos: It is barely possible that Justin may be alluding 
to the n'lj?, 'the evening,' of Gen. 1, 5 (Thirlby). But see Deut. 
32, 22, which Justin cites below. (Otto.) — Trapa tois xoirirats : 
Hesiod. Theog. 123 : t/c Xdeog e "Epefiog te {.dXaivd ts ISivt, ly'tvov- 
To. (Otto.) — elp-fjo-Sai . . . ol'8a(X€v : Inf instead of particij^le, c. 
5, 10. ' oi'oo^si/ (=l'(T/i£j/), rather rare ' (Veitch). See Index. 

GO. Plato and the Cross. 

1. Ttjiaiu: The Fathers delight in citing the Timaeus. — <|>va-i- 
oXo7ov|A€vov : 'The physiological discussion' (Trolloi3e). 'The 
disquisition on the nature of the Son of God.' 

2. oT€ \iyi\.: See c. 38, 10. The passage occurs Plat. Tim. 36 
B.C. — 'Extao-€v avTov ev tw iravTi : Plato is explaining the diffu- 
sion of the soul. 'The entire compound [of soul and body] was 
divided [by God] lengthways into two parts, which he joined 
together at the centre like the figure )( (XT), and bent them into 
an inner and outer circle, cutting one another at a point over 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. Gl. 191 

against the point of contact.' See Jowett's Introcl. to Plato's 
Timaeus (2, 465). 

4. dvaYeYpairxai : ' Stands recorded.' 

5. Kar' Ikcivo tov Kaipov : C 17, 3. 

9. Y€vo|i€VTjv: So for Xeyo/Ltli^z/v (Sylburg). 

11, IttI TTJ 0.710, crKT]vfj : The tabernacle Avas considered an im- 
age of the world (Maran). Justin's statement has no Scriptural 
warrant. — *Eav Trpoo-p\eTrT]T6 . . . awGiio-co-Sc : Numb. 21,8; comp. 
John 3, 14. 15. 

12. ev avTw: Shall we combine tv avn^ o•w^•»)(T€0■^e or 7r«0T€j;/yre 

tv auTt^ ? Tlie position in John makes for the latter, which I 
have put in the text against the tradition. 

14. ovTtos TrapeSwKtv. "A avaYvovs : So Thirlby for Oorojg tt. ai'ay- 

VOVQ. 

15. fiTj oiKpiPuis eirio-Tdjicvos : Causal, c. 5, 4. 

17. Kai TO €iir€iv : Sc. Trapa ^IwvatbiQ iXafi^v. Comj). 1. 3 and C. 
59,1. 

18. ws irpociTTOjJiev : In the last chapter. 

22. Td 8€ Tpira ircpi tov rpiTov : In Pseud. Plat. Ep. 2, 312 E : 
rpiTov TTtpi Til Tpira. It is hardly necessary to enter into the dis- 
cussion of this mystical passage. See the commentators on Ath- 
enag. Suppl. 23, 112, or Orig. c. Cels. 6, 18. 

23. eKirvpcDo-iv y€vri<Te<rdai : C. 20, 12. 

25. Karap-iio-CTai . . . kotw : Deut. 32, 22. 

28. Ilap' f||xiv: C. 8, 8. On the loftiness of Christian doc- 
trine amid the humility of its professors, see Athenag. Suppl. 
11,48. 

32. wi <ruv€ivai: C. 21, 24. 'So as [to make] one to under- 
stand,' ' so as to make it evident that these tilings have not 
been done by human wisdom, but are said by the power of 
God.' — ov o-o<|>ia : Ov, although in an infinitive complex, on ac- 
count of the contrast Math SwdpEi. See c. 14, 16. 

61. Christian Baptism. 

With this chapter begins the conclusion of the Apology — a 
locus classicus concerning baptism, the eucharist, and the meet- 
ings of the Christians. 

l.^Ov TpoTTov : C. 4, 22. — dveeiiKa}Ji€v lavTovs : Comp. C. 14, 12. — 



192 NOTES. 

'E0TJKajicv=t.2-f^<6r : Far less common in good times than tBfr}Kav:= 
t^eaav. On the reflexive, see c. 13, 7. 

3, irovTjpcvciv : The active is unknown to classic Greek. 

4. ireicrPuxn Kal iria-Tevoio-i : C. 8, G. 

(>, Piovv: C. 16, 45. — 8uvao-3ai viricrxvaivTai : Ycrbs of promising, 
considered as verbs of saying, take the fut. inf. ; as verbs of will, 
tlic}^ ma}' take the aor. and present. 

7, Twv 'TrpoT]}jLapTri|x6vwv : Baptism w\as supposed to wash away 
all sins previously committed ; hence it was often postponed in 
order to get a full score. See the famous passage in Augustin, 
Conf. 1, 11: Sine ilium faciat quod xult., nondmn hapihatus est. 
On the purification of baptism, comp. Clem, Alex. Paed. 1, C, 30 : 
iravra [xtv ovv cnroXovu^ie^a ra aj-iaprtJiJiaTaj ovk'cti ck tafiEv Trapd tto- 
cag KaKoi, and Constt. Apostt. 2, 7 : ov ■mcrTavoi-isi^ ovp, dStX^oi, Xov- 
aajxevov riva to tJjq ^w^t Xovrphv tri Trpdaaeiv tu tCjv di'ofttuv drreXyrj- 
fiara vrjcTsvovrec- Orabe cites Constt. Apostt. 7, 22 : Otto, Tertull. 
De Bapt. 20. 

9. cv8a : C. 32, 25. 

10. ov . . . dv€Y€vvTieTifi€v : Coguatc accusative. C. 18, 2, 

11. eir' ovojAaros ktI. : The importance of this early baptismal 
formula (Matt. 28, 19), evident in itself, has been much insisted 
on by theological writers. 

13. Trv6u;iaTos 0.710^ : The article omitted, because tt. «. may be 
considered a proper name. — Xovrpbv iroiovvTai^rzXovi^rai : C. 1, 9. 

14. Kal 7dp : C. 4, 12.— "Av fjiTj . . . ovpavwv : John 3, 3-5. Se- 
misch calls this citation a ' Sorgenstein ' to those who deny Jus- 
tin's acquaintance with the Gospel according to John. Add to 
the plentiful literature in Otto, Drummond, Theological Review, 
Oct. 1875 (quoted in Academy, Nov. 6, 1875). 

15. ov [XT] ticri\Qt]T€ : C. 38, 9. 

16. Kai dSvvaxov: ' Quite impossible.' 

17. 7€vo|jLevovs : 'Born.' The margin of one MS. has yevinjBiv- 
Tag, ' begotten ;' Otto, y^innofdrovg. The aorist is wanted. 

18. ws irpoc-ypdil/aucv : C 32, 45. 

19. d|jiapTTio-avT€s : Late for ufxaprovTsg, which is the rule even 
in the LXX. 

20. Aovo-ao-?e . . . ravra : Isa. 1, 16-20. 

27. Kal \6yov 8e': On Kal . . . d'-, see C. 44, 25. — \6yov . . . ToiJ- 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. Gl. 193 

Tov : ' As a reason — this,' not ' this reason,' rov X6yov tovtov. See 
c, 13, 7. On TOVTOV, not tovSs, see c. 47, 4. 

28. TTiv TTpuTTiv yiveaiv : Combine with yeyevvi'ii-aBa (cognate ac- 
cus.). So Otto, who compares c. G5, 5 : ottmq ti)v alixjviav (tujt)]- 
piav (Tw.S'w/tej/. In point is also the construction above : Tpoirov 
civayEvin'jcreujQ ov (=>)v dvaykvv't]<nv) dveyevi'r)Srr]i.iev. 

29. d"yyooi)vT63 Kar' dvaYKTjv : Balanced by /.n) dvdyKijg tskvu fitjSt 
dyvoiag (Otto). 

32. Trpoaipe'trews Kai €'iri<rT'q|xir]5 : C. 43, 1. 

33. dtj)€o-€a)5 T6 : On re, see c. 21, 26. — (nrep wv=w7r6p tuvtmv u. : 
but i'TTtp is better omitted, so as to make <Li':=uq (cogn. ace). 

34. cv Tw vSttTi eirovo|xd^6Tai : Comp. 1. 13 (Otto). 

35. 6iri Tois T|}jLopTT]}jLevois : Familiar use of t-n-i with dat. after 
verbs of emotion, 

37. eiriXc'-yovTos toO tov . . . cLyovtos: So Tliirlby for kwiXiyov- 
Teg tovtov . . . dyoi'Tsg. 

38. "OvojAtt ktI. : Justin flies off in the midst of his formula. — 
T<S dpp-i]Ta> Gew : Comp. Max. Tyr. 8, 10 : 'O fitv ydp Sredg 6 tCjv uvTiov 
7raT))p icai ctjfuovpyog, 6 irpeajivTzpog fiiv i)\iov, TrpeafSvTEpog oe oupa- 
vov, KptiTTiov Se xpovov Kai alujvog icai 7rd<n]g peovarig (pvaeiog, dvwvv- 
l-iog voiio^'cTaig Kai dppijTog tpujvy Kai dopaTog 6(pBa\ixo7g. — e\ei el- 
•n-eiv : C. 3, 5. — cl Se tis ToXjii^o-eicv eivat Xeyciv : ' If any one should 
dare to say that it is possible (dvat),'' namely, d-rrdv. On tcrTi in- 
stead of tt,e(TTi, see c. 12, 40. 

39. |Ji€[jnr]V€ : Differs little from ^i^}ir]vil)g dv djj, and in fact this 
form of the conditional (el with oj^t. in protasis, ind. in apodosis) 
is not very uncommon. See c. 3, 5. — tt)v dcrwrov naviav : The 
article of a familiar standard. See c. 18, 2. T/'/i', 'what is 
called.' 

40. (^■jiria-\i.6<i : 'Illumination,' often used as a synonym for 
baptism, although it was sometimes distinguished from it, as is 
shown by Clem. Alex. Paed. 1, G, 2G : /3«7rrt4'o/t€i^ot ^wrj^o/^e^a, 
(pujTi'CojJiEvoi. viOTTOLOi'iJie^a, inoTtoiovptvoi TsXsiov/^aBa, -sXsiovnevoi 
dTra^avaTiZofiE^a. In Quis dives salvabitur, 43 (cited in Euseb. 
H. E. 3, 24, p. 79 D. S.), Clement uses t(pu)Ti(Te in the popular sense. 
— w3 <j)WTi^o]jLevft)v : ' On the ground that.' 

41. Kat eir' dvo^iaxos 8c: As if he had said before tTr' dvtmaTog 
Toi' iraTpog. 



194 NOTES. 

42. eiri rEovTiov rTiXaTov : C. 13, 15. 

43. TTvcvjiaTos ayiov : Sc'C 1. 13, 

44. TO, Kara tov 'ItjotoOv : This use of Kara becomes more and 
more common. — 6 4)WTi^dfji€vos : The candidate. After baptism 
o ^lOTia^ficj o TrfcpujTKTfievog (Otto). 

45. Xoverai : Dainty editors would exclude the open form from 
Attic. 

02. Baptism Imitated by the Demons. 

2. KiK-t]pvy\Livov : C. 11, 1. — Ivt^pYTjo-av ; C. 5, 15. 

4. irpocrteVat avrois : C 16, 24, AvTolg ij^sis, the gods. — XoiPa^ 
Kal Kvio-as : 0. 24, 10. 

5. Tc'Xcov : ' Thoroughly,' often in Clem. Alex. Nt/cpoi dpa r k- 
Xeov ovreg, Pl'Otr. 3, 45 ; dya\/.idTiov reXeov KuxpuJv, 4, 51; tsX^ov 
vujSoi, 11, 115. Also E. ad D. 2, 26. — emovras : So Hagen and 
Otto (3) for diriovTag. 

6. Kai Yap : Here ' for also.' 

7. TO vTroXv€o-0ai ktc. : To with KeXeveaBai, On which vTroXvecr^ai 
depends. ' This matter of the worshippers' being ordered.' 
Comp. TertuU. Apol. 40: Nudii^edalia poimlo denuntiatis. — 
To"s lepois : See c, 3, 9. 'ETrilSaiveiv more commonly takes the 
genitive. — irpoo-iovras aiirots : The MSS. have simply rolg av- 
Tolc^ hardly correct, although it may be made to refer to the de- 
mons (Grabe). Various emendations have been proposed, such 
as ToiQ vadiQ (Sylb.) ; TO avTo or To7g ddvroig (Thirlb.) ; To7g tov- 
ovToig (Braun). I have ventured to write Trpoaiovrag avTolg. 
Comp. the preceding sentence. 

8. Tovs Gpifio-KcvovTas : See Ep. ad D. 1,4. 
10. Kar' cKCivo . . . tou Kaipov : C. 17, 3, 

12, iroiiJiaivovTos avroG : Free handling of the gen. absolute in- 
stead of TTotfiaivovTi agreeing with ai»r<^, fully justified by the 
necessity of the jiassage and by classical usage. Comp. c, 11, 3. 

13, appaPiKT] : So Justin s^Dells uniformly. — tou irpos fiTixpos 
0610V : ' His uncle on the mother's side.' One of Justin's not in- 
frequent slips. He is thinking of Jacob. 

14, 6 Tifxercpos Xpio-ros : C, 48, 2, 

15, 'YTToXvcrat . . . (XKovarov : Ex. 3, 5. 

17, dKT]K0€: We should exj^ect Tikovgs. See c. 33, 17. — KarcX- 
e€iv=:ori (^£1 KaTeXBaiv, on the principle that in oratio obliqua the 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 63. 195 

imperative is represented by the infinitive. The editors regard 
it as an aor. inf. for a future. 

21. €K T(Zv <ruYYpa}j.fjidTa)v cKeivov : The normal form would be 
Twu tKdvov, and Tojv may have been omitted, owing to the final 
-T(oi' of auyypafifidTujv. But comp. 0. 4, 34 : KCiKeivcov rd cJi^ay^ara, 
B. 6, G. 

63. God's Appearing to Moses. 

2. X€\a\i]Kevat=::ort XeXdXrjKE : C. 5, 10. 

3. ToC irpoixefjiTiv. irpoij). : Cc. 32. 33. 35. 37. 47. 53. 61. 

4. ws Trpo€7pd\j/a|X€v : C 37, 3. 

5. "Eyvw . . . cruvTjKe : Isa. 1, 3. 

7. Kal Ttjo-oOs 8e : C. 32, 45. So twice below. 
9. OvSeis e'YVft) ... 6 Ceos : Matt. 11, 27. Kcim with Otto thinks 
that Justin had John 16, 3 in mind as well. 

11. irpoe^Tip-cv : Cc. 21, 1 ; 22, 5 ; 23, 7 ; 32, 40. 

12. dirco-ToXos : See e. 12, 34. Comp. Ilebr. 3, 1. 

14. Kal avTos : i^t ij^se. — 'O efiou olkovwv . . . dTrotTTCiXavTcs JA* : 
Matt. 10, 40; Luke 10,6. 

17. Kal l\d\rjo-€ . . . Xadv (jiov : Ex. 3, 2. G. 10. 14. 15. 

21. el kKeivoiv^^riov (jvyypanjxdrioi'. 

22. dvavpdij/ai : Aorist on account of the negative. C. 4, 10. 

23. oiSe 01 \0701 : See c. 47, 4. 

25. cv ciKovi do-wfjidT«v : ' In the likeness of incorporeal beings ' 
(angels). It were more natural to read with Maran oo-wyuorf^j, es- 
pecially as we have dKovog daiofidTov below. 

26. vGv 8e: That is, in the Christian dispensation. 

28. ocra . . . 8iaTe8T]vat: Comp. C. 9, 9. ^iaTt^7]vai^=z7ra^{iv. 

29. Otxive? : C. 38, 15. 

31. 'Eycii . . . 'laKtip : Ex. 3, 2. 14, 15. 

35. 'Icrpa-riX . . . truvriKe: Isa. 1, 3. 

37. OvSels . . . diroKaXvil/T] : Matt. 11, 27. 

40. ovTos vlou ktI. : ' Whereas he was the Son of God.' 

42. eXe'YxovTat . . . ws . . . cYvwo-av : Familiar personal con- 
struction for £\£yx£''«i wf. 

44, <f)d(rK0VT€S etvai: C. 19, 18. — i\iyxovTa,\. [jliitc . . . liri(rTd(i£- 
voi : On the participle, see c. 3, 3 ; on the neg. c. 9, 4. 

46. OS X070S Kal Trp. : So Otto. The MSS. have oq Kal \6yoQ, 

49. Ttis vjjicTcpas apx^is : The Roman Empire. 



196 NOTES. 

50. ws irpoeiiroiJicv : C 23. — 8ia 7rap9evov : C 22, 15. 

52. €|ov9evTi9f]vat = t'iovhvu}^rivai : Oi'^^tv comes in with Aris- 
totle cand Theophrastus. 'F4ovdev6co (au) is more common even 
in the LXX. The whole group is late. — iva . . . viK-qoT): C. 33,8. 

54. 'Eyw . . . <rov : Ex. 3, 14. 

5G. Kttl onro6avdvTas : ' Though.' 

57. Xpio-To5 : Comp. Matt. 22, 32.— Kai vdp : C. 4, 12. 

58. irepi . . . Ir^T-qa-iv TJo^oXiiSTio-av : Uepi ti of acting and work- 
ing, TrefjL TivoQ of saying and thinking. 'AcrxoXeTa^at ir^pl n is 
common at this period (Plutarch, Luciau). Comp. Max. Tyr. 8, 
4 ; Clem. Alex. Paedag. 2, 1, 10. 

G4. Othep. Travesties of Scripture by the Demons. 

1. Kai ... 8s: C. 32, 35. — to dve7€ipeiv ktI. : 'And that the 
demons instig.ited the erection of the image.' — to ctSwXov ttjs Xe- 
YO}jL€VTis KopTis : Kore (Persephon6) is often associated with water. 
L-^he was playing with the daughters of Oceanus (Hymn, in Ce- 
Y2V. 5) when she w^as carried off by Pluto (Hades), and the Orphic 
poets transferred the scene from Enna to mid-ocean. Her moth- 
er, Demeter, w\is worshipped at fountains, and the Naiads are 
often attendants of the Twain Deities (rw S-fw). 

C. ws irpocYpdij/aiJicv : C. 59. — 'Ev dpxfj • . . iiSaTtcv : Gen. 1, 1. 

D, Xcx^evTos €iri<j)epo(X€vov : Otto noiD edits t7ri(p8pea^ai, and comp. 
c. 60, 22. But see c. 50, 35. For the thought Otto adduces Por- 
phyr. De Antro Nymph. 10 : Ni;/i0ac Se ^atSag Xsyoixev Kai rag rwv 
vSoLTiov TrpoearwaaQ dvvdjXEiQ , . . Sid tovto Xkym^ [Sov/^ieviog] Kai tuv 
7rpo(p{]Ti]v dpi]Kkvai l-rrKpfpecrSfai Ittcivoj tov vSciTog Beou 7ri'f(~/<«, 

10. T. K<Jp. Qvyaripa tov A. : By Styx, according to Apollod. 
Bibl. 1, 3. 

11. Kai tV 'AGiivav Se: C. 32, 35. See Hes. Theog. 889 sq.— 
irovqpcvop.evoi : See C. 61, 3. 

12. €vvoTi0evTa: ' Having conceived the idea.' 

15. irapacljepciv: 'Adduce;' perhaj)s, sneeringly, 'dish up.' 
Comp. Eur. I. A. 981 : ahxivof-iai Se Trapacpepova (as it were drag- 
gmg in) oiKTpovg \6yovg. 

65. Administration of the Sacraments. 

2. cruYKaTaTe9ci}tevov : C. 39, 19. A common word in Origen. 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 6ry. 197 

3. Koivas 6ux<*5 '• Specimens in Constt. Apostt. 8, 9 sqq. 

4. iroir\(T6\i€voi : C. 1, 9. — lavTwv=//yitwt' avroji' : C. 13, 7. — <}>'j)ti- 
o-3£'vTos : C. 61, 40. 

5. euTovws: Iiitento animo. Emphatic position of the adverb. 
Comp. Ep. Eccl. Vienn. ct Lugd. ap. Euscb. H. E. 5, 1, 41 : ha Ttjg 
fVTovov Trpoau'XHQ- — oirws Ka.Ta%iiaQZ\i^v^=^KaTa%n>j^i)vai: "Ottojq is 
sometimes used, like ut in Latin, after verbs of will and power 
(verbs of creation, auxiliary verbs), parallel with the inf. So iu 
classic authors; Isac. 7, 27 : diuKeXeveaSfai ottms . . . ; Lycurg. 127 : 
TrapciKeXevea^ai oirujg. The use of Vra with the subj. for an inf. is 
familiar to every student of the N. T, See Winer, § 44, 8. So 
Dial. c. T. 30 : alrovfiev 'iva . . . ; Athenag. Suppl. 37, 173 : thx6- 

l-it^a 11 a. . . . 

6. Tro\iT€VTat : A late word from TroXirevea^aL, in the sense of 
conducting one's self — a very common meaning in later Greek. 
Comp. Dial. c. T. 45. 

7. oTTws TTjv alwviov o-wTTjpittv cru9«p.6v : On the cognate accusa- 
tive, comp. c. 18, 2; on the article of the standard, c. 61, 39, 
Elsewhere Justin uses alojvla (fcm.), not usual in classic j^rose. 

8. 4>iX-n[x.aTi : This form of Christian salutation was confined 
to persons of the same sex. Doubtless misrepresented by the 
heathen. 

9. "ETTciTtt ktI. : Here we have an account of the first commun- 
ion, below of the Sunday communion (Augusti). — tw irpoco-TcaTi: 
JVbn tangenda vacla. Sec Harnack's note on Clem. Rom. 1 Ep. 
ad Cor. 1, 3. 

' 10. vSaros Kai Kpduaxos : Otto explains Kai as epexegetic et qul- 
dem; calix aquae et quid em vini aqua mixti. But Kpafia seems to 
be rather a jDopular synonym for wine. Comp. Plut. Mor. 140 F : 
i6<j~sp TO Kpcif-ia^ Ku'iTOi v^aTOQ fxeTEXov TrXsiovog, olvov KaXovfiev. 
On the Kpafia, see Clem. Alex. Paed. 1, 6, 47 ; 2, 2, 20. The three 
elements are mentioned by other Fathers (Otto). 
11, atvov Kai 8o|av : C. 41, 8. 

13. dvaireV-n-ci : Comp. c. 67, 15 and Orig. c. Cels. 5, 4. 7. 44 ; 8, 
34. 74. 

14. em iroXv : ' At length.' — iroicixat : C. 1, 9. 
16. yevoiTo : Our ' so be it.' 

20. Tois oil irapoio-iv : On the negative, see c. 4, 9. 



108 NOTES. 

66. The Eucharist. 

1, cuxapio'Tta : By metonymy. 

2, ncTQtrxciv : Aor. on account of negative. — l%6v Io-tiv : C. 3, 9. 

4. Xovo-a}JLev(i) to . . . Xovrpov : C 18, rj, 

5. Trape'SwKcv : C 4, 22. — Oi 7op ws koivov aprov ktI. : This pas- 
sage is a noted battle-field of the champions of transubstauti- 
ation, consubstantiation, and commemoration (Church of Rome, 
Lutherans, Zwinglians). 

7, ov Tpoirov: C 4, 22. 

9, e<rx6v: 'Took upon him.' Ingressivc aor. As the ingres- 
sive aorist is, naturally enough, most frequently found in denomi- 
native verbs, it is generally the first aorist. Still icxov is very 
common in this sense. — 8i' i.\)yj\% \6yiQv toC Trap' avrov : Commonly 
understood of the prayer or blessing pronounced by Christ at 
the time of instituting the Eucharist. The preposition Trojoa 
points to the -n-apaSoaig, ' the transmitted word of prayer,' now 
become a formula. Comp. c. 13, 4. 

10. <rdlpK€s: C. 26, 34. 

12. l8L8dxeri|xcv etvai : ' That.' C. 21, 30. 

13. onrop.vT]jjLov6vfxao-iv : See Introduction, xxxv. — a . . . cviayYc- 
Xia: Suspected by some of being a gloss. But, as Otto observes, 
this would involve a gloss in Dial. c. T. cc. 10. 100. 

15. TovTo TToiciTc ... TO aifid \i.ov : Luke 22, 19 ; Matt. 26, 26- 
28 ; Mark 14, 24. The order is changed, for which no subtle 
reason is to be sought. 

19. MtOpa: The sun-god of the Persians figures largely among 
the new deities of this epoch, having come into vogue under 
Hadrian. Hence Lucian (Deor. Concil. 9) says that he has not 
learned to talk Greek : o Mi^pi]^ tKuvog 6 Mtjdog 6 Tt)v Kavdw Kal 
n)v Tiapav ovdk kWi) v iZ, m v T7j (pcovij, ware ovdk i]V irpoTriy rig ^vv- 
iy)(n. Mithras was the god of Julian the Apostate. Tertull. 
(Praescrip. Haer. c. 40) seems to be the only other author to 
mention the use of bread in the Mithraic mysteries. 

67. First Day of the Week. 

1. Xoi'TTov: C. 3, 21. 

2. oi txovTcs : A common Greek phrase ' the well-to-do '=ot ev- 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. G7. 199 

TTopovvTeg below. Harnack (quoted by Otto) sees a reference to 
the dyaTrai. — rots X€nrop.€vots : ' Those who fall behind ' the oth- 
ers, ' those that lack.' Comp. Jas. 1,4: tv [.njcevi Xenrojxevoi: 
2,15: XeiTTo fxev I Ti]Q ifrjfiEpov Tpo(^i]Q. 

3. o-uvc<r|jL€v : 'We keep nj) familiar intercourse with one an- 
other.' 

4. 'Eiri irdo"L . . . 'irpo<r<j)€pd|jL€8a : C 13, 4. 

6. TTj ToO T|\iov XcYop-cvT] T||xcpa : Sunday. The date of the in- 
troduction (from Egypt ?) into Greece and Rome of the astro- 
nomical nomenclature of the days of the week is uncertain. 
Justin mentions Sunday and Saturday so familiarly that the 
terms must have been common in his time. On the nomencla- 
ture itself, see the locus classicus in Dio Cassius, 37, 18. 19 and 
Arago, Popular Astronomy, 2, 722 (Engl. Tr.). Well worth 
reading is the quaint chapter in Sir Thomas Browne's Vulgar 
Errors (Book 5, ch. 22). Mr. R. A. Proctor has recently treated 
the subject in the Contemporary Review for March, 1875 (Sat- 
urday and the Sabbath of the Jews), and in a popular lecture 
on astrology. He says: 'Dividing the day into twenty -four 
hours, and regarding these as ruled over in succession by the 
planets in the order of tlieir distances (according to the old sys- 
tem), viz., Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, Venus, Mercury, and 
the Moon, it will be found that if the first hour of one day be 
ruled by the Sun, the first hour of the next will be ruled by the 
Moon, the first hour of the next by Mars, of the next by Mercu- 
ry, the next by Jupiter, then Venus, and of the next by Saturn, 
and so to the Sun again. Hence the order of the seven days — 
the Sun's day {Solis dies), the Moon's day, Mars' day {Martis dies, 
Mardi), Mercury's day {Mercurii dies, Mercredi), Jove's day {Tovis 
dies, Jeudi), Venus's day {Veneris dies, Vendredi), and Saturn's 
day (Saturni dies), Saturday, or the Sabbath of the Jews, a day 
of rest with the Egyptians, because an unlucky day for any sort 
of work, as ruled over by the malefic planet Saturn.' See a criti- 
cism by W. R. Smith in Nature for March 11, 1875. It may be 
worth noticing that in the Mithraic mysteries the same order of 
the planets occurs reversed, Orig. c. Gels. 6, 22. On the TrXavrjrai 
SaifxoveQ, see Tatian ad Gr. 9 and comp. Clem. Alex. Protrept. 5, 66 : 
^evoKpdrrjg Kapx^J^oviog ovtoq sxtol Beovq roig TrXavrjrag aii'irreTai. 

L 



200 NOTES. 

7. crvveXcvo-ts : 0. 40, 18. 

8. Toi cnro}jLVT]}jiovev|xaTa ktI. : The reading oftliese Memoirs of 
the Apostles iu the Cliiirch of Justin's day is considered a 
weighty argument iu fiivor of their identity with our Gospels. 
As Irenaeus, Clement, and TertuUian quote our Gospels, the 
negative theory requires us to believe that in the short interval 
' an entire change of Gospels was made throughout all the differ- 
ent and distant provinces of the Roman empire at a time when 
concerted action through general councils was unknown, and 
that, too, in so silent a manner that no record of it remains in 
the history of the Church.' 

9. [ie'xpis cvx^'^Pli*- ' ^^ long as time permits' (Otto). The 
MSS. have iyxwjOtT, but in the matter of y and ei MSS. have little 
weight, and I have restored the normal subjunctive. See c. 8, 
19. On the omission of ar, see c. 35, 2. 

10. rov dvaYivwo-KovTos : The Hebrew ' reader,' avayvwarrjg, sur- 
vived in the Christian Church. 

11. 8ia X670V : Contrast to the dvdyvitjcns. 

13. 6v»xas TrejnrojJicv : So below, civaTrffx-n-ofiev. See C. 65, 13. — 
ws irpoe'cjjTijicv : C. 65. 

15, 6<n\ Svvajjiis: Cc 13, 5; 55, 27. Not 'with all his might,' 
but ' as ability is given him ' (Otto). Awarbg Xsyeij/ does not re- 
fer to power of lung. Otto comp. the eucharistic formula in 
Constt. Apostol. 8, 12 : Evxapif^Tov/xev aoi, B'ee iravToKpciTop^ ovx '6(tov 
ocpeiXojJiEV, ciW oaov SvvdfxeSra. 

19. Ot £viropovvT6s . . . YivcTat : Otto comp. c. 14, 14 and Ter- 
tull. Apol. 39. 

20. irpoaipco-iv . . . ttjv lavTov : This position (c. 6, 7) is espe- 
cially common with the possessives. So in Herodotus. 

21. diroTiOcTai : C. 18, 5. 

28. XcnroixcVois : As above, 1. 2. 

24. irapcTTiSiiiJiois . . . leVois: Hebr. 11, 13: Skvoi kui TrapEiri- 
dtjfioi elmv lirl rfjg yOc. — dirXws : 'In short.' Combined with 
cvvTofiioQ in Plut. Vit. p. 1015 E. A very common use, especially 
at this period. 

25. KTj8€p.wv -YiveTai: F. 'acts as.' — Tt)v . . . tov T|Xiov -qpepav : 

We might expect the dat. as above, but the ace. as the general 
advcrl^ial case may be used of the time when. Comp. crji-iepov, 



THE FIRST APOLOGY. C. 68. 201 

and even in classic Gr. Dem. 54, 10 : tKeivt]v Tt)v i<nr^pav, ' on and 
for that evening;' Herod. 8, 86 : Tavrrjv rt)v i)}ikpi)v. 

30. -HTis : C. 38, 15. 

32. aircp: C. 12, 38. — dveSwKajicv^^di'E^ojuei/. The third person 
plural of the first aor. is more common than the first person. 
The second aorist, however, is the rule in the plural — which 
Veitch does not seem to bring out distinctly. 

G8. Conclusion. 

1, \070v Kai aXriSeias cx€(r0ai : 'Accord with reason and truth.' 
A fiimiliar Platonic turn, as in De Rep. 9, 585 C : -n-payna dXrjBd- 
ag IxoiJ'evov. Comp. A thenag. Res. 1 , 1 . 

2. Tip,i]o-aT€ . . . KaTa<}>povi(ia-aTe : Come to a decision about it. 
See c. 10, G. 

4. Twv (XTiSev ktI. : C. 4, 9. 

5. IIpo\cYO(ji.€v : C. 14, 1. 

6. €iriPo'qo'0|j.€v : In Attic t7rif^or]a()i.u^a. 

7."0 <l)i\ov . . . Y€V€or9w: Otto comiD. Plat. Crito, 43 D; Apol. 
19 A; Phaedr. 24G D. 

0. 6XOVT6S : ' Although.' C. 7, 8.— iirairctv : C. 2, 12. 

11. Tjliwcrancv : Epistolary tense. 

12. TTjv 'irpoo'<j)oSvT]0"iv . . . 'ireiroii]|i.€6a : C. 1, 9. 

13. cttio-toXtjs : So for c'lTroaroXrjg, Euseb. H. E. 4, 8, who cites 
this passage. 

11. a\Ti0€V€iv . . . Yvwpi^TjTc: The sequence is regular, as the 
aorist is epistolary, hence=:f)resent, but comp. c. 33, 8. 

Resckipt of Hadkian. 

Justin presented to the Antonines a copy {avTiypa^ov) of Ha- 
drian's rescript in the original Latin. Eusebius, wiio cites this 
passage (1. c), has translated it into Greek. The Latin form is 
preserved by Rufinus, and has the place of honor in the editions 
of Otto and Trollope. The genuineness of this document has 
generally been conceded, but Overbeck (Studien, S. 137 fgg.) has 
recently revived Keim's objections. 

19. SepTjviov : Probably corrujit for ^epljvov. 

35. Poais : Refers to the j^opular cries, Christianos ad leonein, 
Tertull. Apol. 40 (p. 96 D. S.). 



THE SECOND APOLOGY. 



THE SECOND APOLOGY. 



According to Eusebius (H. E. 4, 16) the Second Apolo- 
gy was addressed to Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, 
and this is the opinion of many critics, including Semisch. 
In his last edition Otto has changed his mind, and sides 
with those who have followed the lead of Grabe, Pearson, 
Thirlby, and Neander, in assigning the Second Apology, 
as well as the First, to the reign of Antoninus Pius. 

Indeed, there are passages in the Apology itself which 
must be elaborately explained away, if the statement of 
Eusebius is to be defended. In the second chapter, a 
Christian, remonstrating against the sentence passed by 
Lollius Urbicus, the prefect of the city, cries: 'Thy judg- 
ment, Urbicus, does not become the pious Emperor, nor the 
philosopher, son of Caesar, nor the sacred senate.' And 
at the close Justin prays that the Emperors may give a de- 
cision worthy of their piety and their philosophy. Now, 
even if we do not accept Ueberweg's plausible conjecture 
(c. 2, 55), it certainly requires a strain to identify Marcus 
Aurelius with the pious Emperor — for Marcus was never 
called Plus in his lifetime (Aube) ; and the philosophy of 
Yerus, despite the official title, would hardly have been ap- 
pealed to by a man so much in earnest as was our Martyr. 
See Aube, 1. c. (pp. 66-7G), and notice among the recent 
adherents of the earlier date of this Apology, Overbeds, 
Studien, 1,S. 117. 



206 THE SECOND APOLOGY. 

ANALYSIS OF THE SECOND APOLOGY.* 

In tlie exordium of tlie Second AjDology Justin declares 
lliat wicked men and demons unite to murder tlie Chris- 
tians (c. 1); and to prove this lie adduces the account of 
three persons wlio a few days before had been punished — 
two of them with death — for confessing the name of 
Christ (c. 2). Indeed, Justin affirms that he himself ex- 
pects to suffer a like doom from the machinations of his 
enemy, Crescens, a Cynic philosopher, or rather philopso- 
pher (c. 3). 

The Gentiles, seeing the contempt of the Christians for 
death, would say: Why do you not put yourselves to 
death in order that you may go the more speedily to 
your God, instead of giving us the trouble of executing 
you ? Justin gives the reason why the Christians do not 
resort to suicide, and yet fearlessly confess Christ (c. 4). 
Why does God suffer you to be killed ? Justin answers 
this question, and defends tlie justice of God and the in- 
nocence of the brethren. 

I. He defends the justice of God. God gave the angels 
the care of mankind; but the angels fell from their first 
estate, and scattered the seeds of crime among men (c. 5). 
God's remedy for this was His Son, the Logos. How 
crushed the demons are before the Logos is shown by the 
fact that the Christians everywhere drive out demons by 
the name of Jesus Christ (c. 6). The world, then, is pre- 
served for the sake of the Christians, and the demons are 
not yet punished, but they will be sent into everlasting 
lire when the great conflagration takes place; a confla- 
gration, however, be it noted, which will not happen by 

* In tliis Analysis, as in tlie other, I fullou' Otto. 



ANALYSIS. 207 

fate, because fate leaves room neither for liberty nor for 
virtue (c. 1). 

II. He shows the innocence of the Christians from tlie 
persecutions themselves. 

1. If those have always been hateful to the demons, 
whosoever have had a glimmering of truth from the 
Spermatic Logos, how much more must the Christians be 
hated, who embrace the whole truth in the Incarnate 
Logos and foretell the eternal punishment that awaits 
the demons (c. 9). And the Christians are hated not only 
on this account, but also because Christ has enabled un- 
learned men to acquire the true doctrine, and to follow 
the course of life that proceeds from the true doctrine 
(c. 10). 

2. The sublime firmness of Christians under persecution 
shows that they have attained the true ideal of virtue 
(cll). 

3. Nothing is better suited than persecution to repel 
all suspicion of crime, for Christians would not meet death 
so readily if they lived as the heathen report them to 
live (c. 12). The Christian doctrine is fir above even the 
doctrine of Plato (c. 13). 

Finally, Justin asks the Emperors to give tlieir sanction 
to this memorial (c. 14), and to judge righteous judg- 
ment (e. 15). 

L2 



NOTES. 



AEYTEPA : Is not in the MSS. and is now omitted by Otto. 

Some of the older editors put this Apology before the longer 

document. That it 4s the later appears from Euseb. H. E. 4, 16, 

1 (D. S. p. 119), although he himself calls it irporkpa by a slip 

(Otto). 

1. Introduction. 

1, Kat TO, x^es T€ Kal irpw-qv: So I have written with Braun 
for ^f, wdiich Otto justifies (after Sylburg) on the ground of its 
abrupt vehemence. See my note on Persius, 3, 1, and comp. 
Xen. Oec. init. : "HKovaa dk ttots ktI. ; A^^ol. Socr. init. : SwKrparoyc: 
^t aliov fiot SokeX dvai ktI. Some commentators have seen in Sk 
iin intimation of a connection with the former Apology. For 
the very common phrase x^k re Kal 7rpqjr]v, see the Lexx. : x^k 
Kai TpiT7}v i'lfispav {-rrpb rrjQ Tpirijg t'ffjLspag) is the LXX equivalent 
for the Hebrew QVd^d Vl^Pi, heri et nudius tertius. Comp. 
Athenag. Suppl. 17, G8. 

2, OvpPiKov : Urbicus, consul (most probably twice) and pre- 
fect of the city under Antoninus Pius. Aube thinks that he 
died in office, Saint- J. p. 71. — (S 'P«[xaiot : This Apology, like the 
former, was addressed not only to the emperors, but to the Sen- 
ate and people of Rome (c. 14, 2 : rdlg dWoig). Otto. 

4. xnrep y\ |xwv : Others with the MSS. vfiuiv. In the choice be- 
tween t'jfiujv and vfiujv we must be guided by the sense. The 
transcribers often blunder. — onoioiraOwv : See c. 10, 26. 

6. <n5vTa|iv: So Sylburg. The MSS. have avva^iv. '2vvTa%iv 
7rou)(Ta(jBai:=z(rvvTd^ai. See A 1, 9. 

7, IlavTaxou ktI. : The sentence is extremely awkward, and it 
is not surprising that editors should have resorted to conjecture 
and lacuna. The two elements of opposition are the offended 



210 NOTES. 

connections of the Christians and the demons. ^hese are sepa- 
rated by a double parenthesis, which obscures the sense. The 
kernel of the sentence may be thus exj^ressed : iravraxov oq av 
auxppovi^Tjrai kut tXXEixpiv Ciu to ovajx^Ta^^Tov Kol oi (pavXoi Saifxoveg 
kx^paivovreg iifxiv /cat [KOKovg] ciKaardg virox^ipiovg txovTEQ fovevHv 
}llidg irapaaKtvaKovai. Incorrigible sinners infuriated by our re- 
bukes and evil spirits inflamed with hatred are our bitterest foes, 
and are endeavoring to compass our murder, wherein the demons 
are aided by the wicked judges whom they have at their beck. 

8. Kax €X\et\j/tv : ' By reason of a failure in duty.' 

9. x"P^5 Twv ireio-ScvTwv ktI. : Christians when rebuked take it 
patiently. 

11. o-uYY€vt] (T € <r0ai : So Otto for o-uyyai/ea^at, to match KoXacr^i;- 

12. \iyo^iv 8c Twv Ycvojic'vwv X. : See A 59, 1. 

14. Tous ToiovTovs: Such as Urbicus. The article points the 
reference. 

16. irapao-Kcva^ovo-iv : By means of others. The active is often 
used of subornation. 

2. Urbicus. 

1, rvvTj . . . TrpoorcTifi-qST] : This passage is cited by Euseb. H. 
E. 4, 17, 3 (p. 120, D. S.). AH between the words 'Ettei H tu tou 
X. diMy^ara tyvio and 1. 53, -Hpoaiovvjiiav ktL, is wanting in our 
MSS. of Justin, and has been supplied from Eusebius. — <rvve^iov 
=z(Tvvi'ij] : See A 16, 27. 

2. Kai aviTT] : ' Likewise.' 

4. <rw<|)pov6i:v ireiOtiv : A 8, 8. — to, SiSaYixara : Sc. tov XpiffTOv. 

5. dva<})cpovcra : ' Citing.' — rois ov cra)<J>p6v(«)S : On the neg. see A 
4, 17. — jicToi Xoyov 6p9ov : C. 7, 29 : kutu \6yov tov op^ov. In c. 9, 
19, Christ is the \6yoQ dpSrog (Otto). 

7. oo-cXvciais: A 4, 32. — dXXoTpiav . . . eiroiciTo: 'Alienated.' 

8. 7a|ieT-qv : In model Attic yaf.iETt) is treated chiefly as an ad- 
jective. It is not used simply as ' wife,' but with the force of 
' wedded wife.' 

10. iropovs . . . 7roieto-9ai=:7rOjO(Zf(T^at t A 1,9. 

12. €|€8v<r«ir€iTo : AvaojTreiv, in the sense of 'shaming one into 
measures,' 'urge,' is a common word in post -classic writers. 
On the imperf., see A 31, 14.— t«v avTTjs : See A 21, 28. 



THE SECOND APOLOGY. C. 2. 211 

13. <Ls . . . TJlovTos ^^Xfyovraii' wg ij^ei : A 4, 18. 

15. 'AXeldvSpetav: The naughtiness of Alexandria was pro- 
verbial. Halloix aptly quotes Quintil. Inst. Or. 1, 2, 7 : Gaude- 
mus si quid licentius dixerint^ veria ne Alexandrinis quidem 
'permittenda deliciis risu et osculo excipimus. See the famous 
letter of Hadrian in Vopiscus, Saturn. 8 : Genus Jiominum seditio- 
sissimum, vanissimum, inmriosissimum. It is often coupled with 
Antioch, both remarkable for the turbulence of the population, 
both of the greatest importance as early centres of Christianity. 
See Auson. Clar, Urb. 3. 

16. oTTws pLTj . . . YevTjTtti: On the sequence, see A 33, 8. 

18. ojioSiaiTos Kttl 6|i.6KoiTos : 'Sharing his bed and board.' 
For uixodiaiToc^ see A 14, 17. 

19. peirovSiov: The short u in Latin as well as the long is reg- 
ularly represented by ov. 

20. KttXos Ka.yaQ6<i: Often used in irony, as Andoc. 1, 133. — 
Sc'ov: 'Whereas.' C. 4, 22. 

21.€vx€pws: 'Lightly,' 'readily.' 

22. TovTwv jAe'v : Msv Without Ss, and without an equivalent of 
SL However, kuI avrov answers as an antithesis. 

23. irciravTo : The syllabic augment of the pluperfect is often 
omitted even in Attic. 

24-. ^r\ PovXoixc'vov: The subject of the genitive absolute is not 
unfrequcntly omitted. A 8, 5. But (SovXofiivov may depend on 
aTraXXayeicFrjg. Ste'phanus suggests /o) (SovXajuevov, more elegant, 
less Justinian. — KaxTiYopiav TrciroiiriTat : On tt., see A 1, 9. On 
the perf , A 33, 17 ; 62, 17. 

25. PipXiSiov: A 29, 6. 

26. dvaSe'SwKc : A 29, 7. We might expect the aor., which 
some MSS. and editors have, but the memorial is still of record. 

29. 8toiKTi(riv: Some read, after SioiKrjaiv, VTreax^ro. 

30. Trpo5 €K€ivTiv |iev : The antithesis is not expressed. 

31. €Ko\aa-aTo: The aor. middle is rather rare. Veitch cites 
Tliuc. G, 78 ; Plat, Menex. 240. KoXdaaia^e has been smuggled 
by some editors into Xen. An. 2, 5, 13. 

35. avTo TovTo jiovov: 'Only this and nothing more.' Comj:). 
Tertull. Apol. 2 (p. 29 D. S.) : Illud solum exspectatur^ covfessio 
nominis, non examinatio criminis. 



212 NOTES. 

37. aW oi)k: The Greek often says 'but not,' where we say 
' and not.' On the climax by litotes, see A 22, 10. 

38. cavTov ctvai X. : When the subject of the infinitive is tlie 
same as the subject of the leading verb, the reflexive is not ex- 
pressed except for especial reasons — which we arc not to hunt 
up in an author like Justin. 

41. cl €i7j : Optative in oratio obliqua, of which Justin has 
made little use. 

42. crvv€TricrTd|ji€vos : ^vvsidwg is far more common. Comp. c. 
4, 13: t'^ETaZojK^voi de ovk apvovfie^a did to (tvv err ictt aa^ ai kav- 
Tolg fir]dkv (pavXov. 

47. wv ovSev irpoo-co-Ti ktI. : Comp. a similar curt relative claus- 
ula, A 10, 25.— d\Ti0iv«3 : ' Genuine.' 

48. onraxeT]vaL : A 31, 26. 

50. irpbs Tov OvpP. : The person to whom discourse is ad- 
dressed is put in Trpog with accus. So regularly with tiTrup. 
The stress on the direction makes the difference from the dative. 
— Tis in aiTia; Tov tov ktI. : Variously written. Some read r/c 
>'/ airia tov . . . IkoXolctoj, and charge the anacoluthon to Justin, 
who is supposed to have finished the sentence as if he had be- 
gun with cid Tiva aiTuiv. Some editors mend Justin's grammar 
by writing the inf. KoXdaat : others put ci r]v for tov {t'iq r) aiTia 
ci i]v). Tov secms to he=zTivog (xdpiv). Otto comp. Dial. c. T. 
20 ; add Eur. Ion, 1360. On KoXdZeiv with gen., see Thuc. 2, 74 ; 
0, 38. I have added t6v, and consider tovtov tov dv^pmirov as 
resumptive. 

54. cvo-cpei KTc. : Comp. A 1, 11. Ueberweg (ap. Otton.) con- 
jectures EvaefSel AvToicpaT. (A. Pius) ovSe ^iXo(y6(p(i) (M. Aurcl.) ovU 
Kaiffapog TvaiSi (Verus). 

56. Kai OS : A remnant of Attic idiom. 

00. onnf]\Xdx6ai yivdjtTKbiv : TiviocTKio as a verb of thinking (yviojiTj, 
' opinion') takes the inf ; ' convinced that.' Euseb. has tTreiTrf. 
Gl. Twv oupavwv : Suspicious. Euseb. has t6v Sredv. 
C2. Kal . . . 8e': A 32, 45. 

3. Justin and Crescens. 
Maran was the first editor to jDut this chaj)ter here instead of 
between the end of c. 8 : 6 r'n-ihspoQ du^daicaXog, and the beginning 



THE SECOND APOLOGY. C. 3. 213 

of c. 9 : 'iva Ss fi)] TiQ Eirry. His reasons are : 1. This is the order 
ill which Eusebius (and Rufinus) found the chapters; 3. The 
subject fits in liere, and interrupts the discourse there. 

1. Kd7^ olv ktI. : Cited by Euseb. H. E. 4, IG, 3 (p. 119, D. S.). 
— TTpoo-SoKw . . . €TriPovX€v0T]vai : On the aor,, see A. 12, 23. 

2. luXo) e|nra7T]vat: 'To be fastened in the stocks.' Comp. 
Acts 16,24. Euseb. has tvrivayrivai. The translations 'impaled,' 
' crucified,' ' bastinadoed,' are less likely. Braun identifies the 
^uXou with the Kixpojv, for which see the lexicons. — koiv = ica/, 
which Euseb. has. See A 2, 7. 

3. Kpio-KcvTos : Crescens (pr. Cr5sc5ns). On r=:S, see A 4, 4. 
The uom, is KpiaKijg. So K\/;/t?/c = ClemSns. The e-sound has 
l)een lengthened by the durative group -ns, and finally absorbs 
then. So fo7'mosus, fr. f&)'monsus. Tatiau, Justin's disciple, has 
much harm to say of this person, ad Gr. 19 : Kpto-Kj^c ' ■ ■^' « Ivveotev- 
aag rtj fieyaXyj ttoXei, Trathpaardq, fitv Trcivrag V7repi]VsyLi:i>, (j)i\apyvpia 
Se TTcivv TrpoaixijQ iiv. Oavdrov de 6 KaraippovuJv ovrcog aurug (so I 
read for avrbv) ISediet tov ^dvarov cjg Kai 'lovarlvov, KaB'dTrsp kuI tfis, 
ojg KaK(ii Ti^ ^avdrq) 7repil3a\e7v Trpayi^iavEvaacr^ai ktL — (f>iXo\];6(|>ov : 
Coined for the occasion by Justin himself, Euseb. has a^iXoo-o- 
<pov. Only persons of delicate intellectual habit and feeble in- 
tellectual grasp will be shocked nowadays at Justin's levity in 
making a wretched pun at this momentous crisis. Comp. Plato, 
Pliaedo, 68 B : ovk dp' yv (pikoaocpog dXkd Tig (pikoaojjxaTog. 

4. o9 ye : A 13, 23. 

5. a nTj emo-TaTai : M/; is the negative of the characteristic 
relative (generic). — KaTa}iapTvpei : A 4, 25. — ws . . , ovtwv : A 4, 19. 

6. 'irpbs x*^P''*' ^°^^ T|8ov»]v: A 2, 12. 

7. EtT€ . . . T] €t: Want of concinnity for eiVe . . . £/Ve. EtVe 
. . . t'/re presents a matter of indifierence ; one horn of the di- 
lemma is as good as the other. 

8. evTvxwv : A 14, 3. — rots tov Xp. SiSdyiJiao-t : C. 2, 4. — Kaxarpe- 
X€i : So our 'run down,' A 4, 25 ; Clem. Alex. Paed. 1, 5, 20. 

9. ISiwTwv: ' Unphilosophical gentry,' A 39, 10, — ttoXv: Even 
more common than the more analogical ttoXX^ (dat. of measure), 
which Euseb. has. 

10. OVK lirio-TavTai : Above p) tTrhrarai. The negative often 
shifts according to the general principle laid down A 4, 9. 



214 NOTES. 

11. cvTvxwv (jLTj <rvvr\K€ : A 14, 3. — to . . . [iCYaXctov : ' Grandeur,' 
greatness that makes itself felt. Acts 3, 11 ; Luke 1, 49 ; Clem. 
Kom. 1 Ep, ad Cor. 26: to /.ley aXelov Tijg tTrayyeXiag cwtov. To 
. . . /.ifyaXuov, from 'Enseh. for Tir) . . . /leyaXeu^ of the MSS. 

14, eXdTTWv: 'Slave.' — irpoSevTa: So Euseb. The MSS. rrpOTU- 
Bivra. — Kal Yap: A 4, 12. 

15. €pwTi]o-avTa . . . 6p(i)Ti](r6i9 : A 18, 2. The order is : l3ov\o- 
/.lUL vjxcLQ aidevai TrpoBevra [.le kuI [.utBdv Kai tXey^ai on ktL. — iiaSciv 
=:'6ti tfia^ov : A 5, 11. 

IG. oTt . . . |xif]8ev eTTio-TaTai : A 24, 9. The regular (negative 
below. 

17. OTt aXTjBTJ Xe7w=tV' tiofyre on ci. X. : A common brachylogy. 
So Lys. 13, 81 : wg o' dXrj^Fj Xsyw, icaXei fioi Tovg /.laprvpag. — el (at) 
dvTiv€x6T]o-av : ' If they have not been reported to you.' — at koivw- 
viat Twv XoY^v^^ai KOivoXoylai: 'Debates.' 

18. 6Toi}jLos: Sc. aifii. We should hardly expect the omission, 
which is not very common in the first jjersou. — 1^' vfioiv: A 4, 12. 

19. Pao-iXiKov: Prov. 25, 2 : It is the honor of kings to find 
out a matter. Comp. A 14, 24. 

20. El Be Ktti eYvwo-Sirjo-av : Kai belongs more properly to al 
tpioniGHc. If it be taken with lyv., tr. 'actually.' — vjjtiv: A 27, 18. 

22. cl Kttl lirio-TaTai : Ko/, 'really.' More elegant would be 
tTrhrarai fxkv. — ov ToXijia : The condition is merely for form's sake, 
hence the negative oh. But, apart from that, when ixkv and ^k are 
both in the protasis of a conditional sentence, the condition con- 
sists in the incongruity of the two co-ordinates, and ov is regu- 
larly found when fact is contrasted with fancy. 

24. SciKvvTai: Sc. iov. — os Y« = ^ 1^, 22. — [iT]8e . . . ti|i^: Char- 
acteristic and causal. 

25. 'AXX' ovTt Y€: Plato, De Rep. 10, 595 C : dXX' ov yap irpo ys 
aXi]^dag Tip]Hog avl]p. — outi : By litotes (A 22, 10) Stronger than 
ohii'kv. 

20, KwiKw: There be Cynics and Cynics. The Cynic of Epic- 
tetus, Marcus Aurelius, and Maximus Tyrius was a very different 
person from the Cynic of Lucian and Justin Martyr. — d8id<}>opov 
TO Te'Xos : ' Indiflerence,' ' stable equilibrium.' Comp. Clem. Alex, 
btrom. 2, 129 : TtXog ovrog dvai t))v dc la^ o p i av i^>/, to Se dS id- 
^opov uTrXwg doidtpopov d-rroXuTTEi. Origen is sneering at phi- 



THE SECOND APOLOGY. C. 4. 215 

losopliers "Vvben he says, C. Cels. 4, 26 : oi raig %a/iairy7rai(: dd la- 
ipopiog irpodiovrtQ^ diddaKOVTSg de Kai )u>) Trdvrujg irapd to KaBijKOV 
(pet term in philosophy) tovto yivea^ai (comp. Athenag. Suppl. 
33, 159). — irpoGeiAcvw: 'Having set up for himself.' So Nolte, 
and after him Otto, for 7rpot^kvii>. Comp. Pint. Comp. Dion. 3 : 
[.lovog sva irpov^iTO (jkottuv t))v Tzdrpiov aTrodouvai 'Piof-iaioig tto- 
XiTeiav. 

4. Why Christians do not Kill Themselves. 

1. lavTovs: A 2, IG. — <|)ovcvo-avT€s : 'Kill and.'' In English we 
do not subordinate an imperative notion. 

2. tiStj : ' Forthwith.'— irapa t6v eccJv : A 8, 8. 

3. TTpdYjJLaTa |it] Trapc'xeTe : ' Don't trouble us ' with killing you. 
On Trapsx^iVi see A 3, 17. The editors cite by way of illustrating 
this common sneer, Tertull. ad Scap. 5 (D. S. p. 120) : Arrius An- 
toninus in Asia cum 2)C7'8equeretur, iastanter onmes illius cuitatis 
Christiani ante trihunalia eius se manu facta dbtulerunt ; turn ille, 
paucis dud iussis, reliquis ait : Jj dsiXoi, d BsXers dTro^vtjcTKHv, Kprj- 
[Lvovg T] fipoxovg tx^TS. 

5* ireiroi-qKevai . . . SeSiSaYjieda : Inf.=on, A 21, 30. 

6. aW TJ : A 40, 27.— 8ia TO dvOpwirciov yivo<s : See c. 5, 7 ; E. ad 
D. 10, 3.— xaipeiv T€ : A 22, 10. 

7, Trpoe'4)Tj}jL6v : Comp. A 10, 9. But unless the Second Apol- 
ogy was a mere appendix to the First, the emperors could hard- 
ly have been exj)ected to remember the passage. Thirlby sug- 
gests 7rpo<TSiX{](paixev (7rapHX{](pai.iev). 

9. El . . . <|)ov€v(ro|jL€v : 'If we are to,' A 8, 17. — tov jati yivvq- 
GTjvai: An obvious correction of Sylburg's for tov Kai. 

11. o<rov €<!>' f|[JLiv : A 40, 22. — evavriov ttj tov Gcov PovXfj : See 
c. 7. 

12. KOI avToC : A 54, 35. — ttoiovvtcs . . . irpdlwjicv : UpaTTit) is a 
narrower word than Trotw, and means originally 'to bring to 
pass,' ' to effect.' Comp. the restricted use of Trp/yo-o-w in Homer, 
rioioi as the more general term embraces 7rp«rrw, and may stand 
for it, as in Dem. 4, 5 : ob^iv dv wv vvv TrsTrohjKSv tTrpa^ev. Hence 
misapprehensions. Comp. Dem. 3, 15 and Westermaun on 18, 22. 

13. ovK dpvovjicSa: A 4, 24 ; 8, 2.— o-vvcirio-Tao-Oai : C. 2, 42. 

14. |xii8e'v: On account of the infinitive. A 2, 4. 



216 NOTES. 

15, <j)iXov: "Ov may have been dropped by reason of neighbor- 
liood, but Justin often omits copulative participles and infini- 
'tives. 

10. irpoX^vl/ews : A 2, 14, 

5. Why Men ahe in Trouble. The Evil Spirits. 

1, El Be Ttva vTTcXGoi . . . ktI. : Another common objection. 
Comp. Arnob. 2, 7G : Cio' 2^^i"secutlones j^atitw ^^er/j^^i vos tantas. 
Maran cites Clem. Alex. Strom. 4, 11, 82 ; Thirlby, Iren. adv. Haer. 
4, 34, 1 ; Otto, Min. Fel. Octav. 12 ; Cels. ap. Orig. 8, 69 ; Lactant. 
Institt, Div. 5, 21. 

4. SiaXvo-ft) : A 43, 4. 

5. TO, ovpdvia cTToixcia : ' The heavenly bodies,' as, for instance, 
Ep. ad D. 7. 

G. wpwv (icTaPoXds : So Thirlby for fiETajSoXcug. A 13, 10. 

7. TovT o IS vojAov : So Thirlby for toutov. — Kal avrd : ' Likewise.' 
A 54. 

8. i^aLverai ireiroitjKcis : A 12, 37. 

y. eiri TouTois €Ta|€ : See Athenag. Suppl. 24, 121. 

11. YwaiKcUv (jLi|€o-iv: The notion is familiar. Besides A 5, 6 
and Athenag. 1. c. comp. Tertull. Apol. 22 (p. 71 D. S.). For the 
plural ^iiiGiv^ see A 12, 30. 

12. Xoiirdv: A 3, 21. 

13. 8ia [laYiKojv Ypowjx'jv: Thirlby suggests arpotpCJv (comp. A 
14, G), but makes no change, nor is any change necessary. There 
is witchcraft enough in writing. Comp. the runes. Books of 
magic are mentioned Acts 19, 19. 

14. wv e'ir€4)epov: Thirlby restores wv, dropped on account of 
the last syllable in the preceding word. 

15. GiijjidTwv Kal 6v}j.ia|idTa)v : No superstition more common 
than this in the history of mankind. See Tylor, Primitive Culture. 

19. Tovs oiYYeXovs : Sc. tovq TrapajSarag (Ashton). 

22. Kttl TWV X6X06VTWV = KUL eiQ TOVQ VIOVQ tCjV \. '. ExtrCmcly 

awkward, but not to be rewritten on that account. 

24. dvTivcYKav : ' Referred.' — 'Ovop-art ktI. : In the First Apol- 
ogy Justin w^as more generous towards the demons (A 5, 11), and 
allowed them to choose their own names. The reason of the 
apparent inconsistency is that in the former passages he uses 



THE SECOJ^D APOLOGY. C. G. 217 

the word daiixov^g as equivalent to uyyEXoi, here the caij-ioveg are 
the sons of the uyyeXoi, and received their names from their jDar- 
euts. To this effect Thirlby. . 

G. Names of God and of Christ. 

1, GcTov: 'Given.' — ayevvriTia: A 14, 9.— ovTt : Caiisal. 

2. w Ycip av Kai ovofiaxi t i : I have restored ti. Such absorp- 
tions by a preceding syllable are very common (y/xiypa^la^ u-rrXo- 
ypcKpia). Tor by whatever name a thing is called, it has the 
giver older '=the giver of a name is older than the thing named. 
Ti of course includes tIq (Kaye's suggestion). Sylburg proposes 
o yap dv, Otto ovofui rt {cuicuiique enim nomen aliquod dicitur I). 

4. To Be irariip: 'The (expression )/«^7^e?'.' 

5. ovojjiaTa : The word uvo/^ia, which we translate ' name ' or 
' noun,' was at one j^eriod limited to the ' proper noun,' Kvpiov 
upofia, so called because it is the only 'name proper.' God has 
no such name. Comp. A 10, 7; 03, 1, and Grig. c. Gels. 1, 25: 
7] yap aopiGTiOQ ufioXoyovcri to kolvov oi'Ofia to 6 Beog /) Kai fieTO. Trpoa- 
2rfiK)]Q T})g o S)][j,iovpy6g tov Kocrfiov. Comp. 5, 35 : S/ci'.S'toTt yap to 
Trpoai]yopiKov tov Beov Kai AiyvTTTiaTi Kai Trdcry SiaXeKT(it y 'iKacTog tv- 
TeSrpaTTTai ovofid^iov, olix duapTrjcrSTai. 

0. Trpoo-p-no-cis : ' Appellations.' So also Plato. Upomjyopla is 
the grammatical term for a common noun or appellative. Comp. 
irpoaayopEviia below. — ^'O 8e vios ckcivov : Regularly 6 v'lhg 6 tKtiiwv. 
See A 62, 21. 

8. 7€vvw[A€vos : The Codex Claromontanus has yevufievog, and so 
Scaliger. A much discussed passage which I leave to profes- 
sional theologians. Semisch identifies cfwwv with the Xoyog tv- 
Sid^eTog^ yfvvibfiei'og witli the Xoyog wpocpopiKog. See Introduction, 
xxxix. — TTjv dpxiiv: A 10, 16. — cKxio-e Kai eKoo-jiTjo-e : The tempta- 
tion to read t'xptcre with Grabe is very strong. 

9. Kara to Kai \pl<ra.\.: So Scaliger for the KaTii to K^xpiu^ai 
{Kexp~i(y^ai) of the MSS. Such a shifting of the voice and the 
subject is extremely awkward, XpiaTog belonging to Ksxpt^trS-ae, tuv 
S-eoj/ to K0(Tix)](7ai. Still, Comp. Thuc. 6, 34 : TreiBecr^e ToXXa tg tuv 
TToXefiov iToijxdi^eiv Kai 7rapa(7T)]vai TvavTi ktL 

10. 8i' avToC : Comp. Hebr. 2, 10: At' oj' tu irdvTa Kai ^i ov to. 
TrdvTa. — Kai avTo : A 54, 35. 



218 NOTES. 

11. 8v Tpoirov: A 4, 22. 

12. €|x<|)vTos TTJ <()uo-€i Twv dvOpwiTwv So^a : See Tertull. Testimon. 
Anim. 2 (p. 18, D. S.) ; Apologet. c. 17 (p. 58, D. S.), which con- 
tains the famous words, testimonium animae naturaliter Chris- 
tianae. 

13. 'Itjo-ous ktI. : Comp. A 33, 21. Perhaps Justin, as other 
Fathers, associated the name with the Gr. laa^ai also (Otto). See 
c. 23, 18. 

14. KalyoLp: A4, 12. 

15. ws ■7rpoe4>T]|j.€v : A 23, 9, and G3, 20. 

IG. diroKVTjGcis : Not a chissic word, c. 46, 21. 

17, cirt KaTa\vo-€i: I have inserted liri with Perionius, but 
the simple dat. is not hopeless. ComiD. Thuc. 1, 123 (w^eX/^) ; 
3, 82 (ry tCjv IvavTiiov KaKwaei . . . TrXeove^ia) ; 6, 33 {^vmiaxiq). 
See Classen. For tTr/, see Index. — ws Kal vw: So with Otto for 
Kai vuv, Cjq having been absorbed by the preceding -wv. 

20. iiropKi^ovTcs ktI. : We should expect i^opKiCovT^g and l^op- 
KicTTwv, but kTTopKicrrai is found Dial. c. T. 85, and tTropKKrrijg is the 
word used in Constt. Apostt. 8, 26. The heathen had great re- 
spect for Christian magic. See Cels. ap. Orig. 6, 41 ; 8, 37. 

22. TWV aXXwv: Applies strictly to IwopKicrTutv alone, but see A 
6,4. 

24. Kal €Tt vZv IwvTai: Comp. Tertull. Apol. 23.27. 32. 37 (Otto). 
— KarapYovvTes : A favorite Pauline word, Rom. 3, 3 ; 4, 14 ; 7, 2. 
6 ; Gal. 3, 17 ; 5, 4. In the LXX only in Ezra. 

7. The World Preserved for the Sake of Christians. 

1, ciri|X€'vei . . . |XTj iroiTio-ai : A 28, 7. 

3. \vi\Keri wo-t: Annihilation not of being, but of power (Ash- 
ton). 

4. & YivwcTKct Kxe. : A difficult passage. ' As it stands, it must 
be construed thus : '6 (sc. r6 arr. riov Xp.) yivuxTKEL (sc. 6 ^eog) on 
(sc. TO (TTripi-ia T. Xp.) Iv rij <pvaH {^^Ttii Koa^ij)) airiov IcfTi (sC. tov au- 
Tov . . . 1. e. TOV ^Eov . . . i-i)) TTOiricfai ti)v crvyx- ical KUTaX. t. tt. ko- 
cfxov'' (Nolte). 'Which he knows to be the [only] thing in the 
world that is the cause [thereof].' The sense : ' Ye are the salt 
of the earth.' Comp. Ep. ad Diog. 6 : Xpianavoi KaTsxovm tuv k6- 
a^iov. otto understands ainov as=a/rioi/ too eh'ai. Braun takes 



THE SECOND APOLOGY. C. 7. 219 

a'lriov in the sense of ' guilty,' and translates : ^9;'()/;^6T seme)i 
Ghristianorum quod natura sua in culpa sive reum esse Intellegit, 
and comp. Eplir. 2, 3: kuI ?}juev reKva <pv<jEi opyijQ. This view 
needs no criticism. Thirlby and others consider the passage 
corrupt. For alnov Seegar suggests kpeTttov, Nolte to iutikov or 
TO SiaiTwv, VeUment conservatetir. "A^ioi^ would be easier and not 
unnatural. Comp. A 10, 9: lav d^iovg kavTovQ dei^cam. 

5. ovK av ov)8e: Subdivided (rather than repeated) negative. 
Notice that the first negative is very rarely followed immediate- 
ly by the second. 

6. €vcp7€i<r0ai : A 5, 15. 

8. dveS-qv : A 2G, 34. "Av may have been droj)ped, avsdijv av 
or TravT dv, though it is not necessary. 

9. jiTiSe'va : Where the earlier language would have used ovdeva. 
— dW Tj : A 40, 27. — Tov fiovov: We should expect fidvov t6v. 
Seel ill lustlno ferenda sunt eiusmodi peccata, non emendandct 
(Thirlby). 

10. N«€ . . . AcvKttXiwva: A familiar identification, first found 
in Philo. 

12. iKirvpwo-iv: Comp. A 20, 12. 

13. SrcoiKoi: The Christians regard the destruction of the 
world by fire as a merited punishment for sin, the Stoics as a 
natural consumption. 

14. KaO' ci[xap}JicvT]v : A 43, 2. 
16. irpoaipeo-tv ktI. : A 43, 14. 

21. |XTj voTi<ravT€s: Causal. 

22. 7iv£o-0ai enr€<j)iivavTo : A 20, 19. 'A. is treated regularly as 
a verb of saying. — avT€|oTj<riov : Comp. Tatian c. Gr. 11: tI hoi 
KaB' uixapnkvr]v aypvTrvdg cici (piXapyvpiav ; tI ds fioi KaB^' e'lfiapj-uvrjv 
TToWaKig opeyofievog, TroXXaKig d7ro2rvt](TKeig ; d7r62rvr](TKe r^ KoafKp, 
KfjSri T(p S'C^ • OVK iy^vojxt^ia Trpog to d7ro^vi)(rKUv, d.7ro!^vr](TKOixev dt 
iavTOvg. aTnoXeaev r'u-idg to avTe^ovaiov. See also Theojlhil. 
ad Autol. 2, 27. 

23. TT|v dpxiiv : A 10, 8. 

24. TTiv Tijiwpiav: ''The punishment' (due). 

25. KO|xi(rovTai : Attic KOfiiovvTai. So Justin elsewhere, e. g., 8, 
13. — Tcvvr\Tov: Otto now with Ashton, FevrjTov. See A 14, 9. 

27. €1 OVK ^v: The common reading requires i/v to be taken in 



220 NOTES. 

the sense of i^tjv, and the subject to be shifted in eZxe to /} <pv(ng. 
Tlie use of 7)1^ would better explain ovk in the protasis of a con- 
ditional sentence, ovk yv = aUvarov yv. If any change is to be 
made, I read with Thirlby d ou Kai, and do not accept, with Otto, 
liis alternative ei ovk dv. 

30. TaSc fx^v . . . TwvSc 8€ : A 43, 9. 

32. ws 8T]Xovo-0ai: A 21, 24. 

33. dpx«v Ktti do-«jj,dT(ov : Because they admit the necessity of 
fate and deny the existence of cicrwjuara, denying that the dpx"^ 
are oMnara (Asliton). — ovk €vo8ovv: More grammatically, p) evo- 
^ovvrag, fxr] on account of the inf A 2, 4, the particij^le on ac- 
count of the verb of showing, A 3, 3. — Eire ^dp . . . eo-n : Justin 
proceeds to draw the moral consequences of the Stoic tenets 
concerning (Ij fate, (2) the nature of God, 'Whether,' he says, 

' (1) they shall maintain that what is done by men is done in 
accordance with fate, or 
(2) that God is nothing but the shifting and ever-recurrent 
phenomena of the universe; 
then they will show 

(2) either that they have no conception of aught but per- 
ishable things, and no notion of God except as a being 
steeped — parts and whole — in all manner of wickedness 
(comp. c. 28, 15 : x^'P^'*' KaKia) ; 
(1) or that virtue and vice are nothing,' 

The conclusion is chiastically arranged. To the same effect 
Otto in his last ed. Maran makes Eire . . . yina^ai the prota- 
sis of the condition, and begins the apodosis with ^ firiUv (p)- 
(Tov(n understood), and inserts Kai For the sense of the jDassage, 
which certainly lacks clearness, comp. A 28, 13 foil. ; 43, 16 foil. 
— EiT€. . . Tj : A not uncommon irregularity. 

34. <|>Tio-ovo-i : See A 8, 17. — irpbs dvOpwirwv: A 2, 17. 

35. Trapd Tp€Tr6|ji.€va : So the Codex Claromontanus. The Re- 
gius has TrapaTpETToi-ieva. Ou this use of Trapa, see A 20, 9. 

36. Tj <|)0apT«v : I have inserted ?} before (pBaprdv, easily droj^ped 
after aei. 

37. avTov Tov Gcov ktI. : Supply KareiXijcpevai OUt of KaTctXijxpiv 
taxiiKkvai. On the usc of KaraXai-ifSdveiv with the Stoics, see 
Ueberweg, 1. c. 1, 192. 



THE SECOND APOLOGY. C. 8. 221 

8. The World Hates the Bearers of the Seed. 

1, Tovs airb twv SrwiKOiv 8e 807}!.: A 2G, 22. — kcIv : See A 

2,7. 

3. ol Troiir|Tai : See Max. Tyr. Diss. 10 : Tiveg an^ivov Trepl ^eoju 
^uXafSoVj TTOiTjTai ij (pikoao^oi; 

4. |xc}j,i(rT]<r8ai . . . oi8a}JLev : For ix^jxiarif-UvovQ 'ia/xev. 

5. 'HpoiKXeiTov : See A 46, 11. Heraclitus was not put to death, 
but died of his own treatment for dropsy. See Tat. ad Gr. 3. 
Athenag. (Suijpl. 31, 155) represents him as exiled from Ephe- 
sus. H. if not a ' Stoic,' was the spiritual ancestor of the Stoics. 
See Ueberweg, 1. c. 1, 42 : ' The Stoics reproduced the doctrine of 
Heraclitus.' — ws 'irpoe<|)i]}A6v : Not in this Apology, nor yet in the 
other. See note on c. 4, 7. Otto suggests tv toIq irpb I'lj-iujv or 
iv rolg Trpoyevontvoigj as opposcd to tv To7g Ka^' Tti/xag = tv Tolg vvv. 
— Movo-wviov : Doubtless the Musonius Rufus exiled (not put to 
death) by Nero on account of his freedom of speech, Tac. Ann. 
15, 71. Suidas makes the same mistake as Justin. 

6. Iv Tois Ka6' T|p.ds : ' Among the men of our time.' Ka^' yixag 
loosely used like vvv, A 29, 19. — lo-T]|jiava[ji,€v: The better form is 
i(Tr]iii)vaf.iEv : 'a less frequent than 7] in Attic, if correct ' (Veitcli). 
The reference is to c. 7, 17. 

7. Kolv 6Trwo-8TiiroT€ : 'No matter after what fashion.' Kdv sc. 

oTTwadfjTroTe (nrovdaCoJcnv. See A 2, 7. 

9. ct Tous ov : Ou has been inserted by Otto. It is indispensa- 
]jle. ' It is nothing strange if the demons, finding themselves 
convicted (eXeyxo/tej^ot), work to make those more hated who are 
striving to live (supply (nrovddKovTag f3iovv from the previous sen- 
tence) not according to a part of the Spermatic Word, but ac- 
cording to the knowledge of tlie whole Word, which is Christ,' 
o tcTTt being = tovt tan. — o-TrcpjjiaTiKou Xoyov : The term is bor- 
rowed from Stoic philosophy, but Justin has made a special ap- 
plication of it. Subsequent writers delight in using the figure. 
So, for instance, Origen c. Cels. 1, 4 : cib ovUv Sravixaarbv rov av- 
Tov ^edv uTTSp tdida^e did twv 7rpo(pr)TU)V Kai rod GojTijpog lyKare- 
(TTrap Ktv a I raig dTravnov dv^pujTTCJV ^vxciig. 

12. KoXacrtv Ktti Ti\iiii}piav : A 3, 4. 

13. KofjLio-ovTai : See c. 7, 25. 



222 NOTES. 

IG. ccrop-eVri? : As if he liad not written i.ie\\omijg before. A 
slip for t(T6o-3rt(. 

9. Eternal Punishment a Necessity of God's Existence. 

2. Kojxiroi KoX ^6^r]rpa : ' Idle noises and bugbears ' — Mumbo 
Jumbo. Comp. Tertull. Apol. 47 (p. 107, D. S.) : Si geliennam 
co7nmuiemiu\ quae est ignis arcani suUerraneus ad iKienam the- 
saurus, proinde decacliinnamur. — ^o^-fyrpa,: A 5, 7. See Keim, 
Celsus' Wahres Wort, S. 36, 1. 

3. KoXd£ovTai : A 3, 4. 
(>. Ppaxveirws : A 49, 23. 

7, ovTc €o-Tt Qt6<i'. We should expect oh^k. 

8. Ktti, ws 'irpoe<|)T)jA£v : I suspect a transposition of wc Trpok^tin^v 
Ktti. Comp. c, 7, 39. 

9, Ttiift)poG<riv : The middle is the usual form in this sense. 

10. €K€ivoi: Sc. 01 voixoBkrai. — Kai 6 avTwv iraTiip : God. For 
Ktti we should expect ovc. ' Since they are not unjust nor their 
Father in teaching them by the Word to act as he does, those 
who obey them are not unjust.' Braun would read avrovg. 

12. crvvTi9€>evoi : A 39, 19. 

13. Trpopd\T]Tai : 'Bring forward,' by w\ay of objection.— irap' 
ols |xe'v: A 24,12. 

14. TolSc KttXd : ' We should expect rd fikv k-aXd, or what would 
be more Justinian, Tace filv kuXci, c. 7, 80. The diversity of hu- 
man use and wont is proverbial. Comp. Find. fr. 200 : dXXo d' 
dXXoKTiv voixKTfia and Soph. O. C. 44 : dXXa d' dXXaxov KoXd. 

17. 8iaTd|a(r0ai : A 5, 10. 

19, 6p0bs Xovos : Comp. c. 2, 5. 'O opBog XoyoQ is not neces- 
sary. See note on ttvevhcl iiyiov, A 61, 43. 

21. wo-T€ p.01 . . . clpiicreTai: On fioi, see A 27, 18. 

22. elpii<r€Tai : Sylburg desiderates dpyjaB'io, but £lpt)<Terai is a 
semi-imperative. See A 5, 5, and add Eur. Hec. 826. 

10. Comparison of Christ with Socrates. 

1. McvaXcioTcpa : C. 3, 11. — dv0p«Treiov : Fem. Comp. dvBptj- 

TTIVOC^ A 11, 2. 

2. 8ia TO Xo-yiKov ktI. : So Otto, after Pcrionius, for Sid tovto. 
' On account of Christ, w^ho appeared for us, being the entire Lo- 



THE SECOND APOLOGY. C. 10. 223 

gos.' other manifestations are imperfect. To (in to X.) belongs 
to yEyovsvai ; XoyiKov to oXov, third attributive position. 

4. Ktti o-w(jia ktI. : Justin is a dichotoraist, that is, recognizes 
awfia and ^vx>) only. Hence Neander has suspected this passage 
of being an interpolation. But awj-ia and ^vxv may be consid- 
ered as designating the complete human nature of Christ, Xdyog 
as the expression of his divinity. In other words, in Christ the 
human and the divine combined to form a personal unity. See 
Otto, Zur Charakterik Justins, S. 15. 

G. Kara Xoyov |Ji,epo9 : Kara as in KaTO. /jLeTafSoXijv, A 20, 5. The 
sense seems to be : ' All that they said and invented well is due to 
a share of the Logos in the invention and consideration.' — Io-ti 
TTov-qQivTa: The periphrasis with the aor. participle is rare, c. 
44,49. 

7. aixois: A 27,18. 

8. Kai evavTia: Kai, 'actually.' 

9. oi TTpoYCYevTijicvoi : With Thirlby, for ol Trpoysypafifisvoi. 
Comp. A 46, 15. — Kara to dvSpwirivov : Formerly combined by 
Otto with oi Trpoy. ' After the manner of men,' ' by ordinary hu- 
man generation.' He now combines with TTEipa^kvTeg, and trans- 
lates hiimano modo. 

12. euTovwTcpos : A 65, 5. 

13. Kttl Yap . . . avTov: Kai belongs to avTov. See A 4, 12. — 
Kaiva SaijJidvia: A 5, 16. 

14. HT| TiYcicrSai : On the neg., see A 4, 18. 

15. 'O 8e SaijjLovas : Plato, De Republ. 2, 377 sqq. ; 10, 595 sqq. 
' He by casting out Homer and the other poets taught men to 
reject the evil demons,' etc. 'O ^k is Socrates as represented by 
Plato. This use of 6 ^e, referring to the subject of the preceding 
sentence, is irregular. Notice tlie coincidence in time of tK/3a- 
Xh)v and tSiSa^e. — Kai Tovs irp. : It were better to omit Kai or tovc 
(Maran). — irapaiTetcreai : A 2, 3. 

18. Qiov . . . Tou aYVwo-Tov : Acts 17, 23. — Xoyov t'nTi]0"€«s=\o- 
yiKrJQ ^riTijrreojg. 

19. Tov . . . ao-<J>a\es: Plat. Tim. 28 C. A favorite quotation 
with the Fathers, e. g., Orig. c, Cels. 7, 42. Justin cites with his 
usual looseness. In Plato we find: top ixev ovv 7roiiiTi)v koI Tva- 
Ttpa Tovde TOV iravTOQ evpsiv re epyov Kai evpovTa dg irdv- 

u 



224 NOTES. 

rac a^vvarov X e y € t j'. The variation is as great as in some of 
the citations from the Memoirs. 

21. 6 T|}ieTepos Xpi<rT<5s : A 48, 3. 

22. £ir6io-0Ti: For tTriffrev^ii of the MSS. (Sylburg). 

25. €v TTovTi : UavTi is masculine (Otto). 

26. 6(jioioTra0o(!s : C 1, 4. The word occurs also Acts 14, 15; 
Jas. 0, 17. 

27. oi) <|5iX6o-o(|)oi ovSe <j)i\o\oYot: So Plato combines 6 ^i\6ao(}>6Q 
TE Kai 6 (piXoXoyog. (^iXoXoyog has as wide a range as Xoyog. Comp. 
Dial. C. Tr. 3: ^iXoXoyi^re di'VTLKojTard tcm ra roidce %WjOta . . . 
^ iXoXoy og ovv Tig el cu, t^?;, ^iXepydg Se ov^af.ia>g ov^e <piXaXT]^r]g, 
ovdk TTf jjO^ TrpuKTiKog dvai fiaXXov rj (TotpKTTijg. 

28. ISiwrai: A 39,10. 

30. Svvajiis eo-Tt : Sc. 6 Xpifrrog or rd XpLarov. Comp. 1 Cor. 1, 
24: Xpiarov Bhov ^vvaj-iiv kuI ^(.ov (ro^i'av, and Ep. ad Diogn. 7, 
82 : TavTa dv^pMTTOV ov doKH rd tpya, ravra dvvafiig 1(tti ^eov. 

31. KaracTKevn : Enunclatio palmaris of Pearson for rd Gicwr]. 
Comj^. Dial, c. Tr. 58 : KaraaKevij Xoyov. 

11. How CiiiiisTiANs Regard Death. 

1, OvK av Sg ov8e: Comp. c. 7, 5. 

8. TravTi ktI. : The rhythm is reminiscential ; SravsTi' for d-n-oBa- 
vCiv is poetic or late in Attic. Comp. Eurip. Ale. 419 : wg -n-dcFiv 
ijixiv KaT^aveiv ocpeiXeTai. Justin may have written Ka-^avelv as 
a quotation. Comp. oXsaai, A 25, 12. In his last ed. Otto makes 
the same suggestion, and cites further, Eur. Ale. 782 ; Audrom. 
1272; Aegei fragm. ap. Stob. Flor. 98, 8. 

5. TO S€vo<|)uvT€iov : So I acccut with Gottling, and so does 
Otto 7101C. The famous passage occurs in Xen. Mem, 2, 1, 21 foil. 
The apologue is attributed by Xenophon himself to the sophist 
Prodicus. Since well worn. See Cic. Off. 1, 32, with the com- 
mentators. The student will of course compare Justin with his 
original. I subjoin the less accessible version of Max, Tyr. Diss. 
20, an important author for this period: UpodiKog iCtv 'RpuKXha 
uySL tv Tci) fiv^(}) dpri I'llSdaKOvra icai dvSpi^of.isvov tTrl CiTTug odovg, 
AptTr}V Kai 'HSoviiv tTriarqaag iiyE/novag tKarsp^ ry ud<^ ' y p.ev avr(^ 
colSapd Tu)V r'ly^fiovdov, r) Se eucrx'Z/juwv Ideiv, jSadt'Covaa yjpefxa, (pB'syyo- 
ficV)) fiovciKuJg, (SXefifia rrpijiov, d/nrexovt} aTrXi] ' // Se ^evrspa, ^pvirriK)'], 



THE SECOND APOLOGY. C. 11. 225 

e7r/x|Ot(7TOf, xXai/f^joic t^rjvSrKTfievi], fiXsfifia iTai^iov^ ftddifTf-ia draKTOv, 
({xjjvtj d/xov(Tog. A familiar imitation is to be found in Luc. 
Somn. 6. 

6. d<|>paivovTas : Originally an Epic word. Plutarch uses it re- 
peatedly in his discussion of Stoic doctrines, and it may have 
been a stock word with that school. It is found in Tatian, ad 
Gr. 21 : Clem. Alex. Protrept. 1, 2 ; Paedag. 2, 7, 69. 

8. TpioSov : Cic. 1. c, cu7n duas cerneret vias. These two, with 
the one he is on, make up the rpiodoQ, as Ash ton has thought it 
worth while to remark. Comp. Soph. O. R. 734 with 800, and 
Plato, Gorg. 524 A : iv ry Tpiodii) l^ ijq (pepeTov rw oSw. 

10. IpwTo-ircTroiTjixevw : ' Made up to inspire passion :' occurs no- 
where else. There is no end of such formations in later Greek. 
Observe the false reduplication (instead of ?}pwro7roj?//t£r^) which 
is found occasionally in MSS. and editions of the classic writers, 
e.g. i7nroTeTp6(})7]Kev, Lycurg. c. Leocr. 139; ojSo7re7roir]i.dvi], Xen. 
Auab. 5, 3, 1 ; rjpKTTOTreTroirjvTo, Xen. Hell. 4, 5, 8. 

11. T«v ToioiJTwv: Of the ornaments (Otto). Left vague on 
purpose. — 0€\ktiki]v t€ ktI. : Maran wishes to leave out Trpoc, and 
understands lixpeig of the eyes of Vice, comparing Xen. o/xixara 
t-X^tv dvaTreTrraixeva. Comp. the (i\k}ifxa iTa/ioi' of Max. Tyr. But 
how was the TrpoQ smuggled in ? Nor is evSrvg so clear as on the 
hypothesis that the oxpeig are the eyes of the beholder. Ei^^t-cr 
Trpdg Tag oxpng would correspond to the doKsiv (^aivedBai^ the SoKe7v 
flvai of Xen. The charm would be a momentary charm to the 
eye. Comp. koXKh t([) peovn kuI (p^etpopeviij. On the solitary re, 
see A 22, 10. 

12. tjv ax/TT] cTTtiTai ktI. : Justin gives nothing but the general 
drift. 

15. ev avxp-Tlp!? p-cv tw Trpoo-wirfc) : Notice the predicative posi- 
tion, which is very common of person and dress. So in Lucian. 
Xenophon has nothing corresponding to this part : EVTrpeTrfj re 
Icelp ical tXev^spiov (pvaH . . . to-^/yri XevKy. Msv : as if he intended 
to say : Iv avxj-i-'npi^ f.uv T(^ ttjOo era* 7r<^o, Iv avxp.r}pq, Se ry TrspijSoXrj. 

17. kavTov^cravTov. 

18. Kai TravS' ovtivoOv : Justin speaks in his proper person. 
20. aXoya: Sylburg conjectures dXyewd^ Pearson uKocrpa. The 

former is the better, but not conclusive. — cvSaijiovia-v eK8ex€<r0ai: 



226 NOTES. 

' Obtains happiness.'' Thirlby suggests euSafioveiv kvdkx^cr^ai, ' may 
be happy,' but makes no change, 

21. irpopXtijia: Ashton desiderates tt e p //3\»;//a. — lavT-i]? twv irp. : 
Irre^'uhir position for ruJu tavrrjg Trpa'^eiov. — ra irpoaovra ttj apcxirj : 
Com p. c. 4, 7. 

22. ovTws ovTtt : A familiar Platonic expression, — ^Qaprav : So 
tlie MSS. Maran and Otto write d^^dpTwv, ' because vice hides 
under the ornaments of virtue by imitating not corruptible 
things but incorruptible,' But the text means that the imita- 
tion consists in corruptible things, and explains ' for it has noth- 
ing incorruptible.' 

26. Kai a<{)9apTot : Sc. dai, ' are also incorruptible.' 

27. TtZv onro Tov aQ\ov=^d2r\i]Tu)V. Comp. A 26, 22, — twv dv6pw- 
irwv T(£v T. : The MSS, have d^Xov Kai tojv dv^pioirojv kcu twv. The 
emendation is due to Thirlby. 

28. e^aa-av : So Perionius for tcp^aaav. 

29. Twv vo|xi£o}jievwv Ceoiv : Jnstin is thinking especially of Her- 
cules, the model just cited. Remember Hercules's contempt of 
death. — Travra vovveyj\'- So Thirlby for ovv 'ixy. Otto comp. A 
46, 23: b vovviX'nQ icaraXajSeip dvvrjaerai] Tatian, Or. ad Gr. 39: 
Xpi) Toi' vovvf-XV (yvvEivai. 

31, €XKovTa: Belongs to vowExn. 'Which notion every sensi- 
ble man must conceive concerning the Christians — drawing the 
conclusion from our despising death, a thing so much avoided.' 
(^zvKTov, first ' avoided,' then ' to be avoided.' 

12. Innocence of Christians Proved by their Contempt 

OF Death. 

1. Kai 7ap avTos c^w • . . <})ov6v0Y](r6p,€vos : A classic j^assage, 
cited by Euseb. H. E, 4, 8. The Gentile view is given by Tertull, 
Apol. 27 (p, 81, D. S.) : quidam dementiam existimant, etc., and 50 
(p. 112, D. S.) : desjyerati et 2')erdlti existimamw\ and Min. Fel. Oct. 
8 : Iwmines desperatae factionis. Of especial interest in this con- 
nection is the opinion of M. Aurelius himself, 11, 3 : to U troif.iov 
TovTO (i. e. readiness to die), Vf« cttto idiKrjg KpicreojQ tpx^irai, ju?) Kara 
t//i\?)v Trapdra^iv (sheer contrariness), wg oi Xpicrnavoi, dXXd \e- 
\oyi(Tnevoi)g Kai aijxvCjg Kai, wars Kai dWov Trelaai, dTpayt^dcjg. 

5. uTrdpx€i.v : ' Live.' 



THE SECOND APOLOGY. C. 12. 227 

6. dvSpMirivwv orapKwv : Euseb. has dvBp(xJ7re:u)v. See A 26, 34. 

7. OTTCDS rZv avTov oLYttStCv o-T6pT]9T] : On aurov=iipsius, see A 21, 
28: (TTep)]Bg: subj. after opt. with a^/, as often on account of the 
equivalency of the hitter to present and fut. ind. Euseb. has tojv 
tavTov areptjBei)] tTrtS-ujutwv, more strictly regular. 

8. cK TravTo? : ' By all means.' — lr\v [liv : Euseb. omits fxh, but 
comp. A 13, 10, where the contrast is interrupted, as it were, by Kai. 

9. iTTcipaTo: We should expect Treipo^ro, but comp. A 19, 2, on 
the shifting of the jDoint of view from ideal to unreal. — ovx o^t 
ye : ' Not that,' ' much less.' 

10. KttTiiYYeXXe: So with Eusebius for /carZ/yyeiXe, and so Otto 
now. KarayyEiXai would be the normal construction. K. ' de- 
nounce,' late. 

11. €vi]p7ir]o-av . . . irpaxS-Jivat : A 5, 15. 

12. #ov€vovT€s : Conative present participle. 

13. ciXKvo-av : Thirlby prefers tXKovrn, but here aor.=perf. On 
this subject, see the Epistle of the Churches ofVienne and Ly- 
ons in Euseb. H. E. 5, 1, 14 (p. 130, D. S.). 

IG. ov8€V Trpoo-eoTTiv : A 10, 25. 
17. 0£ov Tov d-yevvTjTOV : A 14, 9. 

20. Kpovov . . . p,vo-TT]pia : Thirlby cites Lactant.Inst.Div. 1,21 ; 
Euseb. Praep. Ev. 4, 15 sqq. ; TertuU. Apol. 9 (p. 42, D. S.). Boys 
were the favorite victims of the Phoenician Saturn (Moloch). 

21. a.vZpo<^ovelv:=^7raidoKTOvtly (Otto). 

22. TO, itra: More naturally «W (adv.). — t^ . . . clScSXw: Jup- 
piter Latiaris. See Tertull. 1. c. Thirlby has a long note from 
Avhicli we take these references. Tatian, Or. ad Gr. 2G ; The- 
ophil. ad Autol. 3, 7 ; Minuc. Eel. Oct. 21. 30 ; Lactant. 1. c. 1, 21 ; 
Porphyr. De Abstin. 2, 50. 

23. Trpoo-paive T € : So after Thirlby for Trpoapaiverai^ailH SO Otto 
now. The difference in pronunciation between £ and ai was very 
slight. In fact e was called t \piX6v (simple e), to distinguish it 
from ca. 

25. TTpoa-xvcriv . . . iroiovjJLevoi : A 1, 9. — rtCv <|)ove-u9evTft)v : The 
hestiarii. Human sacrifices were prohibited by Hadrian, Por- 
phyr. De Abstin. 2, 56 (Ashton). 

27. 7tv6|i€voi: So I have written for y^vuiiwoi to match the 
other participles. 



228 NOTES. 

28. 'EiriKovpov |xcv : Another fxkv solitarium. 
I}2. eiroTTTTiv : Sc. iivTa. Comp. Clcm. Rom. 1 ad Cor. 55, 6 : tuv 
TraveTTuTTT)]}' CecTTruTijv, Sreuv twv aiwvLoPj 'With Harnack's note. 

33. Ei0€ Kal vvv Tis ev Tp. <()... . avcp6T]<r€v: The MSS. have: 
Et ce . . . nv. The fl'^e of the text is due to Maran. For ijv I ac- 
ccj)t Krabinger's emendation Iv (ap. Otton.). Maran's and Otto's 
uv is ungrammatical ; Krabinger's farther emendation, civaj3ot'](TeLEi^, 
is not absolutely necessary, as the aor. ind. is in wishes not rigid- 
ly limited to the past. Otto comp. further Plato, Clitoj)h. 407 A. 

34. Al8€'(r0TiT€ . . . dva(|)epovT6s : Aiaxvvoixai takes the participle 
in its causal or conditional sense, the inf. when the action is de- 
pendent. AlaxvpofiaL tiraiTCJv^ ' I am ashamed because I beg,' ' I 
beg to my shame ;' aiaxvvoi.iai iirai-dv^ ' I am ashamed to beg ' 
(i»7r' a'iaxvv}]Q ovk t^fXw tTraiTui'). lu the conditional relation in- 
finitive and partici2:)le may be equivalent: ovk av ai(Jxvvoi}xi]v 
tTrairuJv =z el tTraiToa^v zzz iyraiTeiv. Aidovfiai has theoretically the 
same constructions as alaxvvoixai, but practically it seldom takes 
the participle, as the emotion is more delicate. The alSw^ comes 
before and prevents the action ; cd<Txvvri may precede or follow. 
Comi?. Clem. Alex. Protrept. 2, 14: ovk aiSovixevog \syeiv ii 
TrpoaKVViiv ovk ai c^y j'f (r3' £, and 10, 102: d Ct aldw Kal ipojra Kai 
ucppodirriV tvBeiaZ^Tej dKoXovSrovvrujv avTolq aicx^vr] Kcd opfii) Kal 
KaWog Kal crvvovdia, and Paed. 2, 6, 52 : rd alSoTa tov dvBpojTrov a i- 
dovQj OVK ai(Txvv7]Q KaT)]^fcojAeva. 

35. ava<|)€povT€s : ' Attril:)uting,' ' ascribing.' 

36. lavTois = vfih' avTolg. In Otto's third ed., by an unlucky 
error of the types, Beolg has been omitted after v/^ieTspoig. — ircpi- 

^0.\\0VT€^=Z7r£piTl^6VTeQ. SCC C. 11, 25 (Otto). 

37. TovTots : The Christians. — wv: Refers to rd TrpoaovTa. The 
sentence is very awkward. Ashton would rewrite : wv (referred 
to tovtoiq) ovSevl ovo IttI rroabv avrwv OV <Lv ovoiv ovd' tjri ttocov 
avTolg /jitTean, which I should prefer. Comp. All, 25. 

13. The Word has been in all Men. 

1. Kal 7dp : Kai with tytb. — irepCpXTjiJia : 'Disguise.'' 

2. ircpiTeGciiievov : More commonly TrepiKsifxEvov. 

4. \}/6v8oXo7ov|jLev 0) V : So Maran and Otto for \p£vdoXoyov/jievov. 

5. KarcYcXaaa : Translate ' I must laugh at,' ' I cannot help 



THE SECOND APOLOGY. C. 13. 229 

laugliing at.' With certain verbs of expression of emotion, the 
aorist is used as a kind of impatient present, anticipatory pres- 
ent (dramatic aorist). — 8d|Tis : The MSS. and editions have a 
comma after io^ijg. Thirlby and Maran would insert jca/, or 
change KarsysXacra into KarayEXdaag (Otto). The asyndeton is 
not unbearable in Justin. 

6. €vxo|A€vos . . . 6|AoXo7a : ' I confess that I boast.' 'OyuoXoyw 
rarely takes the part.=ori. So Isocr. 4, 33. 

8. Tov Xpio-Tou : A familiar brachylogy for tCjp tov XpioroD, 
after the pattern of the comjMi'atio compendiaria, Xen. Cyr. 2, 2, 
4 : tdo^ev avrip fxtl^ov iavTov {z=itov kavTov) \a[3elv. For other ex- 
amples of brachylogy in Justin, see A 5, 24; 20, 7 ; 23, 4 ; 55, 14. 

10. "EKao-Tos Yap tis ktI. : ' For each one spoke well according 
to his share in the divine Spermatic Logos, seeing (so far as he 
saw) what was cognate (to the Logos),' i. e., the divine. There 
is only a partial revelation of the Divine Logos outside of Christ. 
See c. 10, 4 foil. Comp. Orig. c. Cels. 6, 79 : ovdkv yap twv Iv dv- 
SrpioTTOig KaXuJv yeysp7]Tai fxr) tov Beiov Xoyov l7ri^rip{]<TavT0Q toiq ^pv- 
X(^^Q Tiov Kciv oXiyov Katpuv iedwrjixeviov ck^a^^ai rag roidade tov Beiov 
Xoyov Ivspy^iag. — oiiro p.Epovs : B 10, 24. 

12. avTois : ipsiszizsiUmet ipsis. — Iv Kvpiwxepois : 'In weightier 
matters.' 

18. aiTTWTov: So I write with Lange, Thalmann and Goez 
for dTTOTTTov. Braun and Otto (2) rely on the gloss of Hesychius : 
diroTTTog dacpaXrjg, jSfjSaiog, perhaps for aTTTioTog, which is rare 
enough to deserve a note. So Otto also suspects now, and trans- 
lates dTTOTTTov not Jirmnm., but sublimiorem. With dirTixJTov comp. 
Clem. Alex. Strom. 2, 2, 9 : ti)v yovv iTTLffTrji-irjv opiZ,ovTai (piXoao- 
(pii)V TTOidsg 'i^iv d [x^t d-ir t ojt ov vtto Xoyov. 'Avvttotttop 'above 
suspicion' would not be bad, especially in connection with dvk- 
Xeyicrov. Comp. Tatian, ad Gr. 31: dwrroTrrovg Trap' vfiwr Tovg 
tXkyxovg XapjSdvoj. Thirlby suggests Ittotttik^v. 

14. "Oo-a ovv ktI. : Aube comp. Sen.Ep. Mor. 16, 7 : quicquid lene 
dictum est ah ullo rneiim est, and 12, 11 : quod verum est, meum est. 
He might have added 8, 8 ; 21, 9 ; 33, 2. — •^iawv twv Xpio-Tiavwv : 
Article, as regularly in appositions with personal pronouns. 

15. dvevviiTov. See A 14, 12. 

16. H^cxa TOV Ceov : Comp. A G, 5 and 13, 17. 



230 NOTES. 

18. ta<nv Troii^aTiTai : A 1, 9. 

20. d|x\)8pws : ' l^ut dimly.' In Greek the notion ' only 'is oft- 
en lel"t to be made out ))y the reader. 

21,''ETcpov . . . Ktti 'irepov := erspov fiev, erepov de. — Kara Svva- 
(iiv: 'According to capacity,' 'susceptibility' (Otto). 

14. Justin Prays that this Appeal be Published. 

1, d^iovjicv: A 3, 2, — vTro7pd\j/avTas : We say 'endorse.' 

2. pip\i8iov: See A 29, G. 

4, Twv KaXwv: Christian doctrine. See c. 2, 42 ; A 7, 17 (Ash- 
ton). — irapd TT)v lavTwv alriav : 'Owing tO their own fault.' So 
Dial, C. Tr. 88 : Trapa ttjv Idiav tKaoTOv airiav TrovtjpEvaafisvov. 
Thirlbj makes tavTwv refer to the Emperors. 

5. [cis TO 7v<«)o-9T]vat Tois dv0pcGTrots] : An aw^kward addition, 
■which only repeats what had been said in ottojq . . . yvioaBrJ, 1. 3. 
It is best omitted with Otto, as a gloss. 

0. 8 id to: So Perionius and others for ci6. 

7. Yvwpio-T I K 6 V : For yvhjpioTov (Sylburg). 

8. Sid TO TjfAuv KT€. : Thc passagc is manifestly corrupt. Ashton, 
whom Otto follows in his last cd,, writes dia to iifiatv . . . Trpdr- 
TEiv, KaTa-ipi]<piZs(TBai. 'Owing to their condemning us whom 
they do not know to commit such deeds of shame as they al- 
lege.' This is, to say the least, heroic treatment. Those who 
wish to justify everything may find curious parallels for did to 
. . . KaTa\l>r](piZo[X8vovg instead of KaTa\pi](piL,e(T^ai in Thuc. 4, 63 ; 
5, 7. The slip is not unw^orthy of Justin. By inserting irpaTTHv 
with Ashton after alcxpa and omitting the second /cat hd t6 as a 
^iTToypa(pia, we get the adversative sense needed, KaTa-^ijfi^oixk- 
x/ovc=' while condemning;' or, to rew^rite the passage, Sid t6 r)i^iCJv 
fiev . . . KaTa\pt](piKE(rSrai, avToi St %a('jO€tv /ere. 

11, ws: Inserted by Thirl by. 

12. irpooTiixdv : So for 7rp6aTij.iov (Thirlby), — SeWSai : A 10, 1. 

15. Conclusion. 

1. Kai Tou . . . KaTe<j>p6vifio-a : This parting shot at a home- 
bred heresy is not unlike Justin's impetuous manner. In his 
last ed. Otto has bracketed the jDassage as a gloss from Justin's 
Dial. c. Tryph. c. 120.— 2i}ji«viavo5 : See A 26, 5. 



THE SECOND APOLOGY. C. 15. 231 

2. KaT€<j>p6vr]cra : Comp. c. 13, 5 : KareyeXaaa. — TrpoYpd\j/i(]T€ : 'Au- 
tlioi'ize the publication.' 

3. <})av€p6v av ironio-aifjiev : I liave inserted dv, dropped as often. 
Krabinger reads : av 7roi))<Tof.iep. 

5, o-w6Td|a}i£v : 'Have composed,' c. 1,G, Aor. short-hand of perf. 

7. dv8pcoTreiov: On the form see c. 10, 1. — d Be (ai]: A 15, 53. — 
Kav : ' At all events.' — SwraSciois : Sotades of Thrace or Crete, a 
notorious writer of obscene j^oetry in the time of Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus. His name survives in connection with the Vei'sus Sota- 
deus used by better men. See Class. Diet. 

8. «l>iXaivi8€iois : To Philaenis was ascribed a famous poetic 
manual, Trfpi (rxni^cirojv (comp. Athenag. Suppl. 20, 86), which has 
given her an unenviable position in letters. See Class. Diet, and 
comp. Tatian, ad Gr. 34: ^ iXuLvi d oq tujv dpprjriov iirivoiCJiK 
Clem. Alex. Protrcpt. 4, Gl, speaks of the heathen as tir 'iai^q ty- 
ypacpoixei'oi rd ^iXaivid oq crxv /J-aTa ujg rd 'HpaKXsovg d^Ximara. 
— 'ApxeoTTpaxciois: The MSS. have opxn'TTiKoiQ. The true 
proper name, long desiderated, has been restored by Von Leutsch. 
Archestratus of Gela or Syracuse composed a famous poem on 
Good Living {J]^vTrd^Ha)^ or the Art of Cookery. He is coupled 
with Philaenis in Athen. 8, 13 ; 10, 86. See Class. Diet. 

10. XcYop-e'vots : So Otto now. Von Leutsch balances between 
XE-yofxevoig and a^of.dvoiQ. The MSS. have yev. which Thirlby ex- 
plains as ' acted.' 

11, Xoiirdv: A 3, 21. — oa-ov e<|)' r\\uv tJv : A 40, 21. 

13. EiT] : ' May it be that,'— ujxas : So Sylburg for ?y/taf. 

14. evo-ePcias Kai <|>i\o(ro<j)ias : Comp, c. 2, 55 ; A 2, 1 ; 3, 11 ; 12, 
22. — virep eavTu)v=i'7rf|0 vixwv avruiv^ in the same spirit in which 
he said, A 8, 1 : XoyiaciG^e d' on virlp v f^iCJv ravra 'tp]i.iev. Comp. 
Tertull. ad Scap, 1 (p. 114, D. S.) : Itaque liunc Ubellum non nolis 
timentes misimus^ sed t^ohis et omiiibus inimicis nostris. 

Note. — I have omitted the (spurious) Edict of Antoninus Pius, 
which is commonly appended to the First Apology. One form of 
it has already been given in this series, Euseb. H. E. 4, 13 (p. 106, 
D. S.). Nor have I thought it worth while to reproduce the often 
exploded letter of M. Aurelius to the Senate, with the legend of 
the Legio Fidminata, for which see Euselx H. E. 5, 5 (p. 146, D. S.). 

M 2 



THE EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. 



EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. 



We have already seen in the Introduction that the 
Letter to Diognetus cannot be Justin's. Beyond this 
we cannot speak with confidence. It has been carried 
back to the first century and ascribed to Apollos — a 
mere fancy. Bunsen claims it for Marcion, but Marcion 
before he was a Ma.rcionite — a guess which no one has 
troubled himself to refute. The vast majority of the 
earlier critics put it nnder Trajan or Hadrian, and it is 
regularly published as a part of the Corpus Patrmn 
ApostoUcorum. In recent times the tendency has been to 
make the Epistle less ancient. Hilgenfeld puts it between 
161 and 180, Lipsius about 180, and Keim between 177 
and 180, while Zahn gives a wide sweep, from 250 to 310, 
and Harnack grants a latitude of nearly a century and a 
half. Donaldson was the first to consider the Epistle a 
late production, and would evidently be glad to set it 
down as a fabrication of Henricus Stephanus himself, if 
it were not for the age of the Strasburg MS. ; and Over- 
beck has recently made an independent attack on the an- 
tiquity of the Epistle, which he supposes to be a manu- 
facture of the Byzantine time, without giving a guess 
even as to the century. According to this scholar (Stu- 
dien, 1, 21), the Epistle to Diognetus is a meditation on 
the Christian religion put into the form of a letter ad- 
dressed to a heathen, and belongs to a time when Chris- 



236 EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. 

tianity had ceased to battle for its existence with Judaism 
and Paganism, wlien believers were far removed from 
the real struggles, efforts, and views of the second cen- 
tury. Justin, the famous martyr and philosopher, was 
a convenient name for the imaginary writer; Diognetus, 
the teacher of Marcus Aurelius, a convenient name for 
the imaginary recipient. 

A detailed examination of Overbeck's argument, which 
lias been hotly assailed bj'' men like Ililgenfeld, Keim, 
and Lipsius, does not lie Avithin the scope of this edition. 
One caution, however, may not be inappropriate here. 
No argument based on anachronism of conception can 
be considered conclusive when we have to deal with such 
a problem as the Christian religion, in which the personal 
equation is of so much importance; and liarnack, in his 
cautious summary, has called attention to the resemblances 
between the Epistle, which Overbeck would relegate to 
tlie Byzantine period, and such w^ritings as the Oration 
to the Greeks by Tatian and the Protrepticos of Clement 
of Alexandria. 

The only MS. of the Epistle to Diognetus, the Argen- 
toratensis^ perished during the siege of Strasburg in Au- 
gust, 1870. The relation of this MS. to two copies of the 
Epistle made towards the close of the sixteenth century, 
the one by Henri Estienne (Stephanus), the other by Beu- 
rer, is a matter of dispute. It is on the whole most like- 
ly that, despite sundry variations, both the copy by 
Estienne, which is still preserved at Leyden, and the A2yo- 
(jraphon Beureri^ which has disappeared, were made from 
the Codex Argentoratensis^ and not from a distinct orig- 
inal or originals. See Gebhardt, Patrum Apostolicoruin 
Opera, Fasc. 1, 205 seqq. 



NOTE S. 



Bunseu's Analj^sis: Christianity and Mankind, 4, 174. 
Introduction. The questions of Diognctus C. 1. 

I. The Heathen icorld : the variety of their idols C, 3, 

„ ^ , their superstitions sacrifices C. 3. 

II. The Jeics ^ ^ 






their foolish rites, customs, and ceremonies.... C. 4. 

i their habits and condition C. 5. 
they are the soul of the -u'orld C. 6. 
their religion not of man, but of God.. C. 7. 
iThe wretched state of the world before the Son of 
God came C. 8. 
Reasons why He came so late C. 9. 

Conclusion. Exhortation to Diognetus to become a Chris- 
tian CIO. 



To the Epistle is appended a fragment by another hand, the 
conclusion of a Cohortatio ad Oentes of some unknown author, 
fortasse Illppolf/ti thinks Bunsen. 

1, Introduction. The Questions of Diognetus. 

Diognetus, admiring the virtues of the Christians, and on that 
account desirous of learning more perfectly concerning that way, 
had put the following questions : 

1. In what God do they trust, and how do they worship him, 
that they are thus enabled to look down on the world and de- 
spise death ? 

3. Why do they not accept the gods of the Gentiles ? 

B. Why do they not observe the superstitions of the Jews ? 

4. What manner of love is this that they bear towards one an- 
other ? 

5. Why this new system has just been introduced into the world. 



238 NOTES. 

1. KpdTicrrc: KpdriaToc is M common title of men of position 
from the time of Augustus on. Familiar are the examples in 
the K T. Acts 23,26; 24, 3: KpdnrrTe 4>r/\j?, 26, 25 : KpaTiare 
^rjcrre. — Ai^yvtjtc : The name is not uncommon. Otto counts up 
twenty-four previous to the Christian era. Our Diognetus has 
been identified by many with the Diognetus honorably men- 
tioned among the teachers of Marcus Aurelius. See M. A. ad se 
ipsum 1, 6. Overbeck makes use of this to sustain his theory of 
a late fictitious letter. (Studien, S. 73.) 

2. Ocoo-e'Pciav: A favorite word for the w^orship of the only liv- 
ing and true God. See cc. 3, 1 ; 4, 17. 20 ; 6, 8 ; [Justin] Coh. 1. 5. 
25. 36. 37. 38. Comp. Clem. Alex. Protrept. 10, 100 : auTapKeg t(p6- 
Siov aliovojv ^EorTejSeiav. Geocrl/Saa may be used of heathens (S-eo- 
(Tsl3)iQ occurs repeatedly in Plato), but, on the other hand, Bp7](TKeia 
is seldom, hiai^ai^iovia never employed of Christians, as Otto ob- 
serves. In ^prj<TKeia the notion of ceremony is jorominent. So c. 
2,36: a'li.iaTi Kcii Kviaaig B pi] a k eve re. Comp. Plut. Mor. 140 C: 
Trepiepyoig BpijcxKeiaig Kai ^evaig deKTidaif^iovicug. Add Greg. Naz. 
I.e.: BpriaKeiav o'ica Kai to daifiovMV a't(iag^ \ r) S' evaslSeia TcpocfKV- 
vi)<ng T7]g rpidcog. This gives point to Jas. 1, 27. In the pres- 
ent passage Bpijdicevovreg is used from the position of the in- 
quirer, who cannot understand the simplicity of the Christian 
religion. 

4, aviTov, T 6 V Ts : So with Lachmann for avrop re, which would 
leave Bpijmcevovreg without an object, and put an unnecessary 
stress on k6(t/.iov. 

5. vTrepopuo-i: Differs in tone from Karacppovovai. It is loftier, 
and hence more galling, as a slight is worse than an insult. 
Comp. Orig. C. Cels. Praef. 2 : Kara7re(f>povi]icevai kcu i^iey aXocpv u>g 
vTrepeiopaKkvai rovg Karriyopovg. — Gavdxov KaTa4>povov(n : For 
examples of contempt of death, see B 2 and 12. 

G. Twv 'E\Xt]v«v: In the wider sense of ' Gentiles.' 
7, BeicrtSaijioviav : A. shades off like the Latin religio^ and many 
commentators have noticed the tact of Paul in using a vox me- 
diae significationis when addressing the Athenians, Acts 17, 22 : 

KciTci TTcivra iog Sei<Tidaifxove(rTipovg v/jicig Beiopu). But the bad 
sense practically preponderates, and even in the address of Fes- 
tus to Agrippa there is at least a half sneer: ^?;r//|t«r« nva Trepi 



EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. C. 1. 239 

T^ig IciaQ c£i(Tidaifioviag. It is not a Tox mediae signrficationis 
in Theophr. Char., who defines it as csiXia rrpbg to caif-iovwi'^ nor in 
Max. Tyr., who says (20,6): o }.iiv tv<yqit)Q (plXoc Bet^, 6 St deicri- 
daifiwv KoXaS, Beov. Comp. Clem. Alex. Protrept. 2, 25 : uKporr]- 
reg ana^'iag a^doTrig Kal d sktiS aifiov ia, and 10,96: dsicrtdaiixo- 
viag dB'eoi xop^^rai. Xenoj^hon, whom Trench cites for d. in a 
good sense, is the very last author to cite on account of his pe- 
culiar bent. 

8. 4)i\oo-Top7iav . . . TTpos d\\T]Xovs: Otto comp. Polyb. 32, 
11,1. 

9. Kaivov TovTo Ye'vos : To kcuvov tovto would be more natural. 
On the charge of novelty (emphasized by Celsus ap. Orig. 1, 26), 
see A 2, 3, and comp. Suet. Nero, 16 : superstitio nova et malefi- 
ca ; Tertull. Apol. 37: hestei^ni sumus; 47: nonitiola para- 
tura ; Theophil. 2, 30: Tcpoa^aroi Kal veojrepiKol, and other pas- 
sages collected by Keim, Celsus' Wahres AVort, S. 10, 3. With 
ysi'og comp. Tertull. Scorp. 10: itsque quo genus tertium? and 
Praed. Petri ap. Clem. Alex. Strom. 6, 5, 41 : Ta yap "EXXrjvcov kuI 
'lovda'nov TTciXaia^ {'/jeTc ck ol Kaivujg avrbv TpiTi<} yevei crsfBof-ievoi 
XpKJTiavoi. — YeVos r\ eiriTiiSevjia : ' Kind ' of men or ' fashion ' of 
religion. The heathen found it hard to classify the Christians. 
Comp. the variety of names in Minuc. Pel. Oct. 8 : homines deplo- 
ratae, inlicitae ac desperatae factionis . . . 2) I eh em 2^'^ofanae 
coniurationis . . . latebrosa et lucifugax natio; c. 9: sacraria 
impiae coitionis. The Christians themselves seem to have 
been equally at a loss. Comp. Tertull. ad Nat. 1, 8 : tertium ge- 
nus (neither heathen nor Jews). See Keim, 1. c, S. 72, 1. 

10. els Tov Piov: 'Into the world,' vita hominum. — vGv Kal oi» 
irpoTcpov : ^vv is elastic. See A 29, 19. So liodie in Arnob. 2, 
74: Ratio fuit cur non nuper sed ho die sospitator nostri generis 
adveniret. — airoSe'xojiai : The genitive of the source of emotion, 
as in the familiar construction of ^avualo). For the respectful 
tone, comp. Acts 24, 3 : Trdv-ij te kuI Travraxov aTroc^xd/teS'a. 'I 
am glad to observe this your earnest desire.' — tc: With Bunsen 
for ye. 

12, xop'HYo^vTos = ^ suitable and common word for the Giver 
God : TOV SiSovTog Beov ttclgiv InrXCjg Kal p) oveidi^ovTog. Comp. 
Clem. Alex. Protrept. 1, 7 : tTricpavelg wg SiSdaKaXog 'iva TO Ml Uyv 



240 NOTES. 

log ^tug xopnyuf^v^ ^^^^ ^- ^» ^^' ^^^ lexicon for the word and 
its origin, the generosity of "vvhich survives in the transfer. 

13. ws udXioTa av dKovo-ovrd <r€ : 'AKOvcravra for ciKovaai^ Ste- 
phanas. Otto edits Tov uKovaavTct^ and omits o-e. This gives a 
better balance, but is not necessary. On the other hand O. 
keeps <xoi re, whereas aoi Ss is almost certain in so antithetical a 
■writer and in so narrow a compass. 

2. The Heathen World : the Vanity of its Idols. 

(Bunsen says ' Variety of their Idols.') 

The author does not take up the questions propounded in the 
first chapter seriatim, but begins by setting forth the reasons 
why the Christians do not adoj)t heathen idolatry or Jewish su- 
perstition. After an exhortation to Diognetus to purge his 
bosom of prejudice, the writer proceeds to attack with much 
warmth and in harsh language the image-worship of the Pagans. 
Our authors polemic against image-worship is very superficial, 
and Overbeck has made the most of this point as indicating a 
later origin. True, such arguments as the author has adduced 
might seem to be wasted on a cultivated heathen, but the fiict 
that these very arguments were addressed in that age to culti- 
vated heathen would appear from the angry tone in which Cel- 
sus repels the charge of idolatry (Orig. c. Gels. 7, 62) : Tig yap kuI 
dWog, el juj) TrcivTt] vi'jTTiog, ravra ijyHTai Beovg dXkd jxri S^ewv ccvaBrj- 
fiara kcu ciyciknaTa ; and even Porphyry thinks it worth while to 
notice the ignorance of the Christians of his day in the remark- 
able passage a^). Euseb. P. E. 3, 7 : ^aviiaarbv U ovSkv ^vXa kuI 
XiBovg riydaSrai rd ^oava Tovg d j-ia^ear dr ov g^ Ka^d drj Kai twv 
ypafifxarMV oi dvoijTOi XiBovg jxkv opuxn rdg crifKag^ ^vXa ^e Tdg 
ceXrovg, t^v(pa(JiJ.8vt]v ct TraTzvpov rdg fSijSXovg. For a very similar 
strain, see Clem. Alex. Protrept. c, 4. 

1. KttQdpas o-cavTov . . . 6o-d|A€vos : Comp. Eph. 4, 20-24, and 2 
Cor, 5, 17 : kuiv)) Kr'iaig (Otto). 

3. <ruvii0€iav : Habit of thought. — diroo-Kevao-djicvos : As it were 
a burden or troublesome piece of luggage. Comp. Athenag. 
Suppl. 2, G; 9,36. 

4. ws av . . . ecrojjLcvos : The participle with dv (a post-Homeric 
combination) represents either the indicative with dv or the op- 



EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. C. 2. 241 

tative with dv. As the future indicative with liv is very sparing- 
ly used in the classic time, the future participle with liv is also 
very rare, and like the fut. ind. with dv is due chiefly to a slight 
anacolutlwn. So in a classic writer, wq dv . . . taofievog might 
fairly be interpreted as a change of construction from ujq dv . . . 
yevoj-ievog. Comp. Xen. Cyr. 1, 4, 23 : wc "J^ • • • otjjo-o/.iIvovc, 
where recent editors drop dv. The fut. opt. with dv is not a le- 
gitimate construction, as the fut. opt. is used only as the repre- 
sentative of the fut. ind. in oratio obliqua, and consequently did 
not come into the language until the fut. ind. with dv was obso- 
lescent. Still in later Greek we must not be exacting, and vio- 
lations of these rules may be found for the seeking, e, g. fut. opt. 
with dv : Athenag. Suppl. 21, 90: rig ovk dv KaTai.isi.i\poiro ; fut. 
part, with dv : Orig. c. Cels. 3, 70. See c. 4, 18. 

6. iSe [jLTj jiovov : Not iSyg, as the notion is really positive. 
Comp. Thuc. 4, 17, 3: XdfSe-e abrovg p) TroXEfiiovg ktL 'The nega- 
tives belong to the modifiers of the predicate and do not afiect 
the verb \a/3erc, which is put in the imperative, not in the sub- 
junctive' (Classen). 

7. iiiroo-Tdo-cws : Gen. of material. ' Substance.' Below we have 
v\']. Here ddog, below [xopcpt]. — Tvy\dvov<Tiv : Sc. ovreg, as c. 5, 17 : 
kv aapKL Tvyxdvov<Ti, and C. 10, 22: Tvyxavojv trri yfjg. 

8. €pciT€ : Corresponds to KaXeiTs below. 'E. is a late form for 
the present. Examples in Veitch ; none classic, but comp. Soph. 
O. C. 596. Lachmann would read aivuTs. — 6 jjicv tis : Tig is very 
common in such combinations, ' whoever he is,' c. 8, 4. 

11. Toi) 4)v\d| o vTos : Steph. The MSS. have <pvXd^avTog, which 
Otto vainly tries to defend. Comp, A 31, IG. 

12. viro lou : Personification. Comp. A 53, 45. So V7rd aiSri- 

pov Kcii TTvpog below. 

13. ovSeV: Adverbial. 

16. o |Jiev : On the relative, see A 24, 12. 

17. TTpiv Tj . . . iKTvirwBTJvai : A 4, 13, The construction with the 
infinitive is regular, as the sentence is really positive, ov expect- 
ing a positive answer, — rats Te'xvats tovtcov : Sc. rutv rexviTutv. 

18. €15 TTjv fJiop<|>T]v TovTwv : Sc, ToJv B'siov. — €Ka<rT o V : So Maran 
for tKaar o g. 

19. ws cTt Kai vCv: I liavc added wc, hut even thus the sense 



242 NOTES. 

is not satisfactory : ' Before being fashioned by the skill of these 
artificers into the form of the gods, had not each one undergone 
a transformation at the hands of each artist, as still happens?' 
i. e., ' Had not this material undergone some previous change at 
the will of the artificer.' The sense wanted is : Was it not in 
the power (//t-) of each artificer to mould the material as he liked ? 
This Lachmann tried to get by reading for tVi kuI vvv eiKa'Ceiv, 
which Bunsen accejDts and translates (perforce) : ' Was it not 
left to the mercies of the workman to transform it as he liked ?' 
The perf. part, stands in the way; we should expect rather hetu- 
fjoppovi-ieiwv. Otto transl. yv ixeTaiJieixop^ioi.dvov by transformdba- 
tur — a version which requires no criticism. 

21, ToioiJTois : Stephanus prefers tovtoiq. With the whole pas- 
sage com p. A 9, 9. 

26. Te'Xcov = reXeojc : ' Perfectly,' ' absolutely.' Comp. A 29, 4. 
Otto comp. Ps. 113, 8: ujxoioi avrdig ykvoivro oi TroiovvTeg avrd kuI 
TravTEQ 01 TreTToi^oTeg trr' avrolg. You become perfectly like them, 
equally senseless, equally bereft of true life. The MSS. have t'?- 
Xeov re * t^ofioioixrSre. Bunsen reads t^o/xoiovr^, and translates : 
* And, in short, you treat them like the gods themselves.' 

27. Aia toCto: 'On account of this' (your infatuation). 

28. 'Yji-cis 7ap: Tap gives the cause of the indignation. — oi vvv 
vojii^ovTcs Kal ol6|X6voi : Noj(u'4'w is often used for ' believe in,' ' ac- 
cept,' and elvai, which Stephanus afterwards withdrew, is un- 
necessary. Comp. Xen. Mem. 1, 1. 1 : dSiKsl ^lOKparifQ ouq y ttoXiq 
voixi^EL Beovq ov voj-uImv. Owj-avoi is added to show that it is a 
mere fancy, which the writer hopes will pass away, as is indi- 
cated by vvv. Lachm. whites : 'YuCig yap alveTv (for oi vuv) vo- 
Hi^ovTSQ Kal (Tepo/j-evoi ktL : ' Who think to praise and worship 
them [as gods] ' (Bunsen). 

29. TToXv irXeov: 'Much more' [than the Christians do]. But 
avTwv depends on KaTa<ppovHTi. The standard of comparison is 
often to be supplied for the context. 

30. x^tva^ere Kai vPpi^cxc : XX. Combined with i.ivKTi]piCeiv, Clem. 
Rom. 1 Ep. ad Cor. 1, 39. 

31. d4)vXdKTo-us : Emendation of Stephanus for d(i)v\a.Krwg. 

32. xP'"<''oSs IykXciovtcs : Every one will remember how Diony- 
sius ' conveyed ' the golden mantle of Jupiter's statue. Cic. N. 



EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. C. 2. 243 

D. 3, 44, 83 ; Clem. Alex. Protrept. 4, 52 : ALovvmog nlv yap 6 rv- 
pavvoQ 6 vEwTepoQ B^oifxaTiov to xP^'^^o^ 7repieX6[XEvog tov Aioq kv 2i- 
K^Kiq, Trpoatra^ev avTip kpeovv TrepiTiBsvai, xapi'i.vTii)Q <pr]aaQ tovto dfiei- 
vov elvai tov xP^'^^ov kuI Srepovg KovcpoTspov kuI Kpvovg dXeeivoTepov. 
For the higher Stoic view, see Pers. 2, 61. — rats vv|i: In classic 
Greek jDrose, Tag vvKTag or Tijg wKTog, although analogies are not 
wanting for the dative. 

33. TrapaKaGio-xavTcs : So with Krenkel for TrapaKa^'iaavT^g on ac- 
count of the other present participle lyKKdovng. Comj). A 9, 20 : 
(pvXuKag ToiovTovg Ka^ kjt dvai. — Ats 8e SoKetrc rijAais Trpocrtjjepeiv 
z^Talg Tt/j-alg ug ktL 

35. l\iyxovT€s : Sc. tov ctvaKjSfrjTeip. ' You are proving [this on 
them] when you worship them with blood and fatty steams.' In 
translating Greek it is very often necessary to shift the relation 
of participle and leading verb. Bunsen tr. L ' put to shame,' 
Otto 'beschimpfcn.' 

36. TaOB' vjjiaiv Tis vTrojjLeivdTaj : ' Let [me see] any one of you 
endure this '=Whicli of you would endure this ? I have not put 
the mark of interrogation, though the imper. may be used in a 
question ( = eel and inf ). Comp. Plato Lcgg. 800 B, 801 D, 820 
E; Theaet. 170 D ; Polit. 295 D. 

39. OvKOvv TT]v av aia-d-qa-iav atiTwv: The MS. has ouk oi'j/ t))v 
a'iaSrijmv avTov L ' Therefore you do not prove [your god's] sen- 
sation.' However, ' you fail to ]3rove ' can hardly be considered 
equivalent to ' you disprove.' Stephanus suggests : Ovkovv Tt)v 
ai(72ri](nv ovk t'xetv (better txovTag, SjYb.) iXeyx^TE. Ovkovp t)]V 
dvaicrSnjaiav avTov tXtyx^re (Krenkel). So also the margin of 
the Stephanus MS., except that for avTov we find avTuJv. For 
ouKovv, ovKovp, and ouK oui'^ scc tlic grammars. Kiihner sums up 
the two former thus : 

OuKovv. 1. Nonne igitur? nonne ergo? 
2. ergo:i igitur. 

OvKovv. 1. Nullo modo^ neutiquam, nequaquam^ haudquaquam. 

2. noil ergo^ noii igitur (in a negative conclusion). 

3. noil? noil igitur? (in passionate questions). 

In my judgment the whole difficulty as to the handling of 
this combination lies in the neglect of the simple difference be- 
tween ov ' nay,' and oh ' not.' See k. 38, 9. 



244 NOTES. 

41, iroXXa p.ev av: "Av is often clroj)ped by accident after n'ev. 
Restored by Laclim. 

42. Kav ravTo-^^vel liaec : See A 2, 7. 

3. The Jews: their Superstitious Sacrifices. 

The writer next attacks the folly of the Jews, who recognize 
tlic true God, and yet offer sacrifices to him, as if he needed them, 
and try to honor him by rites and ceremonies. We are not to 
suppose from this chapter that Jewish sacrifices were continued 
after the destruction of the Temple. See tlie references in Har- 
nack's note on Clem. Rom. 1 Ep. ad Cor. 41, 2. 

l.'ElTJs: A 32, 41. 

2. avToiis : Sc. Xpiariavovg. 

4. Kai Qeov Iva twv iravTwv ae^eo" Qai 8€<nr6r»}v d|iov<ri, <j)povov- 
oriv: 'And [if] they think it right to reverence one master of 
all, they are wise.' ^povovaiv = abxppovovaiv. So Eur. Hippol. 
920 : (ppov€iv:=iv (ppovEiu, V. 921. I have accepted Scheibe's emen- 
dation of this vexed passage. The MS. has kciI e(q . . . Ge[3eiv 
Kai SeaTTorrjv d^ioixn cppoveiv. Stephanus reads Kai e/, and proposes 
to add KTidDjv after Trdpnov. Otto reads wg Beov, and makes the 
sentence an dvauraTvocorov, i. e., a condition with suppressed con- 
clusion, common enough from Homer on. See a familiar ex- 
ample in Luke 13, 9. Otto translates: Si deum nnum omnium 
[twv irdvTMv masc] venerari dominumque existimare {^povtiv) vo- 
lunt, [recte sentizint]. fppovelv as existimare is, to say the least, 
rare. Comp. Orig. c. Cels. 4, 36. Hoffmann reads <ppovo~iev dp, a 
conjecture which is not so hopeless as Otto thinks. Bunsen, 
after Lachmann, KricrTrjv Be6v, and independently, ^povifiojg for 
(ppovHv \ Hilgenfeld, KaXCJg for Kai alg. — twv TrdvTwv : Sc. Beoiv ac- 
cording to Otto's interpretation, who cites Dial. c. Tryph. 55 : 
6 Sreog crov Srebg ru)i> ^eujp tort, and Dent. 10, 17 ; Ps. 49, 11. 

10. cIk^tcos : So Stephanus for eiKog. The folly of the heathen 
in bringing offerings to senseless and dumb idols is matched by 
the folly of the Jews in bringing these oflerings to the true God, 
as if he needed aught. 

11. 'O -Yoip TToiTio-as . . . Trape'xc"' avTos : Conif). Acts 17, 24. 25 : 
6 Srebg 6 Troujaag rov Kucfiov Kai Truvra ni iv avT(^ ovTog ovpatwv 
Kai yfjg VTrapxoiv Kvpiog ouk tv x^^po7roif]TOLg vaoig KaTOiKei, ovde inrb 



EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. C. 4. 245 

X'etpwt' dv^pMTrivixJV SfEpaTrevErai TrpocrSeuj-ifvog rivog^ aurug Cidovg ira- 
Giv Za)t)v Kal 7n^0))v ical to. Trc'ivra. 

12. oviSevos oiv . . . irpoaSeoiTo : The opt. gives the tone of mor- 
al conviction, and has more color and warmth than the indicative. 
See A 4, 10. 

17. ev8etKvvjj.€v ft) V : So Ste23h. for tvceiKvi'i^evoi or -fxevoig. On 
ivS. see A 13, 18. — to, [itj 8wd|X6va: So Stephanus for tCjv fit) Sv- 
vaj-dvu)!'. 

18. TtS 7€: So Stephanus for to cL 'Namely, in thinking 
that they are giving presents to Him that needs nothing more.' 
Otto omits the clause as an awkward gloss. Lachmann reads : 
Tu)v fiev f.i)) ^vvaiikvijjv rtjg riixijg fiETa\a[.il3dveiv, TuJv Sk doKOvvroJV 
Trapkx^v Tcfi i.i7]oevbg c€o/i£J'^j. ' Those [the deaf idols] not being 
able to partake of the honor, and those [the Jews] seeming to 
give to one who necdeth nothing.' But such an antithesis 
would be incredibly crooked. Gebhardt edits twv fuv /.n) Sv- 
vafxkv ig. 

4. Their Foolish Rites, Customs, and Ceremonies. 

The author attacks the superstitious usages of the Jews 
concerning meats, the Sabbath, circumcision, fasting, the new 
moon. 

1. 'AWa [K^v: Often in transitions, which involve the meeting 
of objections. — \|/o(j)o8ee's : Lit. ' Starting at every noise,' ' skittish- 
uess,' ' shyness.' 

3. dXa^oveiav Kal . . . clpwveiav : Comp. Bekker, Auecd. Gr. 243, 
20: eipojveia to IvavTiov la-l tij a.\ac,ov ?.iq.^ oTav CvvdfiEvog tiq 
TTOirjaai (pdGKij p) dvvaa^ai ' dXa^ojv yap idTiv 6 f tti ttXsov to, eavTOv 
K0(.nrdZMV Kal ai'^cov, e'ipiov ce 6 tTvi to i'jttov dyojv Kal jxumv. Here, 
however, elpojvda is equivalent to ' shuffling,' ' hypocrisy.' 

5. ov vo(jii£ft): Ov restored by Stephanus, dropped by reason of 
the preceding XSyov. 

6. To T€ : It is not necessary to write t6 jxev in order to matcli 
TO Ss below. Such shiftings occur in the best Greek. Comp. 
Xen. Cyr. G, 1,4. 

7. a |x,ev . . . a 8e: A 24,12. 

8. irws ovK d06|jLi(rTov: So Gebhardt. The MS. lias ov ^sjnig 
1(7-1, and we expect a negative. Hence Lachmann jieBijg. The 



246 NOTES. 

editors are generally content with dropiDing ou. Stepb. conj. 

13. irapcSpcvovras : For the word Otto comp. 1 Car. 19, 13 : o'l T(^i 
Bv(Tia(TT))f)i(i) TrapecpevovTeg (v. 1. TrpoaeSpevovreg)^ and 7, 35 : evTra- 
psdpov T<[) Kvp'io). Here scornfully, 'dancing attendance on.' 
Comp. irdpecpoi, 'familiar spirits.' A 18, 9. — acrrpoi? : The Jews 
counted from night to night (wx^i'ifi^pov). The diurnal period 
began for them when three stars of moderate size appeared above 
the horizon (Boehl). Observe the chiasm (xiacrixog) in the po- 
sition of darpoig Kcd (jEXipnj 

X 

l-ir]vitjv Kcd ijjxipCJv. 

14. iraparif^pTicriv . . . TroieicrBai : Comp. Gal. 4, 10: ij^ikpag ira- 
pciTi] p^la ^ t iwA f.u]vag Kai Kaipovg kuI tviavrovg. 

15. Ttts olKovo|j.ias Geov ktI. : Comp. Cic. K D. 1, 2, 4. 

16. KaraSiaipctv : The force of Kara, as in KaTcikiym'^ of minute 
completeness, 'to make an exact distribution.' — irpbs tols avxwv 6p- 
I ds : ' According to their own desires.' It is not necessary to read 
avrCJv witli Bunsen. See A 21, 28. — as fji€v . . . ds Be: As above, 
1. 7. — eoprds : Feasts, such as Passover, Pentecost, Tabernacles. 

17. irevGT) : Fasts, siich as Day of Atonement, Lev. 23, 27-32. 

18. T|Yi]<7aiTO 8eL7}J.a : The JVISS. have ^yy/yo-erai to Selyna. I 
have followed Lachmann in restoring the normal grammar, as 
the article is irregular, and the future with dv rare. But if it 
were not for the t6, I would make no change. See note c. 2, 4. 
Comp. Tat. Or. ad Gr. 18 : Toig KUKolg dv . . . ica-axprjcrovTai, and 
Athenag. Suppl. 31, 157 : wg dv . . . /.isvovfiev, and Clem. Alex. 
Paedag. 1, 5, 17 : eiKurojg dv Trdvreg K^K\i](jovTai /.laBijrai, and 1, 6, 47 : 
01* yap TO alfia dv ttote rrpo/jaeTaL (p(iov)]V, — koivtjs : Common to Jew 
and Gentile. 

19. c'lKaioTtiTos Kal airaTTis: 'Vanity and error' (Otto). 

20. ws: Not in the MSS. ; more readily dropped than on, 
which Otto has inserted. 

21. ISias avTwv : A 32, 8. 

5. The Christians: their Habits and Condition. 
A noble description of the Christian life (Neander). Classical, 
striking, touching, and sublime, beyond anything we meet with 
in any of the other Fathers (Bunsen). 



EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. C. 5. 247 

1, ih&i : ' Customs,' rather than ' habits,' as Bunsen translates. 
To avoid any misapprehension, the author explains below : rolg 

4, Piov irapd<rT][Jiov: IT. of tliat which is 'differently marked,' 
hence ' odd,' ' singular,' in a bad sense. ' Nor do they lead a 
life of marked singularity.' 

5. iroXvirpaYiJtovcDv : The ancient TroXvTrpayfXhJv is the modern 
' man of initiative.' See the interesting passage in Thuc. 6, 87 : 
rriQ yi-iETipag ttoXv tt p ay /.locr vvrj g (of the Athenians). 

C. fjidSiiiJia TO I OUT : For the MS. ixa^ijfiaTi TOUT with Van Hen- 
gel. — €vpT]iX€vov: So many editors after Stephanus. Otto defends 
the MS. Ei'pTjfiii'ov, and cites c. 7, iuit, : ov yap k-Kiyuov, wg 't(pi]i>, 
evpijua TOUT avToig TrapeSuBi] : the last words r. a. tt. being the 
same as tanv etpi]i.dvoi/. An utterly untenable position. Com- 
bine aurolg i(jTiv and i-rrivoia . . . evpijfitvov. ' This doctrine 
which they have (of theirs) is not one invented by a certain 
contrivance and excogitation of meddlesome men.' 

7. irpoeo-Tolcnv: ' Chamiiion.' Comp. c. 7, 2 : oi/de ^vrjnjv tTrt- 
voiav (pvXdcrtTeiv . . . d^iov(n (Otto). 

8. jBapPdpovs : Especially Jewish. 

9. Kai Tots : So Otto. The MS. tv ro7g. 

12. TToXiTcias : Not ' manner of life ' here, but ' polity.' 

13. irdpoiKoi : Comp. 1 Pet. 2, 11 : TrapaKaXCj wg TrapoiKov g Kal 
7rape7riStii.iovg. Also Clem. Rom. Ej). 1 ad Cor., init. : y t/cKXjyam 
rou Sreov i) TrapoiKoixra 'PcJfitjv ry tKKXjjcria ry irapoiKOvay KopivSrov, 
and Epist. Eccl. Smyrn. ap. Euseb. 4, 15, 3 (p. 109, D. S.). 

15. Fajiovo-iv ws TrdvTcs : But the diyafiia is excluded. See A 
15, 12 (Otto). — Kal TCKvoYovovo-i : Kai added by Bunsen. 

16. ov» piiTTovo-t: A 27, 1 ; 29, 1. 

17. irapaTiecvTai : The regular word for setting a table. — dXV 
ov» KoiTTiv: So Maran. The MSS. have koivijv, 'common but not 
common,' i. e. ' common but not unclean.' Maran's conjecture is 
quite satisfiictory. The point is often made. Comp. Tertull. 
Apol. 39 (p. 94, D. S.) : Omnia indiscreta sunt ajiud nos ^raeter 
uxores. For the contrast with the heathen, see A 27 ; for Tpcnzi- 
Zav Koivi'iv, comp. A 14, 16: icrTidg Koivdg fxy Troiovfievot. — 'Ev 
o-apKi TV7xc^vovo"i : Sc. uvreg, c. 2, 7. For the sentiment, comp. 2 
Cor. 10, 3; Rom. 8, 12. 13. 



248 NOTES. 

18. €v ovpav;3 iroXiTcvovTat : Comp. Pliil. 3, 20: yfiCJv to ttoXl- 
Tevfxa tv ovpavoiQ I'Trapxet. 

20. viKwcrt Tovs vofjLovs : Love is not only the fulfilling of the 
law, but more tlian tlie fulfilling. Comi). Rom. 13, 9. 10. — 'Aya- 
TTwo-i . . . SiwKovToi: Comp. A 1, 6 ; 14, 18; 39, 12, and Tertull. 
ad Soap. 1 (p. 115, D. S.) : Amicos dlUgere omnium est, inimicos 
autem solorum Christicmorum ; Athenag. Suj^pl. 11,47: ovt(x)q Ik- 
KeKa^apjxsvoi etVi rag \pvxci.g wg dvri tou jxiddv Tovg txS'jOoi'f dya- 

TTCLV. 

21. 'A7VOOVVT01 . . . X^faoTToiovvTaki : Comp. 2 Cor. G, 9 : wg dy- 

voov/iEPoi icai tTriyivojcncufavoi' ojg dTro^in](TKOVT^g Kai idoi) ^w^Ev. 

22. TLT(a\<evov(ri . , , irepKrcreuovo'iv : Comp. 2 Cor. 6, 10 : <jjg 
TTToJxoi, TToWovg de TrXovTiCovreg' cog fxi]dtu txovreg kcu iravTa 
KaHxovTEg. The novice is reminded that TVTMxog is ' poor ' in its 
most desperate signification. 

24:. 'ATi|Jio{JvTai . . . 8o|d^ovTai : 1 Cor. 4, 10 : vj^iug 'ivdo^oi, iifiHg 
^k an jiio L. 

25. AoiSopoyvrai, Kai cuXoYovtriv ; Com^^. 1 Cor. 4, 12: XoiSopov- 
fievoi euXoyoi'i^iei'. 

26. 'A7a0oTroiovvTes . . . KoXdtovxai : Comj^. 1 Pet. 3, 17. 

27. KoXa^ojxevoi \aipova-iv: Comp. 2 Cor. C, 10: ug Xvirovj-i^voi, 
Oft ^e Xaipovreg. Suffering in this world for Christ is a pledge 
of living with Him in the next. 

G. TlIEY ARE THE SoUL OF THE WORLD. 

As the soul is in the body, so are the Christians in the world. 
Stationed in the world, the Christian dares not leave his post. 
Comp. Orig. C. Cels. 8, 70 : llXeg ydp eiai Trjprj-iKol tCjv Trig *^' T'l? 
av(yrd<Tf.Mg tov Kcrrfiov ol tov ^eov uv^pojiroi, Kai (JvvearrjKe to. IttI yi}g 
odov oi uXeg ov Tp'trrovTai. 

1, 'AirXws: ' In fine.' 

5. Xpio-Tiavoi . . . Koo-p-ov : Comp. Jno. 17, 11. 14. IG : ovtoi tv 
T<ii Korrpoj ila'iv . . . ovk eiah^ tic tov k6(Ji.iov. 

6. 'Aoparos r[ ^vyj\ ktI. : Otto comp. [Plato] Axiochus, 3G5 : 
t)ntig ydp ta/^uv ^I'XV^ ?wov dSrdvaTOi', tv ^v7]T(^ Ka^sipyfitvov ^povpu>). 

8. [AevovTcs : So Steph. for /niv ovTeg. 

9. 66oo-e'Pcia : In contrast to the parade of Pagan and Jewish 
^p)]<7Keia. See c. 1, 2. Comp. A G, 8 : XSytp ( — TrvevfiaTi) Ti^dv, 



EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. C. G. 249 

and Rom. 12, 1 : XoyiKi) {=:7ri'm [xariKt)) Xarpela (Otto). — Mto-et ttjv 
\|ruxV "n ^°^P^ '• '^^^^ term mip^ is found first in the Stoic school, 
then in the Ej)icurean, and was finally taken up by the later Pla- 
touists, Plutarch and Maximus. See Keim, Celsus, S. 3, 65, and 
the commentators on Pers. 2, 03 : scelerata — •^:>?<?/>«, 

13. Tovs (xio-ouvras aYairoto-i : Comp. Matt. 5, 44; Luke G, 27: 
ayaTTccre. tovq exS'jOoi'f:. Justin, A 15, 30: dyairare. tovq fiiaovv- 
rag, and Dial. c. Tr. 133: dyaTrav tovq /.iiaovvTac. Otto tri- 
umphs in this ' evidence ' of the Justinian origin of the Ei)istle 
to Diognetus; Credner rejoices in this 'proof of Justin's igno- 
rance of our Gospels. 

14. 'EvKeKXcio-Ttti . . . Tov Koo-jjLov: The world is kept together 
by the Christians. So Justin says, B 7, 6, that God postpones 
the breaking up of the world for their sake. — o-we'xct 8e avrrj to 
o-(3|xa: Comp. Max. Tyr. 15, 5: rb /.lev aCJj.ia avvkxErai^ r) dk 'ipvxv 
avvkx^v. 

15. ws ev <}>povpa tw k6o-|jio) : Comp. Plato, Phaedo, G2 B: mq 
tv Tivi (ppovpq. tcrfxev ot dvBrpu)7rot. 

17. o-KTjvwjjiaTi : A familiar figure. Comp. Sap. 9, 15: yeCodeg 
(7/ci/voc, f^nd 2 Pet. 1, 13. 14 ; 2 Cor. 5, 1 ; Tatian ad Gr. 15 ; Euseb. 
H.E. 3, 31,1 (p. 92, D. S.). Otto. 

19. KaKovpyovfjievT] . . . PeXrioiiTai : Here }'/ ^vx>') is the soul 
which is called on to eat and drink in Luke 12, 19. It is the 
iTri^vfiia or ' apf)etite.' The notion is old and common. The 
commentators quote Heraclitus : tV3-a yij Knpn-, 4'^XV (^otpcordrr], and 
the proverb: Tax(^~ia yaariip XeTrrbv ov t'ikth vuov. See Pcrsius, 1, 
57. 

20. TrXeovdi^ovo-i : Otto understands the increase to be spiritual, 
growth in grace, in order to have something to corresj)ond with 
iSeXriovvrai. But in view of the parallel passage below, c. 7, 31, 
ovx ^P^Q oc^j TrXdov^Q KoXd^ovrai, roaovrq) TrXeovd'Covrag dXXovg^ SUCll 
an interpretation is fanciful. The increase of the number of the 
Christians is a suflicient betterment for the purpose of the pas- 
sage. 

21. TotavTTiv: So Lachmann for Torravrrjv, 'so important.' — 
Td|iv : Comp. Plato, Phaedo 1. c. : ojg tv tivi <ppovp^ iajxw ol dv^pu)- 
Tvoi Kai ov Sel drj eavrbv Ik ravrrjg Xveiv ovd' drroh^pdaKHv. 

22. 'irapaiTTJo-ao-eat : ' Shirk.' See A 2, 3. 



250 NOTES. 

7. Their Religion not of Man but of God. 
God sent the Word by wlioni He made tlie world to dwell 
among men, and established Him in their hearts. He works in 
meekness, not in wrath — by love, not by fear. But He will come 
to judge — and then who shall stand ? 

1. ws e<j)Tiv: C. 5, G. 

2. eirivoiav: 'Fancy,' 'device.' 

3. oiKovojxiav . . . ireirio'TevvTai : Comp. 1 Cor. 9, 17: oiKOVofiiav 
7r67rt(Trej'/<ai ; Theoj^hil. ad Autolyc. 1, 12: [6 jSaaiXtvg] rpoTrii) rivi 
olKOVOfiiav 7re7ri(TTevTai. 

4. avTos : ' Of his own accord ' (Otto). A common use. 

7. IviSpvo-c Ktti 67icaTeo-Tiipi|€ : 'Planted and established.' 

8. avOpwir o s : So I read with Bunsen for av^phJir o i q. Comp. 
below: 6jq av^ptJoTnov av riq Xoyhairo, but Trpbg avrovg eVfjUi^s. 

9. vTrTjpeTt]v . . . Tj ayveXov r\ apxovTa : Looks like a climax, 
but Otto says that it is a subdivision, thus : 

f i'l Tiva tCov cif.TTovTMV ra trriyeia ::= dyyeXov 
v7n]piT)]v ■< i'j Tiva tmv TTETrtcrrei'/tlvwv rag tv ovpav(ii dioiKijaeig =■ dp- 

On vmjpirijg^ see A 14, 5. 

11. Tov TcxviTTjv Kal 8T]}jiiovpYov ! Thesc tcmis as applied to 
Christ are considered marks of later origin. See Harnack on 
Clem. Rom. 1 ad Cor. 37, 3. 

12. tS Tovs ovpavovs cKTio-ev: When the person is considered 
as an instrument, the dative may be used. It is sometimes over- 
looked by scholars, and confounded with the dative of the agent 
(person interested). 

13. (ivo-TT]pia: 'Mysterious laws' (Bunsen). 

14. o-Toix€ia: ' Starry signs' (Bunsen). See B 5, 5. 

15. TJXios: Steph. ; not in the MS. — o-cXtivt] : Otto inserts y) 
against the MS. With ' sun ' and ' moon ' the article is not neces- 
sary, ,e. g. Clem. Rom. 1 ad Cor. 20, 3 : ijXiog re Kal creXyjvt]. — & . . . 
viroTCTaKTai : ' By whom all things have been set in order {ovpa- 
voi Kcd TCI tv ovpavoig) and have had their bounds definitely fixed 
{^dXaaaa kcu rd Iv ry BaXd<j(T7j), and have l^cen put in subjection 
[to men] {yi) k-oi tu Iv ry yy). So Otto, wlio cites passages to 
prove this subjection to man. See c. 10, 4 : olg v-n-era^e Trdvra rd 



EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. C. 7. \ 

tv T7J yy, and B 5, 5 : rd iiriyua dvBpujTroig v — or d^ag. — Iv Vy 
So I read for the poetic wktI : but comiD. 2, 33. \^ 

21. oiireo-TciXcv: Changed afterwards into the vague t7rejt(\//£i/. ' 
See A 12, 34, — ws dvOpwirwv av tis Xo7i<raiTo: See 1. 8. 

23. €iri€iK€ia: This is the word tliat Matthew Arnold admires 
so much, 'sweet reasonableness.' See [Plato] Deff. 412 B: tTri- 
tiKEta CiKaitov Kai (TVf.i(pEp6vTh)v iKaTTOJGiQ ' f.aTpi6T7]g kv avfilSoXaiOKj ' 
evra^ia Ttjg \pvx>}g XoyicmK)) rrphg rd KoXd kcu aiaxpd. — irpavTTjTi : A 
later form for 7rp^6Ti]Ti. Comjo. 1 Cor. 4, 21 : tv pdi3diij 'iXBio irphg 
vfidg 7] tv dydiry TcvEvnari re Trp^unjrog. On the word COmp. 
Clem. Alex. Strom. 4, 6, 36 : TrpaElg cs daiv o'l rrjv dTriarov i-idxw 
Tt)v tv rtj -(pvxy KaraireTravKoreg Bvfiou Kai tTriBi'i-iiag Kai roJv rovroig 
v7roi3ej3\i]fitvit)v elSatv. np(^6rT]g may be the result of a victory over 
self; fxaKpo^vf-iia is originally a natural temper. 

24. ws Ocbv €Tr€|x\|/€v: Tlie balance would be better, if we were 
to read wg Sreug Srsuv tTTS/.i'^pev, wg dv^pcoTrov Trpog dvSrpcuTrovg tTre/x- 
\pev, and Bunsen has put dvBpdJTrov in his text, after Lachmann. 
'Qg Sreov : Because God is good and loving. See below 1. 26 : jSia 
■ydp ou Trpoaeari n^ ^e(^. Otto Comp. 1 Jno. 4, 8 : o ^ebg dydizr] icrriv. 

25. ws (Tw^wv ... oil Kpivwv: Jno. 3, 17: ov ydp dirkarHXev b ^eug 
rbv v'lov avrov tig ruv kogixov iva Kpivy ruv Koaj-iov dXX' 'iva aix)^y 
b K6(Tj.iog di avrov. 

28. Kpivovxa: 'As judge.' Lachmann reads Kpivovvra. Not 
necessary. The present participle is often used with such verbs, 
where the future would be more in accordance with the norm. — 
Tis avTov TT]v irapovo-iav viTO(rTr\(r€Tai : Comp. Mai. 3, 2 : rig viroarti- 
Gtrai tv o-raaia avrov. Uapovala^ ' coming,' 'advent.' 

29. There is a break in the MSS. with this note : Ocnog Kai tv 
r<^ dvriypd([)(i) tvpov iyKoiri]v, rraXaiordrov vvrog (Otto corrects the 
poor scribe's Greek unnecessarily. See A 62, 12). Sylburg fills 
up the gap thus : Kai ravrrjv dk rijv Trapovaiav avrov dvtvcoidanog 
TrapadoKuivrag {sic : KapadoKOvvrag ?) rovg Kard irdaav rt)v ytjv tir 
avrov TTtTTKJrtvKorag ovctv roTrapdirav ttrri rb tK^ojStiv f/ dovXayaiytlv 
cvvd}itvov. Ovx bpq,g ydp iroXXaxov KScpaXorof-iovfiivovg re Kai arav- 
povfxsvovg Kai TrapajSaXXo^tvovg Brjpioig KrL (based on Dial. c. Tryph. 
c. 110). Stephanus suspects a considerable break, and Overbeck 
(Studien, 1, 7) desiderates an answer to the second question of 
Diognetus — an exposition of the love and beneficence of the 



NOTES. 

Christians, and other detailed descriptions of Christian life on 
earth, of which their heroism in martyrdom might well form a 
part.— [Ovx op^sj: A tolerable stop-gap. 

8. The Wretched State of the World before the Son 

OF God came. 

The state of the world before the Divine Logos came was 
wretched, for no one knew what God is. But God manifested 
Himself by means of the Word ; and whereas, while he kept His 
counsel veiled in mystery, He seemed to care naught for us, He 
gave us all things with His Son, 

2. irpiv avTov cXBciv : On TrptV, A 4, 12 : ahrov^z-Tov \6yov (em- 
phatic). — "H : Passionate, like the Latin an, ' Then,' ' What !' a 
hriQi reduct'io ad absurdum. The MS. had 7},the quiet interrogative. 

4, 01 (Jiev Tiv€s: C. 2, 8. — irvp : Heraclitus, and after him the 

Stoics, Diog. Laert. 9, 7 : t/c irvpug tcI Trdvra awiGTUvai Kai eig 
TovTO cii^aXveaB^ai. 

5, ov : Is often used for ol, especially in later Greek, just as we 
use ' where ' for ' whither.' Here it may be considered even more 
elegant than ol, as the fire is to be the abiding-place. See Breit- 
enbach on Xen. Hell. 2, 3, 54. For a parallel to this Christian 
unmannerliness, see A 12, 8. 

G. i58»p : Thales. 

7, otiroScKTos : Perhaps better accentuated thus, as a verb, than 
diroceicToc; as an adjective. 

0. diro(j>aiv€0'9at Gcov : Otto tr. as i£z=:dTro<paiveiv iavrb ^tov, se de- 
clarare deum. Unwarranted. The general subject tiq is to be 
supplied for SuvacTo from the general drift. Steph. would read 
cvvaivT civ SC. o'l ^i\6(To<poi. 

10. voiiTtov : Common word and common thing in this age. 
See the vivid portraiture of a yotjg in Lucian's Alexander or 
Pseudomantis. 

11. €Vvwpi<r€v: 'Knew.' So Stephanus, Bunsen, and others. 
Otto contends for 'made known.' Comp. Eph. 1, 9; 6, 19, and 
auTog ^k tavrbv tTTicei^ev. So too Dorner. 

12. "n K'0»'T1 = ' -'^y '^'hich ^^=.Sia Trhreiog, not cui soU concessum est, 
as the Latin translators have it. The object of (TvyKsx(op7]Tai is 
indefinite. The Strasburg MS. had ^lovov.—'O . . . Bco-iroTT]? Kal 



EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. C. 9. 253 

8Tj}jiiovp76s : Above, h]niovpy6Q is used of the Word, c. 7, 11. Prop- 
erly God is the creator, o Troo/rZ/g; Christ o SrjixiovpySg^ but the 
usage is not uniform. 

15. cY€V€To: 'Hath shown himself,' 'proved to be,' a common 
translation of ■ylyvofj.ai. — [AaKp68v}Jios : See note on c. 7, 23. Add 
Chrysost. Horn, in Rom. 2 : Si6 /.idXiffra afiaprdvEiv ov xp/}, iTreiSi) 
fXttKpoS'v fiog, ovdt ti)v euepyecriav viruSreaiv dyvu)}io(Tvvi]Q TroiCia^ai' 
d yap II a KpoSrvf-iog Kai icoXdZ^i ttcivtojq. 

1(>, xpTio-Tos : See A 16. — aopyTiTos : See note on ^vfiog, A 40, 44. 

18. OL^pa<TTOV ^=^dviK<ppa(JTOV. — dveKoivuo'aTO : For i)v tKOivwcraro, 
Steph. Otto reads ravTijp. 

10. 'Ev oo-u: 'In all the time,' ^vitli more emphasis on the 
length than in Iv <^, and here = 'iojg, ' so long as.' On this mys- 
tery, see the passages cited by Otto, Rom. 16, 25. 26 ; 1 Cor. 2, 7- 
10 ; Eph. 3, 4 foil. ; Col. 1, 26. 27 ; 2 Thess. 2, 13.— ttjv o-o4>tiv avroG 
PovXt^v : Bunsen reads avrov unnecessarily. Sec A 32, 22. 

22. irdvO' ajxa Trape'crxcv r\}i-iv : Rom. 8, 32 : Triog oi'xi ical avv avT(^ 
ru TTCiVTa yfuv x^^^P^^^'''^'^ j 

23. Kttt ISciv Kai voTJcrat d xis ktI. : Troujcrai. Tig civ. So Bcu- 
rer's transcript and the Strasburg codex. Stephanus reads aKov- 
aai, Maran Karavotjaai, Bunsen vofjfrai, "which would match lyoj- 
pi(Te above : a is due to Sylburg. The use of the interrogative 
in a relative clause is familiar, and very lively in Greek. Comp. 
Dem. 18, 126: \6yovg . . . ^lacxupei [Aiax'VJjg]^ avTog elprjKwg D. Tig 
o v K dv io Kv rjtTe tujv [^lerpiaiv dv^pMiroJV <p!^ey^a<y!^ai • 

9. Reasons why He Came so Late. 

He came so late that men might be convicted of their unwor- 
thiuess of eternal life, of their lost and ruined estate, might learn 
their own helplessness, and thus be prepared for His coming. 
God's x^atience with our sins is matched only by His gracious 
redemption of us through the gift of His Son. 

1. ndvTa . . . xpovov : I have accepted Lachmann's restora- 
tion. According to the other editors, the eighth chapter ends 
with the words : JldvT ovv y c ei Trap' kavrt^ avv ti^ Traidl oikovo- 
fiiKoJg, and the ninth chapter: Mkxpi ntv ovv kvL Lachmann has 
fused the two sentences, and made the slight change of yoei into 
i]Srj, oiKovoiiiKwg into oiKovojxijKtjg (late for (iJKovo^rjKujg) — hardly to 



254 NOTES. 

be considered a change, when Ave remember the Itacism of later 
Greek. It is unnecessary to enlarge on the awkwardness of the 
received reading, the elegance and appropriateness of Lach- 
mann's suggestion, — oUovo [x t] kus : Comp. the use of oZ/covojum in 
Eph. 1, 10 ; 3, 9 ; 1 Tim. 1, 4. OiKovofiiKuig, the ordinary reading, 
is translated by Stephanus oeconomica sua scientia. 

2, p.€xpi . . . Tov Trpdo-0€v xpovov : ' During [all] the time past.' 

3. "^Sovais Kal cirtCvjxiais diraYonevovs : Comp. Tit, 3, 3 : ^ovX^v- 
ovTSg tTn^vn'iaiQ Kai I'ldovaig. 

6. TOV vvv: Sc. Kaipov. The MS. has vovv. The emendation is 
due to Van Hengel. 

7. IXcYX^^'^TCS . • . avd|ioi : Sc. uvrec. 

9. d|i(«)6o>}JL6v : Sc. Tfjg ^Mrjg. — to Ka9' eavTOvs . • • dSuvaTOV : With 
this use of K-ard comp. o kuB' yixcig Xpiarog ^ o rjjxkTtpog X. A 43, 11. 

11. ^evTiewjxev — yerw^tE.S'a. — -n-cTrXripwTO : On the omission of the 
augment, see B 3, 33. 'EtteI with the iiluperfect emphasizes the 
full completion, generally with a conceived interval. 

13. ■^X.06 Be 6 Kaipds : Comp. Tit. 3, 4. 5 : ore. ce u XjOjjotod/c i^cii- 
)) (pCKav^ptoTTia tTrecpdvri tov (nvTijpog I'lfiuJv S'sov, ovic t^ tpyojv tu)V kv 
SiKaioavvy wv tTroiijcrai^iev //jtteTf, dWd Kara to tavrov tXeog tcixxrev 
Vfictg. 

14. w TT]S vTTcpPaWovoTjs <t>iXav9p(i)'7ria9 Kal dYa'T'qs tou 06Ou : I 
have followed Lange's emendation. The ordinary text, as given 
by Otto and others : ojg . . . juia dydm], is untenable. Otto forces 
a translation as usual : Cum ob imrnensam erga homines henevoleji- 
tiam unicus sit amor dei. On w with the gen., see A 9, 18. Such 
an interjectional jiassage as Lange proposes would be very much 
in keeping with the intensely rhetorical style of the author as 
well as with the immediate context. 

IG. dirwo-aTo : 'Late authors, from Polybius onward, often neg- 
lect the syllabic augment of w3iw,' 

17. y\vi<r\(iTO, a.vTO<i tois T||X6T6pas dpLoprias avSi^aro: The MS. 
had ijvtax^To Xsyiov ktL: Lachmann reads IXeiov,! omit with 
Hefele. Otto considers the whole passage an awkward gloss 
irom Isa. 53,4. 11 : avToi Tag dfiapTiag yjjxixiv (pspei . . . Tug dfiapTiag 
avTuiv avTog dvoiaei. 

18. TOV iSiov vibv . . . dire'SoTO : Rom. 8, 33 : og ye tov idiov viou 
ovK ttpHGciTo dXX virhp iifiatv TrdvTiov TrapadiOKev avTuv. — aTTcSoTO : The 



EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. C. 10. 255 

active would be more natural. The middle is ordinarily used 

for ' sell.' — XvTpov : To fit dTrayoixevovg (Otto). 

19. Twv oLvojjLwv : So otto for ai^o^/wr. 

20. Tov SiKaiov virep twv dSiKwv : 1 Pet. o, 18: tTra^Ev SiKUiog 
vTrkp ddiKOJV. 

22. Ka\-u\J/ai : Comp. Jas. 5, 20 : KaXv\pei TrXijSrog di-iapruoi'. 

24:."^ TTJs vXvKeias avxaWaYtlS : Comp. A 9, 18. 

2G. iva . . . KpvPfj : "Iva where we should expect rov or ru with 
inf. 'EKpvjBijv is a late form. 

28. TO oiSvvaTov TTJs Ti|ji€T€'pas <|)v<refc:s : Above, 1. 9, we had to 
KaSr' tavTOVQ dSuvarov. 

30. SvvaTov: Sc. uvra.— t^ d[jL4>0Tepa;v : From our proved impo- 
tence and the Saviour's proved power. 

31. aiiTov: fysum z= Beum. With the whole passage Otto 
compares Isa. 11, 2. 3. 

33. irepi IvSuo-ews . . . |xepi;xvav : Matt. 6, 25-31. See A 15, 4G. 

10. Exhortation to Diognetus to Become a Christian. 

Believe and know the Father. To know Him is to be full of 
joy. To love Ilim is to become an imitator of God. This imi- 
tation consists not in domineering over one's neighbors, not in 
violence or overbearing wealth ; it consists in bearing the bur- 
dens of others, in sujDplying the wants of others. Then will en- 
sue the perfect Christian life. 

1. eav TToeiio-T]?, KaTaXdpots dv : According to the MS. mt X«- 
/3yf, which would leave the sentence without an apodosis, which 
Krenkel favors. Otto makes Kai XdjSyjg the apodosis, fancying 
that at this stage of the language \df3yg may be used as \di3oig dv. 
Von Gebhardt reads Kard\a[3e. I have ventured to put KaTaXdjSoig 
«j/, 'you must gain.' Lachm. would read: t7n7roBr](7aig Kai \dj3oig 
(opt. of wish). 

2. irpwTov jiev : To this corresponds 'E-n-Lyvovg SL 

3. T|YdirK]<r6 : Jno. 3, 16: o'vTOjg yap -qyaTtriaev 6 2re6g tov kocjxov 
icri., and 1 Jno, 4, 9 : Iv tovtij) l(})avspuj^7] t) dyd-rrr] tov Bsov. — 8i' ovs 
eiroiTio-c TOV koo-jiov : Comp. A 10, 9 ; B 2. 

4. vTr€Ta|e : See c. 7. — Ta Iv ttJ yii : The MS. had ra tv *. Syl- 
burg and Otto insert Ty yy, Boehl, Hefele, Lachmann, avTt^. 

5. d[vw] irpbs avTov dpdv : Bunsen reads avTov unnecessarily, 

N 2 



256 NOTES. 

ai'Top being = ipsum. Laclim. ovpavov from a supposed compen- 
dium scripturae obvoi: Comp. the familiar Ovidian verse : os ho- 
mini suhUme dedit, etc. 

6. CK TT]s i8ias ciKovos: Gen. 1, 27. — irpbs ovs onrco-TciXe: C. 7, 
20 : Toi'Toi' irpuQ auTovQ dTretTreiXev. 

7, TTjv €V ovpavw Pao-tXciav : C 9, 10 : t))v f^aaiXdav rov Beov. 
Comp. c. 5, 19: tj/ ovpcax^ TroXirevovTai. 

9. 'Eiri-yvovs: Sc. rov Trarepa. — -*H ircis d7aTn(]<rcis : 1 Jno. 4, 19 : 
y'lfisig ayairCJjX^v abrbv on avrbq TrpojTOQ rjycnnjatv yfiag. 

10. 'Ayairria-a^ Be : Comp. 1 Jno. 4, 11. 12 and 20, 21. 

20. Ocbs yiverai twv XanPavovToav : Steplianus Comp. the Greek 
proverb : dvSrpiOTrog cii'^pioTrov daijxoviov. So Caecil. Stat, apud 
Symmach. Ep. 2, (Obolostat. 5, v. 264 Ribb.) : Homo Tiomini deus 
est, si suum officium sciat. 

21. }JLi|JLTjTifis : Comp. A 10, 5 : tovq rd irpoaovTa avn^ jxijxovix'ivovg, 
and Max. Tyr. C, 2 ; ttw^ ovv ykvoivr dv o/xoioi dv^p^Troi Aii ; jxiixov- 
fiBvoi avTOv TO (TojariKov Kai (piXijriKov Kal TrarpiKov Si) rovro. 

22. iroXiTcvcTtti : Here ' rules.' 

24. 0av)jtd<r€is : The middle is the accepted form of the fat. in 
classic Attic. 

26. liriYv (3s : I have restored the normal form. 'Ewiyvwcry (MS.) 
if a fut. ind., would be ungrammatical ; if a 1 aor. middle, too 
poorly supported. 

20. TO TTvp TO alwviov ... TO TTup TO TTpocKaipov : Standing con- 
trastj. Otto cites Dial. c. Tryph. 113; Epist. Eccl. Smyrn. aj). 
Euseb. H.E.4, 15. 

The chapter is incomplete. 

Almost all the editors have agreed in considering tlie last two 
chapters, 11 and 12, as i)roceeding from another hand. So Henri 
Estienne (Stephanus), who first edited the Epistle, then Sylburg, 
Tillemont, Boehl, Semisch, and others. In the MSS. of Stepha- 
nus and Strasburg there is a marginal note on Ou t,sva Krt,, wdiich 
of itself gives rise to suspicion : kuI ujoe iyKOTn)v dx^ rb di^rlypacpov. 
But besides there are internal arguments enough, such as the 
completeness of the Epistle without these chapters, the want of 
connection with the foregoing, the absence of any reference to 
the questions of Diognetus, which prompted the Epistle, whereas 
these chapters were written at the bidding of the Spirit. Stress 



EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS. C. 11, 12. 257 

has also been laid on the textual citation of Paul, and the change 
from the second person singular to the second person plural in 
the address, and on the difference of style and vocabulary. 

11. I Speak with Authoiiity. I Know whereof I Affirm. 

1, diroaToXcov •yevdjicvos jia6TjTt]s : May have been said in a nar- 
rower or in a wider sense. 

5. irpo(r4)iX 1] s : So Maran for TrpoacptXei, which seems to be the 
reading of the MSS. 

7. 6(|)av€pwo-€v : Sc. avrci. Comp. 1 Tim. 3, 16. 

8. 8iir]-YovjA£vos : Lachm. reads dujxovfievoc. 

12. Oxiros 6 air' apx'HS : 1 Jno. 1, 1 ; 2, 13. 14. — 6 Kaivo; . . . 
TraXaios : A 2, 3. 

14. 6 oT](i,epov : With Lachm. for o-. Comp. Ps. 2, 7 ; Luke 3, 22. 

18. opKia irio-TCws : So Lachm. for opia Triareojg. 

21. XO'PO'- ^o Lachm. for x^pi-Q- The eye of the transcriber an- 
ticipated here as above. 

12. Pead and Hearken and you will Learn. 

1, IvT^xovTcs : A 14, 3. 

5. 'Ev 7ap TovTw T(5 . . . Toiro) ktI. : Gen. 2, 9. This allegor- 
ical style is not found in tlie first part of the Epistle. 

15. 'H Yvwo-is . . . oiKoSojici: 1 Cor. 8, 1. 

19. eir' eXiriSt . . . irpoo-SoKwv : 1 Cor. 9, 7. 10, 

23. ovSe irXdvTi ktI. : I have followed Bunsen with Hollenberg. 
Ordinarily : iLv 6(piQ ovx aTrrerai ovde irXdvi] crvyxp^^T^'^^Tai ' ovck 
Eua (pSreiperai Kvi. 

24. irapGevos iria-reverai : In Paradise Eve is a virgin. Otto 
cites Justin, Dial. C. Try ph. 100 : Trap^kvoq yap ovaa 'Eva kuI dcpSropog. 

20. KTjpoi : ' Wax candles,' used by the Christians when they 
met under cover of the night to avoid persecution, afterwards 
retained by day for various reasons. Importance was attached 
to the arrangement of these tapers from the middle of the third 
centuiy on (Otto). Bunsen reads KXfjpoi, Lachm. proposed Trrjpoi, 
Sylburg KaipoL — Kal (ierd koo-jjiov : Bunsen inserts Trdvra between 
Kai and ixerd, Credner reads fieraicoania. — dp}ji6^ o v rai : So Otto for 
upjxo^erai. 



GREEK INDEX. 



A=rirst Apology. 
B=Second Apology. 
D=Epistle to Diognetus. 



A. 



ciya3f07roii7v, T) 5, 2G. 
dyaXXin(T^C(i, A 40, 10. 
c^Ya7^^lv,A 15, 27; B 13, 16. 
dyyeXnct) (TTparid, A 52, 11. 
dyysXoi dya^oi, A G, 7. 

^avXoi, B 7, 2. 

TTovtjpol, B 9, 18. 
dysvv}]Tog^ A 14, 8. 12 ; 25, 8 ; 49, 

18; 53, 8; B 12, 17; 13, 15. 
dyiovidv, A 4, 8. 
«ya»W4£(73ai, A 14, 4 ; 58, 1 1. 
ddeaig, B 12, 27. 
dSidcp^opoQ, A 18, 7. 
ddidcpopov TiXog, B 3, 26. 
a^o^i'rti TraTpiKai, A 12, 30. 
d^eog, with gen,, A G, 2. 
d^e6T7]g, A 4, 32. 
alduaBfai, with part., B 12,- 34. 
a'luara, A 13, 2. 
aivtiv, A 13, 5. 
aZj^og, A 41, 8; Qr^, 11. 
«l|Oa \oyof, A 3, 20. 
alaxoQ Kal Xtyftv, A 25, 4. 
alrtlv, A 15, 33 ; 35, 11 ; 40,48. 
airtlffSrat, D 1, 12. 
aiTi'jffeig TTfjUTTf tv, A 13, 12. 
dKoXacF-aiviiv, B 2, 1. 
dKdXatJTog, A 9, IS ; 15, 23. 
dtcovtiv oTi, A 2, 8. 

wc, A35, 1; 51,17. 22. 
with part., A 11, 1 ; B 
12,2. 
dKpi(3rjg Kal i^iTacTiKog \6yoQ, A 

2, 13. 
dXa^ovi'ia, D 4, 3. 20. 
dXaZ,ovtvtaBai, D 4, 11. 



dXt]^riQ Xoyoc, A 3, 5 ; 5, 12. 
dXrjTTTog^dvfKiX^-KTog^ A3, 10. 
dXXd fii]v . . . yf , D 4, 1 . 
dXX' ?/, A 40, 28 ; 57, 10 ; B 4, G ; 

dXXayi) tou dv^pojTTftov yivovc, A 
^ 23, 9. 

dXXr/Xocpovoi, A 14, 15. 
dX\T]Xo(puvTai, A 39, 13. 
dXXoi^v>)g, A 53, 37. 
dXXog Trapd, A 19, 1 9 ; 2G, 28 ; 58, G. 

Tojv dXXiov dyy!-\(jjv, A G, G. 
dXXoTpiov TTOulaSrai, B 2, 8. 
aXoyiaralvtiv, A 4G, 1. 
dXoyog — opfxi], A 2, 15. 
'pioin), A 3, 1. 
dXoyov TrdSrog, A 5, 3. 
dfjiapTavtiv, 1 aor., A 61, 19. 
dfxeiiSea^ai, ' requite,' A 44, 35. 
dfxt)v, A 65, 1 G. 
d/iop^og vXt], a 10, 9. 
d/xvSpojg opdv, B 13, 20. 
dv omitted (regular), A 1 2, 40 ; 33, 
15; 39, 16; 43, 29. 
(irregular), A 10, 22; 
19,9. 
with fut. ind., D 4, 17. 
with fut. part., D 2, 4. 
di' = 6aV, A 2, 4 ; 3,14. 
dvayevvda^ai, A 61, 10. 11. 
dvayivix)cricsiv, A 31, 19. 
dvaypdcjxii^, A 27, 18 ; 60, 4 ; 63, 
22. 
ui'ov iv iivarripioig, A 
54, 26. 
dvaSsxsfrSraL to (3dpog, D 10, 18. 
dvadioovai, A 29, 7 ; 67, 32 ; B 2, 
26. 



260 



GREEK INDEX. 



dvai(T^T]oia, A 18, 3 ; 57, 14. 
dva'iTioQ ^fot', A 44, 22. 
dvaXvia^ai tig Trvp, A 20, 4. 
dvaTc'fixittiv alvov Kal do^av, A Go, 
13. 
evx^^S '^('^ (-vxapKyTiaQ, 
A G7, 15. ' 
dvdTTTjpog, A 22, 17. 
dva7ro\uy7]Tog, A 3, 21 ; 28, 

12. 
dvariSrivcu (avrov T(^ ^t(^, A 14, 

12; 25,1); 49,19; Gl,l. 
dvaTp'tTTHV, A 27, 19. 
dvuTpoTTt) Xvxviag, A 2G, 33. 
dvarpofi] Traidojv, A 29, 3. 

dvarpocpai 7rov}]pai,A 6\, 
31. 
dvatpkpuv tig riva, A 27, 16 ; B 5, 
24; 12,35. 
'cite,'B 2,5. 
'report,' B 3, 17. 
dvSpidg, A 2G, 9. 
di'dpofSaTtly, B 12, 27. 
dvcpoyvvoi, A 27, 8. 
dvdpoixrl^ai, A 31, 28 ; 35, 2. 
avdpo^ovtlp, B 12, 21. 
dvdpo(p6vog, A 29, 2 ; B 2, 51. 
dvtydptiv, 'erect,' A 2G, 9. 
dvtSrjv — rtt dp'tdijv ni^tig, A 26, 34 ; 
^ 29, 6 ; B 7, 8. 
dvtKSirjytjTog, A 51, 2. 
dviXeyiCTog, A 7, 13 ; B 13, 13. 
dvkXfvmg tig ovpavou, A 26, 1. 
dvtvStrjg, A 13, 2; 57, 12. 
dvt^iKaKog, A 16, 1. 
dptTTifiiKTog, A G, 4. 
dvtv, A 4, 2. 

ftj^f'xfff^oj, with inf., D 2, 36. 
fli'^tri/, B 11, 11. 

dv^pijjTcaptaKtia — Stimcaifiovojv, A 
^ 2, 14. 

dv^pojTTfioc, fem., B 10, 1 ; 15, 7. 
avS'pwTrtrof, fem,, A 11, 2. 
dvBpujTTog t^ di'BpioTTujv, A 30, 2 ; 
^ r.4, 35. 

ai'oo-toc, A 5, 23. 
dvTaiptiv^ A IG, 9. 
dvTiTi^'tvai, A 30, 1. 
dvTiTVTriiv, A 8, 9. 
dv{jjyop.ctaTog ^tog, A G3, 1 . 
d'^ifpaaToc, B 3, 25. 



a^ioTTiarog, D 8, 3. 

a^iof, ^vith dat., A 10, 10. 

absolute, A 52, 13. 
d^iovp, A 3, 2. 8; 7, 12. 15; 23, 

6; B 14, 1. 
dopyijTog, A 16, 2 ; D 8, 16. 
dirdytiv (to death), A 31, 26 ; B 2, 

48. 59.' 
dTra^avaTiZfii', A 21, 16. 30. 
a'7ra^flo, B 1, 11. 
d7ra3-//c, A 25, 8; 57, 12. 
dTrairaj/, A 2, 12; 17,17; 68,9; 

B 14, 10. 
ciTraXXdaativ (intrans.), A 44, 20. 
dTTapdjSaTog — t't/JLapfiEvi], A 43, 24. 
aTTspavTog alwv, A 28, 6. 
aTTipivorjTog, D 7, 7. 
dTTitTTtHv fit], A 57, 13. 
dirXwg, A 67, 24. 

OTTO : d(p' iavTov, sua sj)onte, A 43, 
29. 
utt' tKtivov (of a sect), A 26, 

22 • B 8 1 • 11 27 
aTTo jdipovg, B 10, 24 ; 13, 10. 
oVo TrpoaiVTTov, A 36, 2 ; 47, 
4; 49,5; 53, 31. 
dno^dirb TrponwTrov, A 37, 8 ; 44, 6. 
drrofiXsTrtLV, A 18, 1. 
dTto^tiKvvvai oTi, A 12, 27 ; 13, 18. 
part., A 3, 3. 
rnf,36,14; 52,2; 54, 
4. 
dnohKTog, A 43, 10 ; D 8, 7. 
d7ro^eX€(T^«t, with gen., D 1, 10. 
diTo^avtlv Tov Koivbv Buvarov, A 

18, 2. 
«7ro/c£t(T^af, A 18, 5 ; 32, 4. 
aTTOKOTTTtiv = ticrei-ivfiv, A 27, 15. 
diroKytlp, A 46, 21 ; B 6, 16. 
diroXoylav (peptiv, B 12, 28. 
aTTonviqjxovtvHV, A 33, 23. 
d7ro[iVi]iJ.ovtvi.iaTa, A 6G, 13 ; 67, 8. 
drroTTTog (?), B 13, 13. 
aTTocrKtvci^ta^ai, D 2, 3. 
('nroariXXtiv, Avith inf., A 39, 13. 
dTToaToXog I. X., A 12, 34 ; 63, 24 ; 

comp. 63, 12. 
dTroTUTTta^ai, A 49, 18. 
aTToriB'ivai, A 67, 21. 
d-o^aivta^ai, A 20, 18 ; 43, 7 ; 57, 

15; B 7, 22. 



GREEK INDEX. 



261 



apyvpoKOTTOQ^ D 2, IG. 
dpKuaB'ai, A 7, 15 ; 29, 11. 
with inf., 56, 1. 
appT]T07roi6c, A 27, 8. 
dppr]Tog Bade, A Gl, 38. 

Tzarqp, B 10, 30. 
apxnyhnq, A 28, 1 ; 31, 24. ^ 
dpxt]i^, Tt)v dpx>iv, A 10, 8. IG ; 19, 
12; 28, 10; 29, 3; 59, 8 ; B G, 
8 ; 7, 23. ^ 
opcjyoi Kai ai'/jj^iaxoi, A 12, 1. 
daeXytjQ, A 4, 32 ; 9, 15. 
daKtlv jSiov, D 5, 4. 
daxoXtlaSrai Tzapi ri, A G3, 58. 
uaioTog fxavici^ A Gl, 39. 
draicTog ^opu, D 9, 3. 
aTupaxog, A 4G, 19. 
drpsTTTog Bfog, A 13, 20. 
drowog, A 29, 12. 
av TTuKiv, A 20, 4. 
avTt^ovaiov, B 7, 22. 
(ivroKpuTUjp, A 1, 1. 
aoToXtKii, A 32, 2 ; 33, 1 ; 59, 5. 
atro^ emphatic, D 7, 4. 

for ovTog, A 33, 21. 

avTov for avrov, A 32, 22 
40, 31. Comp. A 4, 34 
21, 28; 40, 18; B 2, 12 
9, 10; 13, 12; D 4, 16. 

Ini TO auro, A 40, 39; 67, 7. 

Kal auToc, See koi. 

avToi iavroig, A 44, 30. 
ai'xi^ripog, B 11,15. 
d<pSrap<Ttav tvSvaaa^ai, A 19, 17. 

tvcvcrei, A 52, 13. 
dcpBfopog, A 15, 18. 
dipopni], A 4, 25 ; 44, 27. 
dcppalvHV, B 11, 6. 
d(ppaaTog = dv£K(ppa(TTog, D 8, 18. 
aXPtC, A 35, 2. 



(SavavaovpyoL, A 55, 12. 
(idp^apog, A 5, 19 ; 7, 8 ; 4G, 12 ; 

D5, 8. 
PaaiXtiov = ISaffiXtca, A 32, 12. 
(3acn\(vg, ' emperor,' A 14, 25 ; 17, 

10. 
(SaaiXiKwrarog = -oJTSpog, A 12, 28. 
^amXig, A 26, 8 ; 56, 10. 
[itftaiog Trpog, A 12, 36. 



i3f]^iXXov = vexillu7n, A 55, 21. 
fSifSXidwv, A 29, 6 ; B 2, 25 ; 14, 2. 
[iiog — elg tov (51qv datXBCiv^ D 1,9. 
(3iOTri — ^/}v T>)v ivBil^e iSiorrjv, B 

12,8. 
(Sioiv, A 16, 27; 4G, 18; 57, 5; 

61,6. 
f36Bpog — 6 Trap' 'Oju/yp^, A 18, 17. 
(3opai, A 26, 35. 
(SpaxvtTTwg, A 49, 23 ; B 9, 6. 



ya/jitT)], B 2, 8. 

yisvva, A 19, 30. 

yci'fme — yevtaiv ytvvr]B7ivai, A 22, 

5; 61,28. 
yevfjaEtj^ai and yfVfc'(T3at, A 12, 38 ; 

52, 20. 
yivV7JT(jjp Sriog, A 13, 20. 
yepaiptiv, D 3, 16. 
yiyag, A 40, 1 1 . 

ylvea^ai (not yiy^-faS-rtOi A 15, 43. 
yivioaKHv (not yiyi'.), with inf.. All, 

5; 12,7: B 2,61. 
yvojpiZtiv, D 8, 1 1 . 
yv(i)piaTiic6g, B 14, 7. 
yojyc, D 8, 10. 
ypc/ju/<rt — Ota ypa^inuTOJV Btovg tiro- 

vojxu^Hv, A 55, 26. 
ypa(p>) — tv ypacpaig (ra^aig?), A 
24, 10. 
fxayiKai ypa(pai, B 5, 13. 
yvvaiov, B 12, 14. 



Saifioveg dvoaioi Kai KaKoi, A 5, 

23. 
<pavXoi, A 5, 6 ; 10, 22 ; 

52,14; 57, 2; 58,2; 

B 1, 14; 7, 2. 6; 10, 

15; 12, 11; 13,3. 
SainoviSXijTrTog, A 18, 13 ; B 6, 18. 
Si. See Kal — Se. 
Siea^ai, A 10, 1 ; B 14, 13. 
dtiaiSaifiovia, D 1, 7; 4, 2. 
dticnSaiixoJV, A 2, 15. 
deKaSvo, A 39, 9. 
d,), A 62, 1. 

Si]Xovv, with inf., B 7, 33. 
Cnniog, A 12, 18. 
crji-uovpyiiy, A 10, 8. 



2G2 



GREEK INDEX. 



tVioupyoc, A 13, 1 ; 2G, 2-t ; D 7, 

11; 8, 13. 
^id with ace. and gen., A 23, 11 ; 
20, U; 4G, ID. 
Trap^ivov, A 22, 15; 32, 50; 
33, 1 ; 4G, 21 ; 54, 38 ; G3, 
50. 
^iaj3(f3aiov(TB^ai, A 19, 8. 
ilidiSoXoc, A 28, 2. 
^uiysiv, A 20, 15, 
eiayiyvujaiCHV — cieyvojafit^a, A 2, 

19. 
diaSex^a^ai, -^ 12, 30. 
diacoxri, A 31, 38 ; 32, 54. 
cuiKOiWQ, A Go, 18 ; G7, 18. 
ciaXveiv, A 43, 4 ; B 5, 4. 
Hiaavpeiv, A 35, 19. 
SiaTOiCFcreiv, D 7, 17. 
ciari^ivai, eonstr., A 9, 9 ; 63, 28. 
SiafiptLv, A 55, 1 4. 
diacpopd Kcd TrporpoTTt), A 21, 21. 
diyafiia, A 15, 12. 
SiddaKsiv, with inf., = ort with ind. , 

A 10, 4; 21, 30; 4G, 8; G3, 2 ; 

GG, 12; B 4,5. 
SiSuvai — SuiTai—So^fj, A 5 1,9 (note). 
dlSv/.ioi — upx^iQ, A 29, 8. 
<)i87reiv,T> 7, 10. 
ciKaiOTTpaytir, A 1 2, 1 7. 
ciKatovffSrai, D 5, 25 ; 9, 23. 
ciKi] — ^'iKy^Ty ciKij, A 4, 9. 

^iK}]v GTripfxaTiov, A 19, 15. 
^lopiZtiv, D 7, 1 7. 
SoyiiariZ^iv, A 2, 5 ; 4, 30 ; 7, G. 
coKtlv, A 3, 1. 
do^d^tiv, A 4, 30 ; 5, 2. 
dovXaytoyilv, B 11, 24. 
SovXog Kai vTrrjpsnjQ, A 14, G. 
dvydfiiig. A 16, 36 ; 26, 7 ; 30, 3 ; 
56, 8. 
XoyiKai, A 10, 18. 
Sv<Tt^t)yi]TO(;, B 6, 12. 
SuaKivr]Tog,Ji 1, 13. 
^yo-jutra^frog, B 1, 12. 
SvaojTTHV, B 2, 1 2. 
(5w|0£i<T^ai, pass. , D 11, 17. 

E. 

iavToiQ^iifxlv avrolg, A 13, 7 ; B 
4, 14. 
vidv avroic, A 15. 37. 38. 



tavrui' = aavT6v, B 11, 17. 
iavToi'Q = »)jwac avrovg, A 25, 9 ; 
61,1. 
v[xdQ avrovg, A 3, 7 ; B 

iavTuJp =^ t'/jjiuiv auTuiv, A 18, 22; 
65, 4. 
u/iuii^ auTu)V, A 2, 16; B 
15, 14. 
lyKaTaffTijpi^tLV, D 7, 7. 
tyKparevtcrSrai, A 29, 4. 
£(', with ind. pres., A 4, 6 ; 15, 27 ; 
28,14; B 8, 13; D 3, 2. 5. 
fut., A8, 17; 17, 13; 45,19; B 

4,9; 7,34. 
imperf., A 11,6; 19,2; 44,20; 

B5, 1; 7,5.27; 11,2. 
aor., A 33, 14; 53, 11. 
with subj. (?), A 57, 11. 
tdv {tjv, dv), witli subj. 
pres., A 2, 4; 3, 31; 4, 11 ; B 

9,12.16. 
aor., A3, 15; 4, 17. 19; 10,9; 

B4, 12. 
opt. pres., A 3, 4 ; 31, 25; 56, 
17. 
aor., A 22, 7; GI, 38; B 
5,1. 
'whether,' A 2, 10. 
si ^e [.li] yf, A 15, 53 ; B 15, 7. 
Kai, A 22, 1. 15 ; 55, 24. 
fu), A 10, 22 ; 16, 25 ; 29, 3 ; 33, 

36; 55, 12. 
rvxoi, A 27, 13. 
eidevai,\\kh inf., A 26, 20; 50, 19. 
with oTi, A 12, 44. 
Trpbg tidorag Xsytii', A 21, 

20. 
iiSoai Xsyeiv, A 9, 8. 
elSog,^ D 2, 7. 
eiicaioTtjg, D 4, 19. 
tiKovorroiuv oaria, vivpa, adpKag, 

A 19,4. 
tiKog (?), D 3, 10. 
t'tnapiiivt], A 43, 2 ; B 7, 15. 21. 
tifxaprai, A 43, 9. 
tTvai = ti,eh'ai, A3,15 ; 12,40; 36, 

10; 60, 28; 61,39. 
eiTraj/, with inf.,=ort with ind., A 

33, 11; 46,3; 59,3; 60,17. 
tiprjaerai, A 5, 5 ; B 9, 22. 



GREEK INDEX. 



263 



(Ipojviia, D 4, 4. 

eiQ TO, with inf., A 15, 33. 

6('(7£pX£(T^ai tig TUV j3iov, D 1, 10. 

tiaTToiijrog, A 1, 4. 
il(T(popd, A 17, 1 ; 27, 10. 
f IVf (solitary), B 8, 7 ; 7, 33. 
tK yev8TT]g, A 22, 17. 
Traidujv, A 15, 18. 
Travr6g,A7, G; B12, 8. 
TravTog yivovg, A 1 , 5 ; 25, 1 ; 
40, 19; 42, 19. 
tKaTovTctxiip, A 25, 1 2. 
tKytXav, A 40, 42. 
iK^i'xfCT^flt, B 11, 20. 
tKdvffdJTrelv, B 2, 12. 
tKelvo Tov Kcapov, A 17, 2 ; 2G, 15 ; 

33, 18 ; 60, 5 ; G2, 10. 
i:KnvKTripiZ,Hv, A 40, 43 (LXX). 
iKTTtpivoaTtiv, A 54, 42. 
tKTTvpujaig, A 20, 13 ; 45, G ; 57, 1 ; 

60, 14; B 7, 12. 
tXtyx^iV)^ 2, 18; D 2, 40. 
•with oTi, B 3, 16. 
with wg, A 63, 43. 
tXtvGig — dviXtvaig, A 26, 1 . 
{.UTtXtvaig, A 43, 16. 
avviXf^vaig, A 40, 18 ; G7, 
7. 24. 
^Xkeiv XoyicTfiov, B 11, 31. 
iXXdg (pitjvrj, A 31, 16. 
IXTri^et}^, M'ith aor. inf., A 15, 35. 
tfij3povTt](Tia, A 9, 18. 
ifiTraytivai KvXoj, B 3, 2. 
tjuTraS'wc, A 57, 5. 
tf.nrve'iv — tuiv IfnreiTi'svaixtviov, A 

36,3. 
ificpopHv TreiBio Kal Triartv, A 53, 46. 
iv (instrumental use), A 38, 14; 

40, 50. 
IvdptTog, A 12, 4 ; 21, 31 ; 45, 6 ; 

B 1, 10. 
tvapkrcog, B 9, 5. 
tvuTiviZeiv, A 42, 6. 
tvSttKVVffSrai, D 5, 11. 
kv^vaaa^ai dcpSrapaiav, A 19, 17. 
tvdixTH d<p^ap<jiav, A 52, 1 3. 
tvepyuv, A 5, 15 ; 12, 22 ; 23, 14 ; 
26, 7. 18 ; 62, 1 ; 63, 28 ; 64, 2 ; 
B 7, 6; 12, 11. 
tv^a, A 8, 9. 
iviSpveiv, D 7, 7. 



tvvoia — rj TTpdjTr] tvvoia, A 26, 16 ; 
64, 14. 
tvvoiag tiKwv, A 64, 15. 
tvvoiav tvvoHv, D 8, 17. 
ti'Tav^a, A 13, 19. 
tvTsv^ig, A 1,9. 
ivrpiireaBai, A 38, 8. 
trryyxavftr, 'read,' A 14, 3; 26, 
38 ; 44, 43. 4G ; 45, 20 ; B 3, 8. 
11 ; 15, 10; D 12, 1. 
t^— and vTTo, A 12, 20. 

dvSrp(t)7r(i)v, A 21, 12. 
tE,aKoXovBuv, A 2, 3 ; 10, 16. 
tS,avayicdZiiv, B 1 , 1 . 
l^eTa^eiv, A 3, 3. 
t^eraariKug Xuyog, A 2, 13. 
h^traaTiKoJg, A 5, 13. 
t^riyr]rr]g, A 32, 10. 
f^r/g,A32, 41; D3, 1. 
tKoixoiovv, A 6, 7. 
i^ov^rtvHV, A 63, 52. 
twdyeiv Trpdyfiara, A 3, 7. 
tTraipeaB'aij'W'hh gen., A 58, 14. 
iTravayioyi], A 23, 10. 
lTra(TTt)g, B 6, 23. 
tTTfi, 'whereas,' A 4, 3. 
eTTiidi], with imperf., A 31, 14. 
tTTSvcpyjixeiv, A 65, 15. 17 ; 67, 

16. 
t7Tt]ptdZ.ni', A 1, 5. 
Itti, with gen. : 

t(p' tavTov, 'unmarried,' A 

29, 11. 
i^' yfiwv, 'in our ease,' A 5, 
1.17; comp. 36, 9 ; 55, 1. 
Itt' ovofiarog, A 61, 11. 41. 
tTTi Ttyovg 'laracrSrai, A 26, 1 5. 
t(p' I'lXMv, ' before you,' A 4, 

12; B 3, 18. 
t7r' v7roSrs(Tio)g, A 19, 7. 
t7ri = te7npore, A 13, 15; 26, 
6 ; 34, 9 ; 35, 25 ; 46, 3. 6 ; 
56,11; 61,42. 
with dat. : 

tir' dXXayy, A 23, 9. 

final cause : 

i7r' dvarpocpij, A 29, 3. 

tTT* diray^yy, A 54, 3. 

Itti KoXdati, A 57, 1. 

t7r' tTravayojytj, A 23, 10. 

tTTi avicocpavria, B 12, 12. 



264 



GREEK INDEX. 



iTTj, ^vitll dat. : 

of emotion, A 42, 13; 01, 

3r>. 

t7ri= penes: 

i<p' t'liMV, A 8, 1 ; 43, 8 ; B 4, 

11; 

^tt' avTolg, A 40, 22. 
tm Xjoovotf, A 13, 15. 
with ace, : 

im, 'after,' A 21, 27; 25, 9. 
10; 33, 11. 

tTTt TToXv, A G5, 14. 

kTTi TO avTo, A 40, 39 ; 67, 7. 
tTTiftalveiv toIq hpolg, A 62, 7. 
tTTiyivojaKeiv, A 16, 42. 
tTriyvuxng, B 10, 19. 
tTTiypcKpeaBai, A 4^ 28. 
tTTUticeia, D 7, 23. 
tTTiKaTriyoptiv, A 7, 9 ; 2G, 31. 
cTTiKvpuxyig (?), A 45, 6. 
tirifitpttv fii], with inf., B 7, 2. 
tTTii-iovi}, constr., A 28, 7. 
tTTivoia, D 7 2. 

i7r!<TKt^pig, A 3, 17 ; 18, 18 ; 44, 47. 
fcTTJOTojua/, with on, A 7, 15; 24, 
11; 47, 15. 
with inf., A 5, 10; 44, 
48; 4G. 15; B 9,18. 
with part., B 14, 8. 
tTriaTaaiQ, A 44, 38. 
tTTiTaaig (?), A 44, 38. 
hTriTq^tvjxa, D 1, 9. 
tTrirpoTTog, A 13, 16; 34, 10; 40, 

17. 
tTTKpdvHa — iTTKpdveia ovsipojv, A 
14,5. 
tTTKpaveiaQ TToi^aaa^ai, 
A 5, 6. 
■cTTOTTTiVaiQ TTaiooji', A 18, 8. 

iTToTTTtjg Bene, B 1 2, 32. 

iTiOpKi'Cf-iv, B G, 20. 

t7ropKi(Tri]g, B G, 23. 

tpciv, A 8, 9 ; 39, 23. 

tpaoTtig TTaiCiiag, A 1 , 4 ; 2, 9. 

tpyov, A3, IG. 

tptlv (present), D 2, 8. 

Ipivvav, A 28, 3. 

tpl^uiiov, A 18, 4. 

ipiOTOTTOltlv, B II, 10. 

ioTiag TToitia^ai, A 14, 16. 
'irtpog napci — , A 43, 32. 



iv TrpaTTeiv, A 28, 11. 
ivayyiXia, A 6G, 14. 
evayyeXi'C^a^ai, with ace., A 33, 

19. 
eviXTTig, with aor. inf., A 14, 20. 
tv^aXtlv, D 12, 4. 
ev^uvijv Tov (3iov 7rapi\Hv^ A 3, 

10. 
evoSovv, B 7, 33. 
tvpioKHv (constr.), A 4, 8. 
tiiai(ii]g, A 1, 1. 
tvToviDg, A 65, 5. 
tvTOVLJTtpog, B 10, 12. 
fv(p(ov(i)g vjipiZ,Hv, A 4, 35. 
ivXapioreiv — o evxdpi<TTt]^eig dpTOQy 
A 65,19. 
>) tvxapiarri^tiaa rpo- 
(pi), A 66, 10. 
evxapiOTia, A 65, 13 ; 66, 1. 
(i>XepoJg, B 2, 22. 
tvx^] — ti'X^Q TToina^at, A 65, 4. 

tvxttg Kai fvxctpi<yTiav civa" 

TrkjiTTeiv, A 67, 15. 
tvx^ig TTSfnTdi', A 67, 13. 
Xoyog evxt)g Kcd iVxapK^Tiag, 
A 13, 4; and irpoaivxhi 
A 13, 4 (note). 
ivx^l-iai, with aor. inf., A 15, 20. 
tXtiv=^SvvaaSrai, A 3, 5; 4, 19 ; 16, 
13; 19, 20; 24, 8; 53, 1 ; 
61, 38 ; D 5, 30. 
with part., A 56, 9. 
ovK t'xw, constr., A 12, 18. 
with adverb, A 3, 3 ; 40, 13. 
oL txovTtg, 'the well-to-do,' A 
txs<y^cci,v,'\t]i gen. , A GS, 1 . [67, 2. 
tx^pog, A 31, 20. 
s(jtjg dv, A 45, 3. 



Kt]V rriv kV^dSe jSioTi'iv, B 12, 8. 
'CujOTToitlv, D 5, 22. 28. 

H. 

y and 7 confounded, A 4, 4 ; 29, 7 ; 

B 3,3. 
?/ after BeXhv, A 15, 26. 
tjyiiaBai, A 4, 5. 
vdr],A'2S, 1. 

yXiov t'lu^pa, A 67, 6. 25. 31. 
i'lv, with ind., A 2, 19. 



GREEK INDEX. 



265 



e. 



Bc'ivarov cnrodravtii', A 1 8, 2. 
Bdvarog y ^iifiia, A 11, 5. 

wpiaSfr], A 44, 4 1 . See 6pi- 

5iavaTov Karacppovtlu, D 1, 5. 

S'aoc XoyotN A 3(), 4. 

S'tXicn/coc, B 11, 11. 

BsXu) and s^iXw, A 15, 25 ; B 1, 5. 

Bsfxig, A 33, 27 ; D 4, 8. 

^tliiTog, D 6, 22. 

Sttog — 6 ciysvvrjTog, A 14, 9 ; o 

dytvvrjTog kcu cnraB^qg, A 

25,8. 
dyivvrjTog h>v,'B 6, 1 ; o dysv- 

vr]Tog Kai dpprjrog, B 12, 

17; 13, 15. 
6 dyvojffTog, B 10, 18. 
6 d\7}^eaTC(Tog Kai Trarz/p ^t- 

Kaio<Tvvi]g Kai aujcppoauvrjg 

Kai Twv dWitJV dptrojv, A 

<:, 2. 

o dviTii}.UKTog kukov, A 0, 4. 

o uppr]Tog, A Gl, 38. 

o UTpeTTTog Kai dd wv Kai 
ytvvi]TOjp TU)v uTrdvTbJV, A 
13, 20. 

6 cearrurrjg Trdi'Tcov Kai Tra- 
T>)p, A 3G, G. 

6 ^i]jxiovpyog Tovds too irav- 
Tog, A 13, 1 ; twv irdvTOJV, 
A 58, 6. 

o tTroTTTTjg o diKaiog, B 12, 
32. 

o uvTCjg, A 13, IG. 

o TravTOKpdrojp Kai TravroKri- 
(Trr]g Kai duparog, D 7, 5. 

6 TvdvTiiJV deaTroZoJv, A 14, 
21. 

6 Trariip tuiv TrdvTiov, A 45, 
2 ; o TraTtjp tuiv oXojv, A 
G3, 39. 45; 65, 11 ; o ira- 
Tt)p TrdvTOJV Kai htairoTrig, 
A 12,34; 32,39; 4G, 20 ; 
o TTarijp TU)V oXcjv Kai 5e- 
aTTOTrjg, A Gl, 1 1. 3G ; o 
irdvTujv rraTiip Kai SrjiAiovp- 
yog, A 8, 5 ; o rivv oXcov 
TTUTrip Kai diJi-uovpySg, A 
63, 33. 



StBog — o TTOLTjnjg rovSa tou iravTog, 
A 26, 27; 6 Trdvrojv ttoh}- 
Tl]g, A 20, 7 ; 6 ironnng 
T. TrdvTOJV, A 67, 4 ; o ttoitj- 
Ti)g tCjv oupaviojv Kai yr}'C- 
vojv aTrdvroJV, A 58, 3. 

^£0(Tt736ia,D 1, 2; 4,17.20; 6,9. 

SreoatlStlv, D 3, 1. 

Srto(popti(T^ai, A 33, 36 ; 35, 8. 

^tTog — ^i.ruv ovoi-ia, A 10, 7 ; B 

SreojprjTiKog, A 28, lb. 

SrprjaKtia, D 3, 6. 

^pT](yKiveiv, A 62, 8 ; D 1, 4 ; 2, 

36. 
SrvfidrMV Kai BvfiiaiidTtov, B 5, 15. 
S'l/juog and dpyi), A 40, 44. 



I. 

I for ij, B 3, 3. 

I'^toc, with gen., A 32, 8. 

/^oj;,A33, 13. 

Iduonjg, A 39, 10; B 3, 9 ; 10, 

28. 
iipd (TvyKXrjrog, A 1, 4 ; 56, 15 ; B 

2, 55. 
hpov, A 9, 20 ; 32, 29 ; 62, 3. 
'Iva Ti, A 40, 37. 
(TTTTOt (popiSddeg, A 27, 6. 
'i(TTa(T^ai — eTri rkyovg oraS^qvat, A 

26, 15. See c. 27, 9. 
i(TToptXi% with part., A 53, 35. 
iGxi^t^v, with inf., A 44, 45. 

K. 

Kabaipiiv — Ka^aiprjaars, A 56, 19. 
Ka^apiluv Tijg TrXijyijg, A 51, 9. 
Ka^ecT^tjaoufvog, A 35, 26. 
KaBopB^ovv,3 7, 16. 
fcat— emphatic, A 17, 12 ; 44, 24. 
epexegetic, A G^, 10. 
Kai avTvg, A 54, 35 ; 63, 14 ; 

B 6, 10. 
Kai avTi], B 2, 2. 
Kai avrd, B 5, 7. 
Kai avToi, B 4, 12. 
Kai yap, A 4, 12 ; 7, 2 ; 35, 
18; 61,14; 62,6; 63,57; 
B3, 14; 6,14; 10,13; 13, 
1. 
Kai yap TOi, A 4, 27, 



266 



GREEK INDEX. 



K«( — Kcil — oi, A 32, 4."); 33, 17; 
44, 48; 55, 20; Gl, 27; 
G3, 7 ; G4, 1 ; B 2, 62. 
KraivoTTOiar, A GI, 2. 
Kaivo^, A 15, 28. 

TTrt/od, A 21, 5. 
KaiTTsp, with part., A 7, 7 ; 45, 17. 

with finite verb, A 4, 14. 
KOKiav txav, A 9, IG. 
KOKoepyog, A 12, 3. 
KuXtl)^ — KtKXijfitSra, A 6, 1 . 

KeK\7]i'Tai, A 53, 20. 
Ka\\ispt:u,A 12,27. 
KciXog KayaBog (ironical), B 2, 20. 
KoXvTCTEiv apapTiag, D 'J, 22. 
Kdv, ♦ even if,' A 2, 7 ; IG, 28 ; 44, 
48 ; 55, 29 ; B 1, 5. 
(elliptical). A 18, 19; 2G, 36; 
57,11; B3, 2; 8, 1.7^ 15, 
7; D 2,42. 
for Kti, A 46, 10. 
Kaprepla jSiov, A 16, 14. 
Kara, with ace. : 

Kar dXtj^eiav — dXrjB^oJg, A 2, 

1. 
Kar' d^iav, A 43, 5. 
Kar' Ikhvo rov Kciipov, A 1 7, 
2 ; 26, 15 ; 33, 18 ; 60, 5 ; 
62, 10. 
KUT tXXeixpiv, B 1 , 8. 
Kara Kaipov, A 19, 16. 
Kara Kaipovg, A 31, 4. 
KaTci peTaj3oXi)v, A 20, 5. 
KaB' y'lpdc, 'onr,' A 42, 11. 
KrtS-' i'pdg, A 22, 9. 
with gen., 'against,' A 2, 16. 
verbs compounded with, A 4, 
25. 
KaTayyiXXeiv, A 4, 33. 
KarayiXav — KarfytXaaa, B 13, 5. 
KctraSiaipu}', D 4, 16. 
KaraciKaCiiv, A 7, 4. 
KaradvvaaTtveiv,!) 10, 13. 
Kcnaicaieiv — KaraKaivTCi, A 21, 18, 
/caraXfyar, 'enroll,' A 39, 1 9 ; 46, 14. 
' charge upon,' A 4, 26. 
KnTat,iovv, A 10, 11. 15. 
KciraTrXiiaativ, aor. mid., A 56, 12. 
KaTa-rrXayt^lvai, A 5,8. 
KaTapyuv, B 6, 24. 
KUTcuKtvi) Xoyoi', B 10, 31. 



Kardaracrig Ti'ig TroXirtiac, D 5, 11. 
KaTaaTipiZ,av, A 21, 15. 
KUTaTpixeiv, B 3, 8. 
Karacpaivea^ai (midd.), A 13, 19. 
KaTCKppovuv, A 25, 8. 
Karaxf/evdea^ai Biov, D 4, 9. 
Krtrixttv, A 44, 45 ; 45, 3 ; D 6, 1 5, 
Karrjyoptlv, A 4, 26 (note). 
KaropSfovp, A 43, 14. 
(CfTcT^at, A 11, 6; 12, 11. 
Kfpdaivfiv — aor. KipStjaavrsg, A 44, 

49. 
KT]dtp(jJv, A 67, 25. 
Kijpvacrsiv, with part., A 54, 6. 
fC/\j/<T/e xpvx^^v, A 18, 8. 
Koti'i) yiVfcrtc, A 22, 5. 
Koivii)via X6y(x)v, B 3, IS. 
KoivuJg, A 22, 1. 
KoXa^aj/, A 3, 4 ; D 6, 20. 

ticoXacroro, B 2, 31. 
KuXaaig aiojvia, A 8, 15 ; 12, 5; 
18,5; 45, 24. 
ic. Kai Ti/Jiwpia, B 8, 12. 
KoXdatig Kai rtuwpiat, A 43, 
4. 
Kopog, A 57, 11. 
Kpdpa, A 65, 10. 
KpdriaTog — lo K-partOTf , D 1, 1. 
Kpiaig — Kpiaiv Troii'icraa^ai, A 2, 13; 

53, 9. 
KpoKuStiXog, A 24, 5. 
KpoviKi) — ypipa, A 67, 30. 31. 
Kvo(popth', A 33, 16. 



XflXaj', A 38, 14. 

Xav^dvtiv (constr.), A 35, 1 ; 57, 

3. 
Xavg, A 33, 22 ; 39, 4 ; 47, 4. 
Xarptveiv, A 16, 22. 
Xeytiv, ' mean, ' A 1 1 , 2. 

(constr.), A 59, 1; B 1, 12. 
XaTTftj/ — TO XtiTTov, A 32, 30. 
rd XtiTTuvra, A 52, 7. 
oi XtiTTopevoi, 'indigent,' 
A 67, 2. 23. 
Xyarijg — Xjjaral iv tpjjpla, A 12, 

27. 
Xi^oK6or,J) 2, 16. 
Xoyi'^fa.S'oj, with inf., A 2, 18; 53, 
4. 



GREEK INDEX. 



267 



Xoyi'Cea^aif with on, A 12, 41 ; 19, 
14. 
with part., A 40, 13. 
Xoyiicov — TO X. TO oXov, B 10, 2. 
Xoyiov, A 32, 53. 
Xoyicr/xbv tXicew, B 11, 3. 
Xoyoi;, 'word,' 6 tpni]vtvTiKuQ, A 

6 TTapd Srtov c'lyyeX- 

TiKog, A 22, 7. 
evx^is fcai ivxapia- 

Tiag, A 1 3, 4. 
Sid Xoyov, A 13, 8 ; 

55, 26; 67, 11. 
6 r/SriKoc, B 8, 2. 
* reason, ' Xoyog, A 68, 1 . 

uX6yog,A2, 2; 12, 

31. 
fitTii Xoyov, A 13, 

18. 
Xoy^j Krtt ciXri^siqi, 

A 6, 8. 
aX?j3-/)f XoyoQ, A 3, 

5; 5,12; 43,23. 
opBog Xoyog, B 7, 

29; 9, 19. 
au)(ppijjv Xoyog, A 

Xoyog a'tpt7, A 3, 20. 
* THE WORD,' 6 Xoyog, A 12, 27 ; 

21, 1 ; B 6, 7. 
Xoyoc, A 22, 7 ; B 

10, 4. 
Xoyog ^eiog, A 33, 

36 ; 36, 4. 
6 Xoyoc ■9'itog tor, A 

10, 22. 
6 Xoyog Tov ^iov, A 

63, 10. 
6 irag Xoyog, B 8, 

10. 
Xoyog juiopcpMSrilc, A 

5,20. 
anspfia tov Xoyov, 

B 8, 4. 
GTTtpfiaTiKov Xoyov 

/uepog, B 8, 9. 
Xoyog Belog OTtepfia- 

n/coc, B 13, 11. 
Xoyog o ciyiog UTrepi- 

rorjTog, D 7, 6. 



XotTTor, A 3, 21 ; 55, 28 ; 67, 1 ; B 

5, 12 ; 15, 11; D 9, 14. 
XovTpov TTOitia^ai, A 61, 13. 
Xvxviag dvaTpom), A 26, 33. 
XdOTToSvnig, B 2, 51. 

M. 

I^iayucvg — j-iayiKai ypa<pai,Ji 5, 13. 
fxayiKcu dvvdfieig, A 26, 

7. 
[.layiicaL OTpocpai, A 14, 6. 
f.iayiKai Tsxvai, A 14, 11. 
fiayiKg Ttxvij,A 30, 3. 
(!ta fiayiKi'ig Texv7]g, A 26, 
20. 
/idyoi, A 18, 9. 
fxaBt)naTa=X6yog, A 3, 1 7. 
pdXXov, with comp., A 19, 1. 
fiav^di'tw, with part., A 54, 43 ; 
59, 2. 
with inf., 'to,' A 39, 7; 

44, 8. 
with inf., ' that,' = on, 
A 12, 14 ; 43, 6. 
fidaTi^, A 5, 3. 
fieyaXilog,J^ 3, 1 1 ; 10, 1. 
fxeyaXeLoTijg,!) 10, 17. 
fifi'Covojg, A 20, 9. 
fXfi(t}(jig T)]g aapKog, D 4, 11. 
n'sXeiv — /.itXov t<7Ti=ibisXti, A 44, 

39. 
[.leXXiw, with pres. inf., A 19, 31 ; 
32, 32; 42, 1; 45, 3 ; 
52, 4. 
with fut.,A28, 9. 
with aor.. A 52, 20. 
/.dv, without ^f, a' 13, 10 ; B 2, 22. 
30 ; 5, 8. 
— l.a)v,A 4, 27. 
Ij,tv ovv, A 53, 1. 
/i£V6iv, with dat., A 18, 5. 
fifptuvdv, A 15, 46. 
f-UTa and avv, A 8, 4. 
f.uTal3dXXuv, 'change,' A 21, 32. 

'translate,' A 31, 16. 
fiETa(3oXf], A 20, 5. 

fxeTa[3oXai (jjpm>, A 13, 
11 ; B 5, 6. 
fiETdXtj-ipiQ, A 67, 17. 
fxtTdvoia, A 28, 9 ; 40, 24. 
[xeriXevatc, A 43, 16. 



268 



GREEK INDEX. 



fiiXpiQ ov, with ind., A S, 19 ; 49, 
1;"). 
with siibj., A G7, 10. 
IX)), with inf. as a subst., A 2, 4 ; 9, 
21 ; 89,23. 
with inf. after verbs of saying, A 
4, 18; 5, 2; 18,22; 28, IG; 
.57,1; B 10, 14. 
M-ith articular (arthric) part., A 

4,9; 19, 19; 45,28. 
with anarthric part., A 5, 4 ; 9, 
4 ; 24, 2 ; 28, 9 ; 29, 1 ; 36, 
11; 39, 10; 43, 27; 44,30; 
49, 14 ; 53, 36 ; 54, 31 ; 58, 
8; 60,15; 63,45; B 2, 24 ; 
7, 21 ; D 6, 10. 
with subj. (fear), A 12, 17. 

(imper.), A 15, 46. 
with ind., B 3, 5. 
with opt. for ov, A 26, 21. 
with pres. imper,, A 15, 48. 
aor. imper,, A 41, 13. 
pleonastic, A 57, 13. 
fXTjOiig — ijirjdiva^^ouStva,!^ 7, 9. 
fiT]d6\(i)g = ixr}d' oXiog, A 29, 10. 
fi)]v, ov jxi'jv, D 5, 5. 
l.i7]vv£Lv on, A 51, 1. 
wc,A39, 11. 
fii^fig yvvaiKtjJv, B 5, 11. 
{.Ci^iQ d^eoQ icai dcrefSrig Kai aicparijg, 

A 27, 12. See dvkdrjv. 
1X1(7 dWrjXog, A 14, 15. 
/.lovog (misplaced), B 7, 9. 
fiop^i], A 4, 28 (note). 
fxopcpoTroiHv, A 9, 11. 
fxopcpovv — \6yog ixop(p(i}^iig, A 5, 

20. 
fxv'^ujTt'jp, A 55, 16. 
f.ivaTr]pia, D 7, 13. 

N. 

vaog, A 9, 2. 
vtKVOfxavTtia, A 18, 7. 
vofii^uv, ' think fit,' A 3, 18. 
Kai ohaSrai, D 2, 28. 
vovvtxilQ, A 12, 32 ; 46, 24. 
vovg — dat., vo'i, A 42, 6. 
vvv (wide acceptation), A 29, 13; 
31,22; D 1, 10. 



^tXv — ^eoPTsg Kai Te/xvovreg, A 9, 

9. 
K^vog, 'strange,' A 16, 15. 
^vXov — ^v\(i> tinray7ivai, B 3, 2. 

O. 

o, article for demonstr., A 5, 8. 
position of, A 6, 7. 
of ideal standard, A 8, 3. 
oh, A 47, 5. ^ 

Tov^i. Tivci Kai Tuvde, A 43, 9. 
Tc'iSe fxiv, TU)i'de. ds, B 7, 30. 
oUaixtv = i(Tf.uv, A 26, 21 ; 55, 28; 

59, 18; B 8, 5. 6; 12, 33. 
oiKdojg, 'appropriately,' A 40, 13. 
o'lKovon'ia — o'lKovof-dai ^iov, D 4, 15. 
olKovojxiav TTiTnariv- 
a^ai, D 7, 3. 
oiKTipixijjv, A 15, 43. 
olov, 'as for instance,' A 43, 27; 

46, 11. 
olog re, A 19, 8, 
oWvvai — oXidai, A 25, 14. 
oixiXilv irpbg x«pfv, A 2, 12. 
o/xodiaiTog, A 14, 17 ; B 2, 18. 
o/xoZvyog, A 27, 14. 
ojxoioTca^qg, A 1, 4 ; 10, 26. 
oixoiorpoTTUjg, D 3, 6. 
u/xoKoirog, B 2, 18. 
oixoXoyth', oTi, A 7, 5. 
ojg, A 13, 1. 
Avith part,, B 13, 6. 
QvapoTTOfXTiog, A 18, 9. 
ovnpojv tTTKpdifeia, A 14, 5. 
ovofxa SriTov, A 10, 7 ; B 6, 1. 

and 7rp6(Tpi](nc, B 6, 6. 
o7rojg,A 4,21; 11, 7; 14, 19; 47, 
16; B 2, 16; 12, 7; 13, 
17. 
with subj.,=inf,, A 65, 5. 
opyt), A 40, 44. 
bpiZ.HV BdvaTOV Kara mwg, A 44, 

41; 45,17; 47,15; 68,4. 
dpixaa^ai drru, A 26, 29. 
og — Kai og, B 2, 57. 

with fxsv for demonstr., A 24, 

12; D2, 16; 4, 7. 16. 
ocyf,A12, 22; B 3,4. 
oaTTsp — yjTrip, A 28, 18. 



GREEK INDEX. 



269 



oQ—omp, A 12, 38 ; 18, 3 ; 24, 8 ; 
35, 2 ; 45, 21 ; 55, 4. 
oariQ (colorless), A 38, 15 ; 63, 

29 ; 67, 30. 
o(Tov, A 40, 22. 
o(Tov ye, A 4, 3. 14. 

i7r' avTOiQ, A 40, 22; 

comp, B 4, 11 ; 15, 11. 

oaoQ — ocyq Suvcifiig, A 13, 5 ; 55, 27 ; 

67, 15. 
oiJTea, A 19, 4. 
orav, with subj. for ore, witli ind., 

A 37, 8 ; 38, 10. 
ore, with fut. ind., A 52, 11. 23. 

with pres. ind., A 60, 2. 
on, after (pijixL See ^»;/ir'. 
on ni], A 24, 1 ; 26, 35; B 3, 

16. 
ou or ovK (adherescent), A 14, 16; 
16, 44; 18, 20; 26, 30; 
49,2; 60, 29; 67, 17; B 
2, 5. Comp. A 32, 39. 
in protasis, B 3, 22. 
ov fxi], with, subj., A 38, 9 ; 52, 31. 

with fut. ind., A 39, 6. 
cvpavoQ and ovpavol, A 16, 8; 31, 

32; D 7, 6. 
ovT£ for ovSt, A 43, 8. 10. 
oipelXeiv — Tov cnroSravHi/ o^tiXo^u- 

vov, A 11, 10. 
6(p3ff]vai Tii'i, A 37, 13 ; 50, 34. 
ocbXiGKavuv — 6(f\}](ri]Ti, A 4, 9. 

6(pXt](TU}ixtv, A3, 19. 
uxf^iQ — Trpbg rag o-ipeig ^fX/cnK/'/, B 
11,11. 
o->pei bpav, A 30, 7 ; t^av, A 
32, 18. 

n. 

TraiSeveiv, A 40, 51. 
TTctXaiog, A 2, 3. 
UaXaKTrlvri, A 1, 8. 
TraXij' — av rrdXiv, A 20, 4. 
"Kafindxojg, B 13, 6. 
TravTOKpdrojp, D 7, 5. 
TravTOKTiffrrjg, D 7, 5. 
?rapa, with ace., A 8, 13; 19, 19; 
58, 6 ; B 4, 2. 

'contrary to,' A 22, 4 ; B 2, 
10 ; 7, 39. 

'owing to,' B 14, 4. 



TTapd, 'more than,' A 20, 9 ; 50, 
18; B 7,35. 
with gen., A 17, 3; 26, 9 ; 

50, 37. 
with dat., A 8, 8; 18,9; 28, 
1 ; 33, 6 ; 60, 28 ; B 7, 9. 
TrapadsxeaSrai, D 4, 7. 

Trapadix^tivai, A 23, 
5. 
7rapad(KaaBat, A 21, 29. 
irapadiSovai, A 6, 10; GG, 19. 
TrapaiTtiaSrai, A 2, 3 ; 29, 4 ; 46, 

15; B 10, 17; D 4, 8; 6, 22. 
TTiipaKa^ la Tc'ivai, D 2, 33. 
TrapaKeXevea^ai, A 4, 24. 
7rapaKoXov^(.'iv,y\'ith ace, A 16, 13. 
TrapaXa^jSdvtiv, A 4, 23. 
7rapaXXda<7tu^ — Trapi]XXay nivr] cid- 

XtKTog, ' peculiar,' D 5, 4. 
irapdarifiog, D 5, 4. 
7rapaT)']p7]<ng, D 4, 13. 
irapaTi^kvai, A 12, 45. 
7rapa<pspeiv, A 36, 11 ; 64, 15. 
Trapaxpi'ia^ai, A 49, 14. 
Trapsdptveiv, D 4, 13. 
Trdpedpog, A 1 8, 9. 
TrapeiriSi^jxog, A 67, 24. 
Trapsxiiv d(t)opf.icig, A 4, 25. 
tmaKeipiv, A 3, 17. 
tixppoavvriv, A 42, 10. 
TTapoiKtlv, D 6, 17. 
TTug — tK TcavToc, A 7, 6 ; B 12, 8. 
TrarpiKug — ddo^iag TrarpiKag, A 12, 

30. 
7raTpo(p6vTT]g, A 21, 25. 
TTtiBapxtiv, D 7, 15. 
TTfj^fii' — TTtiSrei Kcii slg Trianv dyei, 
A 10, 18. 
TreTTtKTfiivoi Kai Tnartvov- 

rff, A8, 6; 10, 5. 
TTiarivovreg f.idXXov dk kuI 

TraTreKT/usvoi, A 17, 14. 
TrtKrSrFivai re Kai TTLaTev- 

aai, A 18, 6. 
TTftff^wcrt Kai TTiarevioGi, A 

61, 4. 
tjxa^QV Kai tTreiaBT](Tav, A 

12, 14. 
constr. with on, A 8, 8 ; 
18, 10; 29, 6; 39, 8; 
47,9. 



270 



GREEK INDEX. 



Tnt^eiv — with inf., = on, A 12, 20; 

57,2; Bl,9; 11,18. 
TTEtSru) Kai -TriaTiVf A 53, 44. 
Trtf-iTTtiv a'iri]aei£, A 13, 12, 

TTO/xTrac Kal vi.ivovc, A 13, 8. 
TTiviai, A 12, 30. 
7repiiS\i][^ia, B 13, 1 . 

TTipitlTiOV, A 31, 7. 

■mpUpyot, B, 10, 11. 
TTtpiTiSrivai, B 11 , 25. 

-Tt^unkvov, B 13, 2. 
7Tt]p6g, A 60, 3 1 . 
TTiarsufiVy see TreiBeiv. 
ttXcitthv — T(^ 7rpu)T({J TrXaaBevTi civ- 

B'pwTTii), A 44, 2. 
7r\i]l^ifjit\uv, A 3, 19 ; B 8, 24. 
Tii'avfia — TTv. uyiov, A 61, 43. 

TO TTV. TO (lyiQV, A 65, 12. 

TTV. TO iiyiov, A 67, 6. 

TO Btiov liyiov TrpocpijTiKov, 

A 32, 11 ; 53, 30. 
TTV. TO Srilov, A 32, 34. 

TO 7rpO(pT]TlKVV TTVfl'lJia, A 

31, 2; 38. 1 ; 39, 2; 
40, 15; 47, 2; 53, 18; 
59,7; 63, 2.34. 

TO TTV. TO TTjO., A 35, 9. 

TTV. TO 7rpo0., A 6, 8. 
TToiuv and TrpuTTtiv, B 4, 12. 
TTOiiia^ai dXXoTpiav, B 2, 9. 

ctTToSei^iv, A 30, 5. 

^lyajxiag, A 15, 12. 

tKTrvpixJcnv, A 45, 6. 

tXeyXo^', A 23, 15. 

tvrtv'^iv, A 1, 9. 

i^t'iyrjaiv, A 68, 1 2. 

iiriKvpujaiv (?), A 45, 6. 

tTTKpaveiag, A 5, 6. 

Ipyauiav, A 55, 1 1 . 

tauag, A 14, 16. 

(.vXapioTiav, A 65, 1 3. 

<i';^oe^, A 65, 4. 

}Wiv,B 13, 18. 

KaTrjyopiav, B 2, 24. 

KptcTij/, A2, 13; 53,9. 

XovTpov, A 61, 13. 

UtTtXtvaiv, A 43, 16. 

vovSreaiav, A 67, 11. 

TrapaTijprjffiv, D 4, 14. 

TToporc, B 2, 10. 



TrottTffS'ai TTjOoKXrjCTJV, A 67, 11. 

Trpoacpojvijaiv, A 68, 12. 
Trpoaxiicriv, B 12, 25. 
(jvvkXtvaij', A 67, 26. 
avvTa^iv (e coni.), B 1, 
6. 
TTOioTtjg — TTOioTi'iTwv yovCJv, A 13, 

10. 
TroXtfitiv, with ace, A 39, 13. 
TzoXiTtia, 'manner of life,' A 4, 7. 

'polity,' D 5. 12. 
TToXiTemcBai, 'rule,' D 10, 22. 
7roXiT(.vT))g, A 65, 6. 
TToXvirpaynoavvi), T) 4, 19. 
TToXvg — TToXXag ;coi i-tpac, A 53, 1. 
TTOfiTrai, 'solemn pia^'ers,' A 13, 8. 
7rov7]pivtiv, A 61 , 3. 
7rovt]peve(j^at, A 64, 11. 
7rov7]p6g, A 2, 19. 
TTovrjpog (?), A 22, 17. 
TiOpvtiai, A 14, 10. 
TTopovg t'ldovijg Troieicr^ai = i'i^ov))v 

TTopilta^ai, B 2, 10. 
irpdyjiaTa ivrdyeiv, A 3, 7. 
irpuTTtiv and ttouTx', B 4, 12. 

iu TTioarrfij-', ' act aright,' 
A 28, 11. 
TrpiV, Avith inf., A 4, 13 ; 19, 9 ; 40, 
24 ; 62, 6 ; D 8, 2. 
7/, with inf., A 23,10; 30,6; 
31,3.36; 42,8; 52,2; 53, 
10; D2, 17. 
Trpb tTOJV tKaTOP TrevrijKovTa, A 46, 
2. 
Ttjg KpoviKrjg, A 67, 29. 
TvpoayyiXTiKov, A 32, 32 ; 45, 15. 
TrpoayyiXTiKilJg, A 36, 5. 
TrpoayioytvtaBai, A 27, 14. 
Trpoaipsaig, A 43, 14 ; 61, 33 ; 67, 

20 ; B 7, 16. 
TrpofSdXXtfjBai, A 26, 2 ; 54, 8; 56, 

7 ; B 9, 13. 
7rpoyivu)(TKeiv — Trposyvojafifva, A 43, 

4 ; Trpotyvioai^i^viov, A 45, 5. 
TrpouTTHV, with fut. inf., A 12, 32; 

53, 31. 
TrpoeXkyxfiv (e coni.), A 7, 4. 
TTpoi'ivai (i>]j.u) — TrpoiaSrai (?), B 3, 

27. 
TTpo'itvai ( ilfii ) — TipdiovTog tqv 
Xoyov, A 22, 13 ; 35, 7. 



GREEK INDEX. 



271 



irpotaTCLvaL — 6 Trpoetrriijg, A 65, 9 ; 
67, 15. 21. ^ 
Trpotaravai Suyixaroc, 
D5, 7. 
TrpoKaTapiBrfitlcrSrai, A 22, 9. 
TrpoKarixHV — irpoKaTtaxmvla (bi]^ri, 
A 2, 16. 
TrpoKarexovreg Xoyi- 
(Tjuof, D 2, 1. 
TTpoKripvaanv, A 31, 2; 36, 15; B 

8, 17. 
iTp6K\r]<yiQ, A 3, 8. 
TrpoXaixfSdvHV, A 19, 25 (note). 
TrpoXeyeiv, ' forewarn,' A 14, 1 ; 68, 

5. 
':rp6Xr]\(^iQ,A2, 14; B-4, 16. 
Trpofxrjvveiv, A 28, 6 ; 33, 7 ; 46, 9 ; 

48, 8; 60, 24. 
•n-pog, with gen., A 2, 17 ; 4, 34, 

TT. ix7]rp6c, ' on the mother's 
side,' A 62, 13. 
with ace. : 

oXiyov, A 12, 7. 
Xapii/, A 2, i2 ; Koi i)5ovf]V, 
B3, 6. 
with dat., A 40, 11. 
Trpoaayoptvi-ia, B 6, 11. 
7rpoaypd(pfiv, A 27, 20. 
TrjOOT^^XfCT^rti, A 10, 3. 
TrpoaSoKuv, with aor. inf., B 3, T. 
TTpoatlvai — TTpoaaTi, A 10, 25 ; B 2, 
47; 12, 16. 
TO. Trpoaoi'ra, A 10, 5 ; B 
4 7- 11 21 26- 12 
35. 
TrpoafAS-iiJ^ (constr.), A 16, 24. 
■Kpoaix^iv (so. Tov vovv), A 13, 22 ; 

57, 13. 
Trpomiyopia, A 4, 7. 
TTpoffijXovv, A 58, 15. 
Trpoff/cyj^av, with ace, A 16, 20; 17, 
8; (20,16); 26,13; 
49, 2; B 13, 16. 
with dat., D 2, 26. 
TTpoaXan^dvHv (?), A 10, 2. 11. 
TTpo(7op.iXHv, A 62, 14. 
TrpoapaivHV, B 12, 23. 
TTporyprjfJig, B 6, 6. 
Trpoffrjjuat', B 14, 12. 
TrpoaTiiida^ai, B 2, 63. 
irpoa^fpHV, A 13, 8 ; 1) 2, 34 ; 3, 8. 



7rpo(T(pipea^ai (mid.), A 13, 4 ; 67, 
3. 
(pass.), A 67, 14. 
irpoacpopd vXtKi], A 10, 1. 
7rpo(j(p(t)v}](7ig, A 1, 8 ; 68, 12. 
7rp6(xxv(ng, B 1 2, 25. 
7rpo<TixJVV[xia ovofiarog, A 4, 1. 
TrpodojTvov, see cnru. 

(jjg (iTTO TTpncTMTrov, A 36, 

2. 6. 7. 8 ; 37, 1 ; 38, 1. 

npoTpiina^ai, A 13, 22; 16, 11; 

40, 14; 55, 28; B 10, 19. 
TrpoTpoTTt], A 21, 21. 
7rpo(pdvai — 7rpoi(pT]iJ.ev, A 12, 22; 
21, 29; 22, 6; 32, 45; 45, 21; 
63, 11 ; 67, 13; B 6, 15. 
7rpo(j)i]Teveiv — TrpoeTrecprjTevTo, A 
35, 27. 
7re7rpo(pT]Tev(y^ai, A 

44, 31.^ 
7rpo6(pr]TSvovTO, A 31, 

5. 

7vpot^r]Tiv^r], A 30, 

7 ; 31 , 35 ; 3o, 1 ; 

50, 18. 

with part., A 35, 27. 

7rpo({>t]TiKbv TTvevi-ia, A 38, 1 ; 39, 

2 ; 40, 15. See Trvtvjxa. 
irpujTtj — r) TTpioTT] SvimfxiQ, A 32, 39. 
irpMTOTOKOQ TOV Steov, A 23, 8. 

T<p ^eq}, A 33, 28. 
TTvp aidjviov, A 52, 14 ; B 1, 10 ; 2, 
6; 7, 25; 8,13.16; 9, 3 ; D 10, 
29. 

P. 

pavic, A 19, 3. 

pavTi^eiv, A 62, 3. 

paov^pddiov, A 12, 42. 

ptlv — pkovTi KaXXei, B 11, 17. 

psTTovdiov, B 2, 19. 

prjrojg, A 35, 26. 

plTTTth', A 18, 12. 

piiiTHv TU yevvujfieva, D 5, 16. 



2. 



GG, 10; B 12, 



(TapKEg, A 26, 34 ; 

6. 
aapKOTTOitiv, A 32, 41 ; G6, 7. 11. 
aaravdg, A 28, 2. 
aifiacTog, A 1 , 2. 



o 



272 



GREEK INDEX. 



a'8(3iiv, A 24, 9. 
aei3i(T^ai, A 24, 4. 

Kcil 7rpo<jKvvtip, A 6, 8. 
aKijviojxa, D G, 17. 
ao(j)iCta^ai, A 14, 22. 
oocpiariig, A 14, 27. 
airipjxa ruJv XpiaTiavwv, B 7, 4. 

CTTtpnaTci dXi]^tiaQ, A 44, 
21). 
GirepnaTinhQ Xoyof, B 8, 9 ; 13, 10. 
(TTfpytiv, A 2, 2. 
o•^olX£(o^', B 5, 5. 

(7roixfi«» 'starry signs,' 
D 7, 14. 
arpocpn — arpo^ai fxayiKai, A 14, 6. 
avyKaraKXivsa^ai, B 2, 9. 
(7yyKarar(3-f(T.&ot, A 65, 3. 
avyKKr]TOQ itpa, A 1, 4. 
avyxpitJTi'^i^o^ai, D 12, 23. 
ovkXij^ig, ' assistance,' A 26, 25. 
(Tvi-ifSiuivai, B 2, 1. 
Gv^iTTipivoaTtlv, A 26, 14. 
avuTrpayfiartviaBat, A 16, 16. 
(7«;v, A 40, 28 ; B 7, 9. 
(yvvsXeimc, A 40, 18 ; 67, 7. 26. 
auveTTiyvcofnoVy A 56, 15. 
cvvi7riaTaaBai,B 2, 42; 4, 13. 
Gvvex^iVjJ) 6, 14. 16. 

t«vroJ', A 12, 9. 
avvTj^eia, D 2, 3. 
avviivai — avviivai (absol.). 

with inf., A 60, 32. 
Gvvvr}(7Tivnv, A 61, 8. 
avvodoiTTopoi, A 16, 15. 
ovvopaVjAd, 21 ; 19, 20. 
cvvovaid^icr^ai, A 33, 14. 
GvvTa%iQ — avvTa^iv (e coni.) ttoi- 

il(T^o^, B 1, 6. 
(Tci^rfXiti', A ^iy^ 14. 
(Tj;i^n3ffT^ai, A 39, 19 ; B 9, 12. 
a(pd\Xta^ai, A 43, 14. 
(Tx>>«, A 4, 28. 
(TwZ^ftv — <yoj^)jvai aoirripiav, A 65, 

8. 
aiti'Ppovi^f.a^ai, B 1 , 7 ; 2, 3. 

T. 

Tii^iQ — iv Tpiry Ta?ft, A 13, 18. 
Tt (solitary), A 6, 8 ; 61, 33. 
Te—re,A 13,17. 
Tt — Kaj, A 1, 4 ; 6, 7 (note). 



reyoQ — tni Ttyovg aTa^iijvai, A 26, 

15. 
TSKvoyoviXvjT) 5, 15. 
Tiicvov, A 27, 13. 

TtKva dvayKTiQ — dyvoiaq — 
TrpoaipkatMQ — tTriaTrj^r^Qy 
A 61, 32. 
rfX£ov=7fXewc,A29, 4; 62,5; D 

2,26. 
TiXoQ, A 27, 10. 
repareia, D 8, 9. 
reparoXoyta, A 54, 9. 
rkxvilQ — ^i« Tsxvijg ufxoXoytiv, A 

28, 14. 
Tii.i(tjptlv — TiiJ.ijjpt'ia2rai, B 9, 9. 
Tijxwpia, see KoXaaig. 
riQ — 6 nkv Tig, D 2, 8. 
Tpira TTtpl Tov Tpirov, A 60, 23. 
rpuTraiov, A 55, 21. 
TpoTTog — TOV ai'Tov Tpoirov, A 19, 
10. 14. 
ov TpoTTov, A 4, 22 : 7, 5 ; 
10, 12; 12, 29; 14, 7; 
19, 12; 23, 13; 26, 30; 
27, 5 ; 32, 42 ; 50, 8 ; 
52, 5 ; 61, 1 ; 66, 7 ; B 
6, 11.^ 

OVTTSp TpOTTOV, A 57, 3. 

iK TravTog TpoTrov, A 2, 6 ; 
12, 8. 16. 

TV(pXwTTUV, A 3, 19. 

T. 

virayopevtiv, A 2, 2 ; 12, 31. 
VTTdpxuv, A 2, 10 ; 3, 22 ; 4, 4 ; 
22, 10; 29, 15; 46, 19. 

VTCfKKpOVHV, A 58, 16. 

virepopdv, D 1 , 5. 
VTi:tpaTzov^dL,Hi',T> 1, 1. 
vTrTjpsTiTv, A 1 7, 9. 
vTTijpiTTjg, A 14, 5. 
vTn-rxvtio^ai, with pres. inf., A 5, 

1 ; 61, 6. 
vTroypd(piiv,B 14, 1. 
VTTO^rinoavvri, A 14, 20. 
vTToXapftdvHv, A 12, 23 ; 33, 37. 
vTTOfiovr], A 16, 15. 

VrCOTTlTrTHVy A 4, 2. 

vTToaTaaig, D 2, 7. 
vanpov \'p6ro»c, A 46, 4. 
vfaiptXabai, with inf., A 12, 30. 



GREEK INDEX. 



273 



0ayf<T^at = t'^£(T^at, A 47, 13. 
<paive<T^ai, with inf., B 7, 37. 

with part., A 12, 37; B 

5,8. 
^dvrjTai, 2 aor. mid., A 
7, 13. 
<pdvai on, A 33, 35. 

with part., A 33, 26. 
60)7/161/, A 8, 1 ; 2G, 29. 
fpapjxaKtVTi]Q, B 6, 23. 
<pdaiciiv, A 21, 2 ; 63, 44 ; B 12, 20. 

with /x//, A 35, 18. 
^avXog, A 2, 4 ; 43, 1 6. 
^kpuv \pij(pov, A 2, 16. 
0J7/iJj fcaKr//, A 2, 15. 

TTovijpd, A 3, 6. 
^S-di/ftj/ — 0^affflf, A 12. 37. 

(p!^aaai'Teg, A 23, 1 1 ; 46, 
7. 
(p^syyEaBai, A 36, 7 : 38, 2 ; B 10, 

5; 13, 11. 
0tXaX)7^j;c, A 2, 7. 
<^i\avBp(iJ7ria (of God), D 9, 15. 
^tXd^-^pojTrog, 1) 8, 14. 
^i\i]dovoQ, B 12, 5. 
tpiXoSo^tlv, A 53, 45 ; 57, 6. 
^iXodo^og, B 3, 24. 
ipiXoKOfnTog, B 3, 3. 
<pi\6XoYog,B 10, 27. 
0j\o(Tropyirt, D 1, 8. 
ipiXo-iporpog, B 3, 3. 
ip6i3i]Tpov, A 5, 7 ; B 9, 2. 
^op(3ag — <popf3dS(jJV 'ikttojv, A 27, 6. 
ipopog, A 17, 1. 
(ppd^Hv, A 20, 18. 
ippovtiv, D 3, 5. 
(ppovTi^Hv — TrecppovTiKafxev, A 11, 

10. 
(ppovptlrai if ^wx//, D 6, 7. 
^uXdrrtaS'at, with inf., B 3, 9. 

ixt] and subj., A 14, 1. 
ifivaioXoytiv — to (pvaioXoyovixivov,A 
60,1. 



(p(ji)vri dXoyog Kcii ToXjUijpd, A 3, 

1. 
0wW?av, A 61, 40; 65, 4. 
<p(iJTi(Tix6g, A 61, 40. 

X. 

Xct^i-anTiTifg, B 11, 24. 
Xdpiv liSivai, B 2, 59. 

Trpbg xapiv, A 2, 12 ; B 3, 6. 
X^tg Kai 7rp(ijj]v, B 1, 1. 
XiXiovTaeTt)g Trepiodog, A 8, 16. 
xXevd^nv, T> 2, 30. 
Xorj — xodc Kai Kvioac, A 24, 10. 
Xopnytiv,T>\, 12; 3", 12. 
XprJI^iara icai KTtj/^aTa, A 14, 12. 
Xpr](Tr6g, A 4, 4. 
XpiCTTiavoi, A 4, 15. 
Xptcrrof, A 4, 23. 

6 t/fihfpog, A 48, 2 ; 54, 
16; 62, 14; B 10,21. 

6 TTpiOToyovog ^tov, A 58, 
13. 
Xpovog — XP^*^*"? i^oTfpor, A 46, 4. 
Xwprt — Iv hvrkpct, A 13, 17. 
X<Jiptiv iig dvai(j^7]aiav, A 18, 3; 
57, 14. 

^. 

xpevdodo^ia, B 14, 4. 
i//fi;^oXoyat/, A 8, 3 ; B 13, 4. 
\pivdoX6yog, B 2, 37. 
^tj<pov TiBta^ai, A 3, 1 2. 
xpofoderjg, D 4, 1. 

Q. 
w, with gen., A 9, 18 ; D 9, 14. 24. 

25. 
wf, with inf., A 21, 24 ; 56, 13 ; 60, 
32; B 7,32; D 1,14. 
with part., A 4, 18 ; 23, 13 ; 46, 
6; 52, 4; 57,17; B 2, 13 : 3, 
5; D2,4. 
w(Tf /, A 40, 33. 

ioare, with ind. , A 46, 1 5 ; 59, 1 3. 
ju/) and inf., A 22,11. 



INDEX OF TEXTS 



IN THE FIRST APOLOGY. 



Genesis 

1, 1. 2 01, G. 

], 1-3 50,9. 

1, 5 50, 17. 

49,10. 11 32, 2. 

" 54,19. 

Exodus 

3, 2. G. 10. 14. 15 63, 17. 

3, 2. 14. 15 G3, 31. 

3,5 G2, 15. 

3, 14. 15 03, 54. 

Numbers 

21,8. 9 GO, 11. 

24,17 32,47. 

Deuteronomy 

30, 15.19 44, 4. 

32,22 GO, 25. 

1 Chronicles 
10,23. 25-31. 41,4. 

Psalms 

1... 40, 25. 

2 40,37. 

3,5 38, 12. 

19, 2 40, 11. 

19,5 ....54,41. 

21, 7. 8 38, 14. 

21,16.18.... ..35, 13. 

" 38,11. 



Psalms {continued) 

23,7.8 51, 19. 

00, 1. 2. 4-10 41,4. 

109, 1-3 45,8. 



Isaiah 



) ^ 

1,3.4... 

1,7 

l,i) 

1, 11-15. 



,03 
.37 
.47 
.53 

,37 



1,10-20 44 

" Gl 

2, 3. 4 39 

5, 20 49 

7, 14 33 

0, 6 35 

11, 1. 10 32 

11, 12 52 

35,4-6 48 

43, 5. 6 52 

45, 23 52 

50,6-8 38 

52, 13-15 50 

53,1-8 50 

53,8-12 51 

53, 12 50 

54, 1 53 

57,1.2 48 

58,2 ,.35 

58,6. 7 37 

63,17 52 

64, 10-12 47 



3. 
13. 
32. 
11. 

7. 

20. 

2. 

23. 

3. 

4. 

47. 

18. 

4. 

27. 

18. 

5. 

7. 

13. 

3. 

4. 

23. 

11. 

11. 

17. 

33. 

5. 



276 



INDEX OF TEXTS. 



Isaiah {continued) 

Gl,l] 52,31. 

G5, 1-3 49, G. 

65,2 35,9. 

«' 38, 2. 

GG,1 37,9. 

CG,24 52,22. 

Jeremiah 

2, 15 47, 13. 

9, 2G 53,42. 

50,3 47, 13. 

EZEKIEL 

33, 11 15,25. 

37, 7. 8 52,17. 

Daniel 
7,13 51,24. 

Joel 
2, 13 52,28. 

MiCAH 

5,2 34,3. 

Zechariah 

2,G 52,27. 

9,9 35,29. 

12,10-12 52,28. 

Matthew 

1,21 33, 19. 

1,23 33,3. 

2, G 34,3. 

4, 10 16,21. 

5,16 16,5. 

5,22 16,5. 

5,28 15,1. 

5,29 15,3. 

5,32 15,7. 

5,34.37 16,18. 

5,39-41 16,2. 

5,42 15^ 33 



Matthew {continued') 
5,44 15,29. 

5, 45 15, 45. 

5,46 15,28. 

6, 1 15, 52. 

6, 19. 20 15,36. 

6, 21 15,50. 

6, 25. 26 15,46. 

6,31-33 15,47. 

7,15.16.19 16,40. 

7,21-23 16,30. 

7,29 14, 28. 

9,13 15,24. 

10,28 19,27. 

10,40 63,14. 

11, 5 48,4. 

11,27 63,9. 

" 63,37. 

13,42.43 16,37. 

16,26 15,39. 

18,9 15,3. 

19, 12 15,8. 

19, 16. 17 16,2.4. 

21,5 35,29. 

24,5 16,40. 

25,31 51,24. 

25,41 28,6. 

26,26-28 66, 15. 

27,35 35,29. 

27,39-43 38, 15. 

Mark 

2,17 15,24. 

9,47 15,3. 

10, 17 16,24. 

12,30 16,21. 

Luke 

1,31.35 33, 19. 

5,32 15,28. 

6,27. 28 15, 29. 

6,29 16,2. 

6,30. 34 15, 33. 

6,35. 36 15,45. 



INDEX OF TEXTS. 



277 



Luke {continued) 

10, IG IG, 33. 

" 63, 14. 

10,27 IG, 21. 

12,4.5 19,27. 

12,22-24 15, 4G. 

12,34 15,50. 

12,48 17,18. 

13, 26-28 16,34. 

16, 18 15, 7. 

18, 18.19. 16,24. 

20,22.25 17,4. 

22,19. 20 66, 15. 

24,25. 26 50, 31. 



John 
3,3-5 61, 14. 

3, 14. 15 60, 11. 

4, 24 61, 14. 

20, 25 35,21. 

Acts 

1,8. 9 50,35. 

2,3 50,35. 

1 Corinthians 
15,53 19, 16. 

Revelation 
20,2 28,2. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



A. 

Abraham a Christian, A 46, 12. 
Accusative (inner object), A 9, 9 ; 
15, 39. 
(cognate), A 18, 2; Gl, 
39. 
Achilles, A 25, 13. 
Acts of Pilate, A 35, 25 ; 48, 7. 
Adonis loved by Aphrodite and 

Persephone, A 25, 4. 
Advents of Christ, A 41, 52. 
Adversative relations, A 7, 7. 
Aesculapius ascended to heaven, 
A 21, 9. 
cured diseases and 
raised the dead, A 
54, 44. 
Amen, A 65, 16. 

Amphilochus, oracle of, A 18, 14. 
Ananias, A 46, 13. 
Angels — God has committed to, 
tlie care of men and 
things under heaven, B 
5, 8 ; D 7, 10. 
bad, are the progenitors 

of demons, B 5, 11. 
began to need sacrifices 
when overcome by lusts, 
B 5, 16. 
subjugated the human 

race, B 5, 18. 
poets call them by the 
name they had each 
given himself and sons, 
B 5, 24. 
Animal worship, A 24, 4 foil. 
Antinous, A 29, 13. 
Antiope, A 25, 9. 

Antoninus Philosophus (Marcus 
Aurelius), A 1 , 2. 
Pins, A ], 2. 

o 



Aorist and negative, A 4, 10. 

imperative, large use of, A 

16,6. 
inf. for fut., A 12, 23; 15, 

19.35; 57,1. 
ingressive, A 3, 13 ; 12, 17 ; 

14,1; 15, 15. 
negative aor. imperative, A 
41, 13. 
Aphrodite, A 25, 4. 
Apostles, twelve. A* 39, 9. 
Apposition of genitive with pos- 
sessive, A 14, 25. 
Archestratus, B 15, 8. 
Ariadne, A 21, 14. 
Article with inf., A 3, 9 ; 10, 16. 
as antecedent, A 5, 8. 
position of, A 6, 7 ; 1 7, 

11. 
of standard, A 18, 2; 61, 
39. 
Atheism, Christians accused of, A 

6, 1; 13, 1. 
Attraction of gender, A 28, 18. 
Augustus, A 1, 2. 
Azarias, A 46, 13. i 

B. 

Bacchius, grandfather of Justin, A 

Bacchus, inventor of the vme, A 
54, 24. 
ass sacred to, A 54, 25. 
lover of boys, A 25, 3. 
torn in pieces, A 21, 10. 
Baptism makes us children of free- 
will and knowledge, A 
61, 32. 
subjects of, A 61, 34. 
in the name of Father, 
Savioui*, and Holy 
Ghost, A 61, 11. 
9 



280 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Bar-Cochba, A31,23. 
Bellerophon borne to heaven on 

Pegasus, A 21, 18. 
Betlilehem tliirty-five stades from 

Jerusalem, A 84, 3. 
Brise'is, A 25, 13. 

C. 

Calumnies harmless to the inno- 
cent, A 27, 21. 
Capparetaea, A 26, 28. 
Census under Cyrenius, A 34, 9. 
Charity of the Christians, A 14, 14 ; 

67,8. 
Chastity, Christ's law of, A 1 5, 1 . 
Christ, Son and Apostle of the true 
God, A 12, 34; 13, 16; 
22, 1. 
the first-begotten and the 
Logos of which the whole 
world is partaker, A 46, 8. 
made man according to the 
will of the Father, B 6, 15. 
begotten without commixt- 
ure, A 21, 2. 
his mother overshadowed by 
the power of God, A 33, 
16. 30. 
whence called the Anoint- 
ed, B 6, 7. 
made flesh, A 66, II. 
born of a virgin, A 22, 15. 
born under Cyrenius, 150 
years before the Apology 
of Justin, A 34, 9 ; 46,3. 
the blood of the grape his 

blood, A 32, 32. 
body and Logos and soul, 

B 10, 4. 
made man for tlie salvation 
of believers, A 
63, 51. 
for the human 
race, A 68, 27. 
for the restora- 
tion of the hu- 
man race, A 
28, 9. 
for the overthrow 
of the demons, 
B 6, 16. 



Christ died to rise again and con- 
quer death, A 63, 53. 
his entrance into Jerusa- 
lem, A 82, 28. 
his two advents, A 52, 7. 
his coming looked for, A 

32, 20. 
rational worship of, A 13, 

18. 
believed on by artisans and 
illiterate men, B 10, 28. 
hidden until he came to 

man's estate, A 35, 1. 
his succinct manner of 

teaching, A 14, 26. 
will come in judgment, D 
7, 27. 
Christianity a noveltv, A 1, 3; D 

1,9. 
Christians, whence called, A 12, 35. 
play on the word Chris- 
tian, A 4, 4. 15. 
all who obey reason are, 

A 46, 10. 
from every kind and 
kindred of men, A 
1,5. 
the truer, not of the 
Jews, but of the Gen- 
tiles, A 53, 20. 
nominal, who give occa- 
sion of offence, A 4, 
25. 
those who do not show 
their Christianity in 
their lives are not, 
A 1 6, 26. 
are hated without a 

cause, A 1 , 6. 
are condemned on ac- 
count of their name 
merely, A 4, 1 . 
are called atheists, A 6, 

1 ; 13, 1. 
crimes attributed to, 

A 26, 38, 
which cannot be proved, 

A 28, 15. 
whether true of heretics 
does not appear, A 
26, 85. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



281 



Christians, slaves tortured to bear 
evidence against, B 
12, 13. 

the persecutors of, 
seem to fear that all 
will do right, A 12, 
17. 

in spite of their inno- 
cence, punished as 
sinners, A 24, 3. 

should be punished, not 
as such, but, as crim- 
inals, on evidence, A 
7, 12. 

informers against, 
should be punished, 
A 4, 15; 

but Christians do not 
demand it, A 7, 
15. 

are punished unheard, 
A 5, 4. 

let those who live in- 
consistently be pun- 
ished, A 16,44. 

Jews hate and kill, 
A 31, 21. 

demons the authors of 
charges brought 
against, A 10, 22; 
14, 1; 23, 12. 

have many doctrines 
like those of phi- 
losophers and poets, 
A 20, 1 ; B 12, 
1. 

prove what they teach, 
A 53, 7. 

all that is good in phi- 
losophy belongs to, 
A GO, 26. 

their doctrine far su- 
perior to tenets of 
philosophers, B 10, 
1. 

adore the Supreme De- 
ity, A 6, 4. 

men's life and character 
changed by the Chris- 
tian religion, A 14, 
10; 15,20; 17,1. 



Christians worship Christ, A G, 4 ; 
13,13. 
do not hate their Tper- 

secutors, A 57, 7. 
deem it impious to ex- 
pose infants, A 27, 1 ; 
29, 1. 
the destruction of the 
world postponed on 
account of, B 7, 1 . 
what manner of king- 
dom they expect, A 
10, 1. 
are helps to govern- 
ments, A 12, 1. 
make a common stock, 

A 14, 14. 
pray for their enemies, 

A 14, 18. 
cheerfully pay tribute, 

A 17, 1. 
their charity, A 14, 1 4 ; 

57, 17. 
their chastity, A 14, 

10. 
influence of Christian 

life, A 16, 14. 
love one another, D 1, 

18. 
their customs and con- 
dition, D 5, 1 foil, 
the soul of the world, 

D 6, 1 foil, 
their religion not of 
man, but of God, D 
7, 1 foil, 
persecuted by Jews and 
Gentiles, D 5, 28. 
Coincident action A 16, 21 ; 17, 17. 
Collective singular with relative 

plural, A 49, 7. 
Comparative for superlative, B 10, 
Concessive relations, A 7, 7. [11. 
Conditional. See Greek Index, 
s. v. f I. 
logical, A 4, 6. 
anticipatory, A 2, 4. 
unreal, A 4, 6. 
ideal, A 3, 6. 
Conflagration. See Greek Index, 
s. V. iKTTupujaig. 



282 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Creation of the world, A 59, 1. 

whv the world was cre- 
ated, A 10, 9. 
Crescens the Cynic, B 3, 3 ; 11, G. 
Cross, A 55, 2 ; GO, 10. 
Crowning, A 21, 10. 
Cybele (mother of the gods), A 27, 

16. 
Cynics, B 3, 25. 

Cyrenius, first procurator of Judea, 
*A 13, 15; 46,3. 

D. 

Danae, A21, 12. 

Dative of agent, A 27, 18. 

reference, A 19, 1. 
David, A 35, 15; 40, 12; 41, 2; 

42, 7. 
Deacons {huKovoi) distribute the 
eucharist and carry it to the ab- 
sent, A 55, 18 ; G7, 18. 
Death appointed to all, B 11,3. 

if a state of unconsciousness, 
it would be better for the 
wicked, A 1 8, 3. 
Christians do not fear, A 57, 

18. 
wrong to put one's self to, 

B 4,9. 
despised by Christians, D 
1,5. 
Demoniacal possession, A 18, 13. 
Demoniacs cured by Christians, B 

6, 25. 
Demons try to enslave men, A 14, 
4 foil, 
instigate the persecution 
of Christians, A 5, 4 ; 
12,20; B 1,14; 12,11. 
statues of the gods bear 
names and figures of, 
A 9, 7. 
disseminate false accusa- 
tions against the Chris- 
tians, A 10,23; 23, 14; 
B 13,3. 
turn men away from read- 
ing and understanding 
the truth, A 14, 2. 
authors of debauchery, A 
5, 7; 21,29; B 5,20. 



Demons, chief of the — serpent, Sa- 
tan, devil, A 28, 1. 
try to escape the power 
of the Father and of 
Christ, A 40, 22. 
the authors of the fables of 

the poets, A 54, 1 foil, 
did what the gods were 
fabled to have done, A 
21,29. 
originate heresies, A 56, 7. 
instigate heretics, A 26, 1 . 
strive to lead men away 
from God and Christ, 
A 58, 12. 
suff'ered to live on account 

of Christians, B 7, 3. 
sons of fallen angels, B 5, 

10. 
ask sacrifices and services 
from those who live ir- 
rationally, A 12, 21. 
apparitions of, A 5, G ; 

14, 5. 
bugbears, A 5, 7. 
give names to the gods, A 

5, 11. 
caused Socrates to be put 
to death, A 5, 17. 
Comp. B 10, 12. 
hate Christians the more 
because they know the 
entire Logos, B 8, 11. 
Deucalion same as Noah, B 7, 10. 
Devil, serpent, and Satan, A 28, 1. 
with his host and human fol- 
lowers, will be sent into 
everlasting fire, A 28, 5. 
this doom delayed on ac- 
count of Christians, B 
7,3. 
Diognetus, D 1 , 1 . 
Dioscuri, D 21, 12. 
Doctrine, Christian, outlined, A 15 

foil. See 'Christian.' 
Dodona, oracle of, A 18, 14. 

E. 

Elias a Christian, A 46, 13. 
Empedocles taught immortalitv, A 
18, 16. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



283 



Emperors, apotheosis of, A 21, IG. 

images of, A 55, 25. 
Enchanters, B 6, 23. 
Epicurus, B 7, 19 ; 12, 28 ; 15, 8. 
Epistle of Hadrian, A 1, G8. 
Epistolary tenses, A 2, 14. 
Erebus, A 59, 17. 
Eucharist, A GG, 1 ; G7, 15. 
Eunuchs, A 27, 15. 
Exposure of children, A 27, 1 ; 29, 
1; D5. 

E. 

Fables of the gods due to the de- 
mons, A 23, 12. 
propagated to promote de- 
bauchery, A 21, 21. 
invented to deceive, A 54, 1. 
in order to show 
that the story of 
Christ is like- 
wise a fable, A 
54, 9. 
disseminated among the 
Gentiles because more of 
them would believe on 
Christ, A 54, 12. 
Faith, God leads to, A 10, 18. 

it is better to believe the im- 
possible than to have no 
faith, A 19, 24. 
Familiar spirits, A 18, 9. 
Fasting before baptism, A 61, 7. 

of the Jews, D 4, 4. 
Fate does away with responsibility, 

A 43, 2 ; B 7, 20. 34. 
Felix, prefect of Alexandria, A 29, 

10. . • . 

Figure, human, resembles cross, A 

55, 13. 
Fire, everlasting. See Greek In- 
dex, s. v. TTvp. 
Flavia Neapolis, A 1 , 7. 
Flesh loved by the soul,, hates the 

soul, D 6, 9. 
Free-will, A 43, 14; B 7, 16. 
Future infinitive, A 2, 17. 

with article, A 
47, 12. 
participle with verbs of mo- 
tion. A 2. 11. 



G. 

Ganvmede, A 21, 27; 25, 10. 
Gehenna, A 19, 30. 31. 
Genitive chorographic, A 1, 8. 
of emotion, A 9, 18. 
of time within which, A 57, 
11. 
Gentiles delight in debauchery, A 
14, 10; 27,4. 
know not God, A 53, 25. 
worship the works of their 

own hands, A 53, 26. 
the good among, persecut- 
ed, B 8,1. 
indulge in shameful specta- 
cles and shameful read- 
ing, B 15, 10. 
do openly what they charge 
Christians with doing 
secretly, A 27, 18 ; B 
12, 15.' 
misconceive the prophets, 

A 44, 30. 
noble sayings of, due to 
the germinant word, B 
13, 19. 
have said many things 
similar to the Christian 
doctrines, A 20, 1 foil, 
what they have learned 
from Moses, A 59, 5 ; 
GO, 3. 
Gitton, A 19, 3. 

God. See Greek Index, s. v. SrtuQ. 
does not need oblations, A 

10, 1. 
has no name, A 10, 7 ; 61, 

38. 
foresees the future, A 44, 33. 
loves men, D 9, 15. 
Gods are demons, A 5, 10 ; 9, 7. 
made of vessels unto dishonor, 

A 9, 10; D2, 10. 
trees and animals considered 

gods, A 24, 4. 
guarded by men, A 9, 24 ; D 

2,32. 
insulted by poets, A 4, 85. 
guilty of crimes, B 12, 26 ; 
14, 10. 



284 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Gospels, A 60, 14. 
Grace — God has called not the just, 
but the unjust, A 15, 
22. 
God persuades us to choose 

the good, A 10, 12. 
communicates the Logos by 

grace, B 13, 22. 
calls artisans and unlearned 
men, B 10, 27. 

ir. 

Helena, companion of Simon Ma- 
gus, A 20, 14. 
Ileraclitus a Christian, A 40, 11. 

put to death on account 

of his virtue, B 8, 5. 

Hercules gave himself to the fire, 

A21, 11. 

a mighty hero, roamed 

over the world, A 54, 4. 

at the cross-roads, B 1 1 , 7. 

Heresies, A 26, 1 foil. ; 50, 1 foil. ; 

58, 1 foil. ; B 15, 1. 
Herod, A 31, 11. 13. 
Homer teaches immortality of the 
soul, A 18, 17. 
exiled by Socrates (Plato), 
B 10,16. 
Hystaspes predicted conflagration 
of corruptible things, 
A 20, 1. 
his books under the ban, 
A 44, 41. 

I. 

Idolatry, A 24, 1 foil. 
Immortality of the soul, A 18, 1 ; 
19, 16; 20, 13; 21,30; 63,56. 
Imperative negative, A 15, 48. 

aorist, A 16, 6. 
Impersonal participle, A 4, 43. 
Infinitive ^Yith article, A 3, 9 ; 
10, G. 
with verbs of knowing 
and showing, A 30, 
25. 
with verbs of motion, A 
15, 24. 
Inscriptions, A 55, 26. 
Inspections of boys, A 18, 7. 



J. 

Jesse ancestor of Christ, A 82, 53. 
Jesus means Saviour, A 33, 32. See 
•Christ.' 
even if he were mere man, 
would deserve to be called 
God, A 22, 1 foil. 
Jews expect the coming of Christ, 
A 49, 3. 
descendants of Judah, A 32, 

52. 
forbidden under pain of 
death to enter the Holy 
Land, A 47, 16. 
fewer Christians among, than 
among the heathen, A 53, 
17. 
do not recognize Christ in the 

Old Testament, A 03, 1. 
what will they do when they 
see Christ coming in glory ? 
A 52, 24. 
their superstitious sacrifices, 

D3. 
their foolish rites, customs, 
and ceremonies, D 4. 
Judah ancestor of Jews, A 32, 52. 
Judges, duty of, A 2, 13 ; 68, 1. 
Judgment (last), A 8, 14; 12, 5; 
17, 15; 28, 6; 43, 5 ; 44, 35; 
52, 14; 57, 1. 
Jupiter (Zeus), born of a parricide, 
himself a parricide, A 21, 
25. 
a promiscuous lover, A 

25, 9. 
lover of Ganymede, A 21, 

27. 
his lasciviousness, A 4, 32. 
is liberated by the aid of 

Briareus, A 25, 12. 
nefarious deeds of his sons, 

A 2], 19. 
blood of human victims of- 
fered to Jupiter Latiaris, 
B 12, 22 (note), 
numerous sons of, A 21, 6 ; 

Justice demanded, A 2, 7. 
Justin, son of Priscus, A 1, 6. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



285 



Justin boasts of being a Christian, 

B 13, 7. 
wrote against all heresies, 

A 36, 36. 
expects persecution at the 

hands of Crescens, B 3, 1 . 
speaks, A 26, 36; B J, 4; 

12, 1 ; 13, 1 ; 15, 1. 



Kingdom Avhich Christians look 
for, A 11, 1. 



Laws vary according to nationality, 
B 9, 12. 
bad laws due to the demons, 
B 9, 17. 
Litotes, A 12, 44; 22, 10; 45, 

20. 
Logos. See Greek Index, s. v., and 

'Word.' 
Love of Christians mutual, D 1, 8. 
of God towards men, U 9, 15 ; 
10,2. 
Lucius a martyr, B 2, 35. 

the philosopher, A 1, 3. 
Lying, Christians will not accept 
life on condition of, A 
8,3. 
Christians die to keep from, 
A 39, 14. 

M. 

Magic practiced by the demons, A 
14,6; B5, 13. 
rites, A 18, 9. 
of Simon Magus, A 26, 7. 
Magistrates possessed of demons, 

B 1,16. 
Man endowed with rational facul- 
ties, A 10, 18; J) 10. 
world created for his sake, A 

10, 9 ; B 4, 6 ; I) 10. 
the earth subjected to him, B 
5, 5 ; D 10. 
Marcion still living, A 26, 22. 

teaches that there is an- 
other god greater than 
the Creator, A 58, 1 
foil. 



Marriage — Object of Christian, A 
29, 3. 
second marriages for- 
bidden to Christians, 
A 15,12. 
a Christian woman re- 
nounces, with a pa- 
gan, B 2, 26. 
Christians marry, D 5, 
15. 
Martyrs — Christian, will not lie, A 
8,3. 
longing for their home 

with God, A 8, 6. 
regard not their murder- 
ers, A 11, 9. 
under Urbicus, B 1, 2 
foil. 
» why they do not kill 
themselves, B 4, 1. 
refuse to deny, B 4, 13. 
readily confess, B 4, 1 . 
despise death, B 10, 30. 
fearless in view of death, 
B 12,3. 
Material of universe, A 10, 9 ; 

59, 3. 
Menander, the comic poet, ridicules 
idols, A 20, 17. 
the Samaritan, A 26, 
17; 56,8. 
Mercury (Hermes) the interpreting 
word, A 21, 8. 
the messenger word, A 

Middle voice, when a direct reflex- 
ive, A 14, 12. 
Minerva (Athena), A 64, 11. 
Minos, A 8, 12. 

Miracles not conclusive without 
prophecies, A 30, 6. 
of Simon, A 26, 7. 
Mithras, mysteries of, an imitation 

of the eucharist, A 66, 19. 
Moses older than Greeks, A 44, 23 ; 
54; 17; 59,7. 
predicts Christ's coming, A 

32, 1 ; 54, 18. 
God appears to, A 63, 2. 
Plato indebted to, A 59, 3. 
Musonius, B 8, 5. 



286 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Mvsteries of Venus and Proser- 

'pine, A 25, 4 ; Gl, 10. 
Mvtliology, heathen, its origin, A 

21, 29; 54,23. 

Karnes of God and Christ, A 10, 7 ; 
BG, 1. 

Kecromancy, A 18, 7. 
Negative. See Greek Index, s.vv, 
ou and ////. 

^vith aorist, A 4, 10. 

of infinitive, A 2, 4. 

subdivided, A 4, 27. 

superfluous, B 7, 2. 
Neuter plural with verb plural, A 

3, 3 ; 52, 7. 
New moon (of the Jews), D 4, 4. 
Noah = Deucalion, B 7, 10. ■ 

O. 

Oath, military, A 39, 19. 
Obedience, civil, A 17, 1. 
Optative with dv, A 4, 10. 

used as a future, A 26, 21. 
Oracles, heathen, prove the immor- 
tality of the s(5ul, A 18, 14. 
Original sin, A 61, 30. 



Palestine, A 1, 7. 
Participle as adjective, A 3, 4. 
future, A 2, 12. 
of gen, absol. omitted, A 

15, 17. 
different from relative 
with finite verb, A 1,7. 
Patience, Christ exhorts to, A 

12,1. 
Pegasus, A 21, 13; 54,35. 
Perception, verbs of, their construc- 
tion, A 3, 3. 
Perfect emotional, A 11, 10. 
Periphrastic fut. aor,, A 44, 49. 
Persecutions, A 2, 16 ; 4, 12 ; 5, 4 ; 
12,17; 57,6; Bl, 
11 ; 11, 1; 13,13. 
instigated by demons. 

See 'l^emons.' 
do not affect heretics, 
A 26, 35. 



Persecutions — persecutors deserve 
well of Christian poets, A 57, 
16. 
Perseus, son of Jove and Danae, A 
21, 12. 
born of a virgin, A 54, 39. 
Philaenis, her performances, B 1 5,8. 
Philosophers contradict one anoth- 
er, A 4, 30. 
some have taught that 
there are no gods, 
A 4, 32. 
a pseudo-philosopher, 
B3, 4. 
Plato teaches the value of philoso- 
phy for the state, 
A 3, 14. 
the immortality of 
the soul, A 18,16. 
that the wicked are 
punished, A 8, 12. 
the chiasm of the 

Logos, A 60, 1. 
also the doctrine of 
human responsi- 
bility, A 44, 21. 
gives the second place to the 
Logos, the third to the 
Spirit, A 60, 20. 
learned from Moses that God 
had made the universe out 
of formless matter, A 59, 3. 
Justin's attachment to the 

doctrines of, B 12, 1. 
his doctrines not foreign to 
Christ's, B 13, 7. 
Pluperfect for perfect, A 2, 14. 
Plural of abstracts, A 12, 30. 
Poets, their melodious insults of the 
gods, A 4, 35. 
defend vice, A 12, 27. 
blunder in their imitation of 
Christ's predictions, A 54, 
15. 
banished by Socrates (Plato), 

B 10, 16. 
sometimes speak nobly on 
moral questions, A 54, 
15. 
Pontius Pilate, A 13, 15 ; 35, 25 ; 
48, 7. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



287 



Prayers, Christians offer, A 13, 4. 
they pray for kings, A 17, 
10. . 
before baptism, 

AG1,7. 
before celebrat- 
ing the eucha- 
rist, A 67, 13. 
Prepositions. See Greek Index. 
President (6 Trpofarujg), A G5, 9 ; 

67,15.21. 
Priscus, father of Justin, A 1, 6. 
Prophecies — Christ's doctrine con- 
firmed by liis, A 12, 
37. 
concerning Christ, A 
31, 25 foil. ; 32 foil, 
carefully preserved by 
the kings of the 
Jews, A 31, 7. 
fulfilled, accredit those 
yet to be fulfilled, A 
52, 3. 
Christ the interpreter 
of hidden, A 32, 

y. 

incredible to man, A 
33, 5. 
Prophecy as a proof of divine pow- 
er, A 12, 38. 

different persons repre- 
sented in, A 36, 1 
foil. 

value of, as evidence, A 
30, 8. 

does not involve fatalism, 
A 43, 1 ; 44, 42. 
Prophets, Hebrew, A 30, 6 ; 31, 1 
foil. ; (Moses) 32, 1 ; 
(Isaiah) 32, 45 ; (Da- 
vid) 42, 7; (Ezekiel) 
52, 15 ; (Zechariah) 
52, 26. 

use the past tense, A 
42 '> 

inspired by the Logos, 
A 33, 36 ; 36, 4 ; B 
10, 25. 

death denounced against 
those \vho read the, 
A 44. 42. 



Proserpine ( Persephone ) enam- 
oured of Adonis, A 64, 2. 
Providence, Divine, B 7, 1. 
Ptolemy a martyr, B 2, 31. 

Philadelphus, A 31, 8. 

Punishments, everlasting, A 1 2, 5 ; 

18,5; 44,25; 45, 

24; 52, 13; B 1, 

10; 2,6. 

a necessity of God's 

nature, B 9, 7. 
not limited to a thou- 
sand years, A 8, 15. 
Pythagoras teaches immortalitv, A 

18, 16. 
Pythian oracle, A 18, 15. 

Q. 

Questions, mood of, A 15, 46. 
Quirinus. See 'Cyrenius.' 

P.. 

Keflexive. See Greek Index, s. v. 
iavTov. 
expressed, A 14, 12. 
Relative causal, A 3, 7. 

clausulae, A 9, 25. 
Eeligion, Christian, its heralds, A 

39,8. See 'Christian.' 
Repentance, A 15, 25. 

to be exercised before 

baptism, A 61, 35. 
fruitless after death, 
A 52, 23. 
Repraesentatio, A 45, 3. 
Responsibility, human, B 7, 22. 
Resurrection possible, A 19, 17; 

.52, 12. 
Rhadamanthus, A 8, 12. 

. ■ S. 

Sacraments, A 61 foil. 
Sacrifices, God does not need, A 
13,2; D 3. 
instituted by fallen an- 
gels, B 5, 14. 
Salvation, eternal, or eternal pun- 
ishment, according to deserts, A 
12, 5. 
Samaritans believe in Simon Magus, 
A 26, 5; B 15,1. 



288 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Samaritans, few Christians among, 

A 53,17. 
Satan, A 28, 1. 
Saturn, mysteries of, B 12, 20. 

Saturn's day, A G7, 29. 30. 
Scriptures pertaining to Christ, A 
32 foil, 
not understood by the 
Jews, A 31, 20. 
Senate, A 1, 4. 
Septuagint, A 31, 15. 
Sequence of moods, A 12, 10. 
Serenius, A (J8, 20. 
Serpent =devil, A 27, 17; 28, 2. 
Sibyl, A 20, 1 ; 4-4, 42. 
Simon Magus believed to be a god, 
and honored with 
a statue, A 26, 5. 
his magic arts, A 56,7. 
his impious doctrine, 
B 15,1. 
Socrates a Christian, A 46, 1 1 . 

exiled the poets from his 

state, B 10, 16. 
exhorted men to seek God, 

B 10, 19. 
endeavored to draw men 
away from demons, A 
5, 12. 
demons compassed his 
death, on the ground of 
atheism, A 5, 16. 
taught the immortality of 

the soul, A 18, 17. 
a noble sentiment of, B 
3, 25. 
Sodom and Gomorrah, A 53, 1. 
Soul, immortality of the, shown by 
many practices of the Gen- 
tiles, A 18, 8. 
better hope of the Christian 
concerning the immortality 
of the, A 18, 20. 
souls of sinners do not lose 

feeling, A 18, 4; 20, 13. 
souls of the l)ad punished, 
souls of the good happy, A 
20, 14. 
souls of the good immortal, 
eternal fire the lot of the 
wicked, A 21, 30. 



Soul immortal, invisible, dwells in 
the body; so Christians in the 
M'orld, D 6, 4. 

Spirit. See Greek Index, s. v. 

TTVtVfXa. 

Standards in shape of cross, A 55, 

25. 
Statues placed in temples, A 9, 2 foil. 
Stoics teach that God Avill be de- 
stroyed together with the 
world, A 20, 3. 
the Stoic doctrine of fate, A 

43,2; B 7,13. 21. 
doctrine of the renewal of 
the universe after the gen- 
eral conflagration, A 20, 
5 ; B 7, 13. 
their elevated moral doc- 
trines, B 7, 31 ; 8, 1. 
Subjunctive in questions, A 16, 46. 
Sunday, Christians meet on, A 67,6. 
why they meet on, A 67, 26. 
Superlative for comparative, A 12, 

28. 
Syria, A 1 , 7. 

T. 

Tabernacle an image of the uni- 
verse, A 60, 10 (note). 
Taxes, Christians readily pay, A 
17,1. 
on prostitution, A 27, 10. 
Teachings of Christ, A 1 5 foil. 
Tenses, past for future, A 42, 2. 
Tiber, island of, A 26, 10. 
Tree-worship, A 24, 4. 
Trinity, A 6, 5 ; 13, 8; 61,11. 
Truth above evervthing, A 2, 2 ; 6, 
9 ; 12, 26. 
known from the prophets, A 

30, 6. 
misrepresented, A 44, 30. 
princes who prefer error to, 
no better than highway- 
men (murderers), A 12, 
25. 
the presentation of, makes 
it possible to escape error, 
A 12, 45. 
impious not to tell the, in 
everything, B 4, 14. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



289 



Truth always to be told, A 16, 17. 
a saying of Socrates about, 

B 3, 25. 
partial, revealed to the Gen- 
tiles, B 13, 20. 

U. 

Ulysses, his descent to Hades a 
proof of immortality, A 18, 17. 

Urbicus, prefect of city, condemns 
Christians to death, B 1 foil. 

V. 

Venus (Aphrodite) madly enam- 
oured of Adonis, A 25, 4. 
Verbs of will and power with fut. 
inf., A 2, 18. 
perception (construction), 

A3, 3. 
fear, A 12, 17. 
reflection and calculation, 

A 2, 8. 
belief, A 8, G. 
Verissimus the philosopher, A 1 , 2. 
Verus Lucius, A 1 , 3. 
Vice — none would choose, if he re- 
membered eternal punish- 
ment, A 12, 6. 
and virtue, B 11, 20. 
Virgins, A 15, 18. 
Vocative, omission of w with, D 
1,1. 

W. 

Water the first principle, D 8, 6. 
Wicked, the punishment of the. 

See ' Punishment.' 
Word. See Greek Index, s. v. \6yog. 
the, with the Father be- 
fore the creation, B 6, 
7. 
first-begotten of the Father, 

A21, 1. 
=the Spirit, A 33, 26. 
Son ofGod, A32, 40. 
first power next to the Fa- 
ther, A 32, 39. 
adored next to God, B 13, 

]G. 
first-begotten of God, and 
God, A 63, 46. 



Word, the, made the world, A 59, 
13. 

God made all things by the, 
B6, 8. 

the, appeared, not the Fa- 
ther, A 63, 11. 

appeared now in form of 
fire, now in incorporeal 
image, A 63, 25. 48. 

the, is in all, B 10, 25. 

Christ the, of which the hu- 
man race is partaker, A 
46,9. 

moved the prophets, A 33, 
36 ; 36, 4 ; B 10, 25. 

those Avho lived Avith the. 
Christians, A 46, 10. 

seed of the, granted to the 
Gentiles, B 13, 22. 

excellence of Gentile teach- 
ings according to pro- 
portion of the, B 13, 
10. 

partial communication of the, 
to philosophers and law- 
givers, B 10, 6. 

but not the whole, B 8, 
10. 

Christians have the entire 
word Christ, B 10, 2. 

fashioned and made man, 
and called Christ, A 5, 
20. 

made man by the will of the 
Father, A 63, 27. 
World preserved for the sake of 
Christians, B 7, 1. 
made for man, A 10, 9 ; B 

4,6. 
wretched state of the, before 
the Son of God came, D 
8, 1 foil. 

created by God, D 10. 

by the Logos, D 
7. 
Worship, weeklv, of Christians, A 
67,6. 
heathen, A 9, 1 . 

X. 

Xenophon, B 11, 5. 



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